FACTOID # 7: The top five best educated states are all in the Northeast.
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 


FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:



(* = Graphable)



Encyclopedia > Token economy

Part of a series on
Economic systems
An economic system is a mechanism (social institution) which deals with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in a particular society. ...

Ideologies and Theories

Capitalist economy
Corporate economy
Natural economy
Socialist economy
It has been suggested that Definitions of capitalism be merged into this article or section. ... Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian: corporativismo) refers to a political or economic system in which power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, and professional groups. ... Natural economy refers to a type of economy in which money is not used in the transfer of resources among people. ... Socialist economics is a broad, and sometimes controversial, term. ...

Sectors and Systems

Closed economy
Dual economy
Gift economy
Informal economy
Market economy
Mixed economy
Open economy
Participatory economy
Planned economy
Subsistence economy
Underground economy
Virtual economy An autarky is an economy that limits trade with the outside world, or an ecosystem not affected by influences from the outside, and relies entirely on its own resources. ... Dual economy (sometimes also known as a dualistic economy) is the existence of two separate economic systems within one region; common in the less developed countries, where one system is geared to local needs and another to the global export market. ... A gift economy is an economic system in which the prevalent mode of exchange is for goods and services to be given without explicit agreement upon a quid pro quo (the Latin term for the concept of a favor for a favor). Typically, this occurs in a cultural context where... A market economy (also called free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services takes place through the mechanism of free markets guided by a free price system. ... A mixed economy is an economy that has a mix of economic systems. ... An open economy is an economy in which people, including businesses, can trade in goods and services with other people and businesses in the international community at large. ... Participatory economics, often abbreviated parecon, is a proposed economic system that uses participatory decision making as an economic mechanism to guide the allocation of resources and consumption in a given society. ... This box:      A planned economy is an economic system in which a single agency makes all decisions about the production and allocation of goods and services. ... Media:Example. ... This box:      The underground economy or shadow economy consists of all commerce that is not taxed. ... A virtual economy (or sometimes synthetic economy) is an emergent economy existing in a virtual persistent world, usually in the context of an Internet game. ...

Related articles

Anglo-Saxon economy
American School
Global economy
Hunter-gatherer economy
Information economy
New industrial economy
Palace economy
Plantation economy
Social market economy
Token economy
Traditional economy
Transition economy
Anglo-Saxon economy or Anglo-Saxon capitalism (so called because it is largely practiced in English speaking countries such as Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States) is a capitalist macroeconomic model in which levels of regulation and taxes are low, and the quality of state services and social... The American School also known as National System in politics, policy and philosophy represents three different yet related things. ... The rise of technology has allowed our environment to be characterized as a global one. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Information economy is a loosely defined term to characterize an economy with increased role of informational activities and information industry. ... Countries currently considered NICs. ... A palace economy is a system of economic organisation in which wealth flows out from a central source (the palace), eventually reaching the common people, who have no other source of income. ... This box:      A plantation economy is an economy which is based on agricultural mass production, usually of a few staple products grown on large farms called plantations. ... The Social market economy was the German and Austrian economic model during the Cold War era. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A transition economy is an economy which is changing from a planned economy to a free market. ...

Portal:Business and Economics Business and Economics Portal
This box:  v  d  e 

A token economy is a system of behavior modification based on the principles of operant conditioning. Specifically, the original proposal for such a system emphasized reinforcing positive behavior by awarding "tokens" for meeting positive behavioral goals. The system, first implemented in a year-long study conducted by Teodoro Ayllon in Florida, was primarily geared towards changing adolescent behavior. The initial study included only adolescent males. Image File history File links Portal. ... This article is about the behaviorist technique. ... Operant conditioning is the use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior. ... A separate article is about the punk band called The Adolescents. ...

The tokens themselves were not reinforcers; tokens were accumulated and "spent" in order to obtain a reinforcer. "Patients earn tokens, which they can exchange for privileges, such as time watching television or walks on the hospital grounds, by completing assigned duties (such as making their beds) or even just by engaging in appropriate conversations with others" (Nolen-Hoeksema's Abnormal Psychology, p.409). Early during the program, a participant would be required to spend all of his or her tokens daily to emphasize the reinforcement activity early, and as time passed and success was made, participants would be allowed (or required) to accumulate their tokens over the course of longer time periods. This, as a variable-rate scheduling system, helped prevent extinction of the behavior after the program's termination. Classical conditioning (also Pavlovian conditioning, respondent conditioning or alpha-conditioning) is a type of associative learning. ...



  1. Desired behavior must be set and defined (Transparency)
  2. a lot of possible rewards must be defined
  3. it must be defined
    1. What is a token?


    1. How are tokens allocated?


    1. How are the token earnings changing while approaching the goals?

tokens don't have goals

    1. How many tokens will be earned achieving the desired behavior?

Depends how much crop I have.

  1. It must be defined, how many tokens are necessary to get rewards (or maybe to do be allowed to do something). Earning and exchange of tokens have to be in a well-balanced proportion.

Lots of tokens = lots of work.

  1. If the desired behavior is achieved, the token program must be faded out.

Yeah, not more tokens, but we still have them eatings alls ofs ours watermellons.

Advantages of token economy

  • tokens are flexible
  • tokens can be used for several needs and therefore saturation is improbable
  • there is no delay giving tokens after the desired behavior has been shown
  • it does not matter who gives the tokens (an automat is also possible)
  • mostly the token economy is well-regulated thus it is easy for therapists to decide whether they have to give a token or not

Requirements of token economy

  • it is very important to observe the rules (nobody must give them awards otherwise the token economy will be corrupted)
  • 10% - 20% of clients do not respond to token economies

See also



Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m