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Encyclopedia > Token coin
A rare and historic Bechuanaland Border Police canteen token.
A rare and historic Bechuanaland Border Police canteen token.

In the study of numismatics, token coins or tokens are coin-like objects used instead of coins. The field of tokens is part of exonumia. Tokens are used in place of coins and either have a denomination shown or implied by size, color or shape. They are often made of cheaper materials than the precious metals: aluminum, brass, tin and bakelite or celluloid were commonly used. The key point of difference between a token and an "official coin", or coin of the realm, is that a coin of the realm is issued by a national government and is backed by a national bank, while a token is issued by a private company or individual. Image File history File links Bbp. ... Image File history File links Bbp. ... The Bechuanaland Protectorate (BP) was a protectorate established in 1885 by Britain in the area of what is now Botswana. ... Odessa Numismatics Museum is the first Ukrainian historical museum of new type whose tasks became studying the history of coinage and money circulation of the Ukrainian state and also preservation and demonstration the major historical relics belonging to ancient history and culture of the Northern Black Sea Region and Rus... A coin is usually a piece of hard material, generally metal and usually in the shape of a disc, which is issued by a government to be used as a form of money. ... Exonumia is the study of coin-like objects such as token coins and medals, and other items used in place of legal currency or for commemoration. ... Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ... Brass is the term used for alloys of copper and zinc in a solid solution. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Atomic mass 118. ... Bakelite is a brand named material based on the thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride, developed in 1907-1909 by Dr. Leo Baekeland. ... Celluloid is the name of a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, plus dyes and other agents, generally regarded to be the first thermoplastic. ...

Contents


Exonumia

There are many varieties of token coins such as: currency tokens, trade tokens, barter tokens, staff tokens, credit tokens, monopoly tokens, discount tokens etc. Tokens were originally issued by traders from the 1700s in regions when national or local colonial governments did not issue enough small denomination coins for circulation. They were later used to create a monopoly; to pay labour; for discounts (pay in advance, get something free or discounted); or for a multitude of other reasons. In the United States, a well-known type is the Wooden Nickel, a five-cent piece distributed by cities to raise money for their anniversaries in the 1940s to 1960s. In economics, a monopoly (from the Latin word monoplium - Greek language Greek monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a kind of product or service. ... The United States five-cent coin, commonly called a nickel, is a unit of currency equaling one-twentieth, or five hundredths, of a United States dollar. ... // Events and trends World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrination, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atomic bomb. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ...

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Token coin with the value of $1.00, issued the Rawley Mine Commissary in Bonanza, Colorado.

Local stores, saloons and mercantiles, would issue their own tokens as well, spendable only in their own shops. Railways and public transport agencies have used fare tokens for years to sell rides in advance at a discount. Many transport organizations still offer their own tokens for bus and subway services, toll bridges, tunnels, and highways, although the use of computer-readable tickets has replaced these in some areas. Bonanza is a town located in Saguache County, Colorado. ... Skytrain Bangkok. ... An early motorized bus - a Benz truck modified by Netphener company (1895) A bus is a large automobile intended to carry numerous persons in addition to the driver and sometimes a conductor. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A Lego RCX Computer is an example of an embedded computer used to control mechanical devices. ...


Churches used to give tokens to members passing a religious test prior to the day of communion, then required the token for entry. While mostly Scottish Protestant, some U.S. churches used communion tokens. Generally, these were pewter, often cast by the minister in church-owned molds. Replicas of these tokens have been made available for sale at some churches recently. Closed communion is the practice of restricting the serving of the elements of communion (also called Eucharist, The Lords Supper) to those who are members of a particular church, denomination, sect, or congregation. ... Pewter plate Pewter is a metal alloy, traditionally between 85 and 99 % tin, with the remainder consisting of 1-4 % copper, acting as a hardener, with the addition of lead for the lower grades of pewter and a bluish tint. ...


Currency tokens

In their purest form currency tokens crossed the boundary of being "trade" tokens when these coins, issued by a company were sanctioned by the local government authority. This was normally a desperate measure resulting from a severe shortage of money or the authority's inability to issue its own coinage. In effect the organisation behind the tokens became the regional bank. An example of Money. ... Coinage is: A Drinking game also known as Quarters a series of coins struck as part of currency a magazine about numismatics, capitalized: COINage The right or process of making coins The creation of a neologism, or new word; see word coinage The duty or tax on refined tin, abolished...


One well-known example of currency tokens is the Strachan and Co, coins which were first issued in 1874 in a remote part of South Africa known as East Griqualand. A partner in Strachan and Co, Charles Brisley, was also the government secretary and obtained official recognition of the coins as currency for that region. The Standard Bank of South Africa notes in its official archives that its branch in Kokstad, East Griqualand's capital, readily exchanged these coins as currency in the 1800s because of the shortage of coinage of the crown in the region. These tokens were South Africa's first widely circulating indigenous currency.

One of the four sets of Strachan and Co currency tokens.
One of the four sets of Strachan and Co currency tokens.

Image File history File links Strachanco. ... Image File history File links Strachanco. ...

Trade tokens

These were private coins issued by traders in times of acute shortage of coins of the state to enable trading activities to proceed. The token is a pledge redeemable in goods or in coin of the state, i.e. the face value of the coin represents the real value of the official coinage. These coins never received official sanction from government but were accepted and circulated quite widely. There is no intended element of coercion or inducement for customers to use a particular trade outlet. A private currency is a currency issued by a private institution. ...


Barter tokens

Coin substitute pogs issued to U.S. military personnel in Iraq
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Coin substitute pogs issued to U.S. military personnel in Iraq

These were issued by a trader in payment for goods with the agreement that they will be redeemed in goods to an equivalent value at the traders own outlets. The transaction is therefore one of barter, with the tokens playing a role of convenience, allowing the seller to receive his goods at a rate and time convenient to himself and the trader to lock the holder of the token coin to his shop. Trade tokens often change slowly and subtly into barter tokens over time, as evidence by the continued circulation of former trade tokens when the need for their use had passed.


Because of weight, the U.S. Treasury Department does not ship coins to the Armed Forces serving in the Middle East; so, Army and Air Force Exchange Service officials chose to make pogs in denominations of 5, 10 and 25 cents. The pogs are about 1 inch (25 mm) in diameter and feature various military-themed graphics. The United States Department of the Treasury is a Cabinet department and the treasury of the United States government. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES) mission is to provide quality merchandise and services of necessity and convenience to authorized customers at uniformly low prices; and generate reasonable earnings to supplement appropriated funds for the support of US Army and US Air Force Morale, Welfare, and Recreation Programs. ... A collection of pogs and a typical pog case. ... Look up centi- in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For the numerical prefix centi- see Wiktionary. ...


Staff tokens

A de Beers 3d Staff salary token given to employees and only usable at their stores
A de Beers 3d Staff salary token given to employees and only usable at their stores

These were issued to staff of businesses in lieu of coin. In the 1800s the argument supporting payment to staff was the shortage of coin in circulation, but in reality employees were forced to spend their wages in the company's stores at highly inflated prices - resulting in an effective dramatic lowering of their actual salary and disposable income. Image File history File links Dbcm3s. ... Image File history File links Dbcm3s. ... A truck system is an exploitative form of employment — or, more specifically, unfree labour — under which workers are: paid in a form of limited direct credit or tokens, which may only be used at a company store, owned by their employers, or; paid in unexchangeable goods and/or services. ...


Other sources of tokens

Railways and public transport agencies used fare tokens for years, to sell rides in advance at a discount.

Typical American multi-bay car wash, with an automatic touchless bay at the far left and manual bays on the right. ... Credit cards A credit card system is a type of retail transaction settlement and credit system, named after the small plastic card issued to users of the system. ... A video arcade (known as an amusement arcade in the United Kingdom) is a place where people play arcade video games. ... A multi-storey car park is a building or part thereof which is designed specifically to be for vehicle parking and where there are a number of floors on which parking takes place. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Fast food is food prepared and served quickly at a fast-food restaurant or shop at low cost. ... Toms Restaurant, a restaurant in New York made familiar by Suzanne Vega and the television sitcom Seinfeld For other uses, see Restaurant (disambiguation). ...

See also

The official seal of the American Vecturist Association The American Vecturist Association (AVA) is an organization of transportation token collectors in the United States, Canada, as well as world-wide. ... One dollar chips from various Las Vegas casinos. ... Civil War store card Civil War tokens are token coins that were privately minted and distributed in the United States between 1862 and 1864. ... Exonumia is the study of coin-like objects such as token coins and medals, and other items used in place of legal currency or for commemoration. ... This article is an attempt to combine and condense Numismatic and coin collecting terms into concise, informative explainations for the beginner or professional. ... Pub tokens (as they are known in the United Kingdom) or bar tokens or chits (United States usage) are a form of exonumia used in drinking establishments. ...

External links

References

  • "Church Tokens", New York Times, April 11, 1993

  Results from FactBites:
 
Token - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (365 words)
Tokenizing is systematically replacing portions of a string by such corresponding token.
Token coins may also be a piece of metal or other composition item used as a substitute for currency; see also exonumia or casino token.
On railways, a token is a physical object given to a locomotive driver to authorize him to use a particular stretch of single track.
Token (numismatics) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (501 words)
Tokens are used in place of coins and either have a denomination shown or implied by size or shape.
Tokens were originally issued by traders from the 1700s in remote regions when local or colonial governments did not issue enough small denomination coins for circulation.
The study of tokens used in a town, state or region can be a life-long endeavor, and is where a lot of the serious study of history occurs in numismatics.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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