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Encyclopedia > Tokamak

A tokamak is a machine producing a toroidal (doughnut-shaped) magnetic field for confining a plasma. It is one of several types of magnetic confinement devices and the leading candidate[citation needed] for producing fusion energy. The Tokamak Game Physics SDK is a commercial software physics engine with limited free distribution. ... Tokamak can refer to: In Physics: Tokamak, a fusion reactor device In Video Games: Tokamak physics engine, a Game Physics engine Other uses: Tokamak, a fictional comics supervillain Category: ... In geometry, a torus (pl. ... For other uses, see Doughnut (disambiguation). ... Magnetic field lines shown by iron filings In physics, the space surrounding moving electric charges, changing electric fields and magnetic dipoles contains a magnetic field. ... An important field of plasma physics is the equilibria and stability of the plasma. ... For other uses, see Plasma. ... Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) is a sustained nuclear fusion reaction in a plasma that is contained by magnetic fields. ... Internal view of the JET tokamak superimposed with an image of a plasma taken with a visible spectrum video camera. ...


The term Tokamak is a transliteration of the Russian word Токамак which itself is an acronym made from the Russian words: "тороидальная камера в магнитных катушках" (toroidal'naya kamera v magnitnykh katushkakh) — toroidal chamber in magnetic coils (Tochamac)). It was invented in the 1950s by Soviet physicists Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm and Andrei Sakharov (who were in turn inspired by an original idea of Oleg Lavrentyev). the first thing that was invented was the automatic DILDO. Education grew explosively because of a very strong demand for high school and college education. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm (Russian И́горь Евге́ньевич Та́мм, also transcribed sometimes as Igor Evgenevich Tamm) (July 8, 1895 – April 12, 1971) was a Russian physicist. ... Andrei Sakharov, 1943 For the historian, see Andrey Nikolayevich Sakharov. ...

1987 USSR stamp, commemorating thermonuclear fusion research on Tokamak
1987 USSR stamp, commemorating thermonuclear fusion research on Tokamak

The tokamak is characterized by azimuthal (rotational) symmetry and the use of the plasma current to generate the helical component of the magnetic field necessary for stable equilibrium. This can be contrasted to another toroidal magnetic confinement device, the stellarator, which has a discrete (e.g. five-fold) rotational symmetry and in which all of the confining magnetic fields are produced by external coils with a negligible current flowing through the plasma. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 423 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (565 × 800 pixels, file size: 114 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 423 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (565 × 800 pixels, file size: 114 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Magnetic field lines shown by iron filings In physics, the space surrounding moving electric charges, changing electric fields and magnetic dipoles contains a magnetic field. ... Look up equilibrium in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Stellarator magnetic field and magnets A stellarator is a device used to confine a hot plasma with magnetic fields in order to sustain a controlled nuclear fusion reaction. ...

Contents

History

While research into nuclear fusion began soon after World War II, the programs were initially classified. It was not until after the 1955 United Nations International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy in Geneva that programs were declassified and international scientific collaboration could take place. The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Classified information is secret information to which access is restricted by law or corporate rules to a particular hierarchical class of people. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The IAEA flag The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, internally often referred to as The Agency), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ...


Experimental research of tokamak systems started in 1956 in Kurchatov Institute, Moscow by a group of Soviet scientists led by Lev Artsimovich. The group constructed the first tokamaks, the most successful of them being T-3 and its larger version T-4. T-4 was tested in 1968 in Novosibirsk, conducting the first ever quasistationary thermonuclear fusion reaction.[1] Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Kurchatov Institute is Russias leading research and development institution in the field of nuclear energy. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Lev Andreevich Artsimovich (Арцимович, Лев Андреевич in Russian) (2. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location of Novosibirsk in Russia and the Oblast Coordinates: Oblast Novosibirsk  - Mayor Vladimir Gorodetskiy Area    - City 447. ...


In 1968, at the third IAEA International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research at Novosibirsk, Soviet scientists announced that they had achieved electron temperatures of over 1000 eV in a tokamak device. This stunned British and American scientists, who were far away from reaching that benchmark. They remained suspicious until tests were done with laser scattering a few years later, confirming the original temperature measurements. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... Location of Novosibirsk in Russia and the Oblast Coordinates: Oblast Novosibirsk  - Mayor Vladimir Gorodetskiy Area    - City 447. ...


Since this performance was far superior to any obtained in their existing devices, most fusion research programs quickly switched to using tokamaks. The tokamak continues to be the most promising device for generating net power from nuclear fusion, reflected in the design of the next generation ITER device. ITER is an international tokamak (magnetic confinement fusion) research/engineering project designed to prove the scientific and technological feasibility of a full-scale fusion power reactor. ...


Toroidal design

Tokamak magnetic field and current
Tokamak magnetic field and current

Ions and electrons in the centre of a fusion plasma are at very high temperatures, and have correspondingly large velocities. In order to maintain the fusion process, particles from the hot plasma must be confined in the central region, or the plasma will rapidly cool. Magnetic confinement fusion devices exploit the fact that charged particles in a magnetic field feel a Lorentz force and follow helical paths along the field lines. Image File history File links Tokamak_fields_lg. ... Image File history File links Tokamak_fields_lg. ... Lorentz force. ...


Early fusion research devices were variants on the Z-pinch and used a poloidal field to contain the plasma (See figure; the center graphic shows the poloidal field). Researchers discovered that such plasmas are prone to rapid instabilities and quickly lose confinement. The tokamak introduces a toroidal field (see figure, top) that makes the plasma stable enough that sustained fusion burn is feasible. The particles can stream parallel (but not perpendicular) to this magnetic field, confining them on a toroidal surface. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pinch (plasma physics). ...


Plasma heating

In an operating fusion reactor, part of the energy generated will serve to maintain the plasma temperature as fresh deuterium and tritium are introduced. However, in the startup of a reactor, either initially or after a temporary shutdown, the plasma will have to be heated to its operating temperature of greater than 10 keV (over 100 million degrees Celsius). In current tokamak (and other) magnetic fusion experiments, insufficient fusion energy is produced to maintain the plasma temperature.


Ohmic heating

Since the plasma is an electrical conductor, it is possible to heat the plasma by inducing a current through it; in fact, the induced current that heats the plasma usually provides most of the poloidal field. The current is induced by slowly increasing the current through an electromagnetic winding linked with the plasma torus: the plasma can be viewed as the secondary winding of a transformer. This is inherently a pulsed process because there is a limit to the current through the primary. Tokamaks must therefore either operate for short periods or rely on other means of heating and current drive (although there are also other limitations on long pulses). The heating caused by the induced current is called ohmic (or resistive) heating; it is the same kind of heating that occurs in an electric light bulb or in an electric heater. The heat generated depends on the resistance of the plasma and the current. But as the temperature of heated plasma rises, the resistance decreases and ohmic heating becomes less effective. It appears that the maximum plasma temperature attainable by ohmic heating in a tokamak is 20-30 million degrees Celsius. To obtain still higher temperatures, additional heating methods must be used.


Neutral-beam injection

Neutral-beam injection involves the introduction of high-energy (rapidly moving) atoms into the ohmically-heated, magnetically-confined plasma. The atoms are ionized as they pass through the plasma and are trapped by the magnetic field. The high-energy ions then transfer part of their energy to the plasma particles in repeated collisions, increasing the plasma temperature.


Magnetic compression

A gas can be heated by sudden compression. In the same way, the temperature of a plasma is increased if it is compressed rapidly by increasing the confining magnetic field. In a tokamak system this compression is achieved simply by moving the plasma into a region of higher magnetic field (i.e., radially inward). Since plasma compression brings the ions closer together, the process has the additional benefit of facilitating attainment of the required density for a fusion reactor.


Radio-frequency heating

Set of hyperfrequency tubes (84 GHz and 118 GHz) for plasma heating by electron cyclotron waves on the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV). Courtesy of CRPP-EPFL, Association Suisse-Euratom.
Set of hyperfrequency tubes (84 GHz and 118 GHz) for plasma heating by electron cyclotron waves on the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV). Courtesy of CRPP-EPFL, Association Suisse-Euratom.

High-frequency electromagnetic waves are generated by oscillators (often by gyrotrons or klystrons) outside the torus. If the waves have the correct frequency (or wavelength) and polarization, their energy can be transferred to the charged particles in the plasma, which in turn collide with other plasma particles, thus increasing the temperature of the bulk plasma. Various techniques exist including electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and ion cyclotron resonance heating. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 750 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1712 × 1368 pixel, file size: 440 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tokamak à Configuration Variable: Ensemble de tubes à hyperfréquences (84 GHz et 118 GHz) pour le chauffage du plasma par ondes cyclotroniques électroniques. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 750 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1712 × 1368 pixel, file size: 440 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tokamak à Configuration Variable: Ensemble de tubes à hyperfréquences (84 GHz et 118 GHz) pour le chauffage du plasma par ondes cyclotroniques électroniques. ... Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV): inner view, with the graphite-claded torus. ... Gyrotrons are high powered electron tubes which emit a millimeter wave beam by bunching electrons with cyclotron motion in a strong magnetic field. ... Reflex klystron Type 2K25 or 723 A/B. The threaded adjustment rod on the right side allows the position of the reflector to be adjusted (by compressing the reflex cavity), and thus the natural resonant frequency of the device. ... Electron cyclotron resonance is a phenomenon observed both in plasma physics and condensed matter physics. ...


Experimental tokamaks

Currently in operation

(in chronological order of start of operations)

The Kurchatov Institute is Russias leading research and development institution in the field of nuclear energy. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Jülich is a medium-size town in the district of Düren, in the federal state of Nordrhein-Westfalen, in Germany. ... Split image of JET with right side showing hot plasma during a shot. ... Culham is a village on the north bank of the River Thames near Abingdon in southern Oxfordshire, England. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... JT-60 (JT stands for Japan Torus) is the flagship of Japans magnetic fusion program, previously run by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and currently run by the Japan Atomic Energy Agencys (JAEA) Naka Fusion Institute[1] in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. ... Naka (那珂町; -machi) is a town located in Naka District, Ibaraki, Japan. ... Ibaraki Prefecture ) is located in the Kantō region on HonshÅ« island, Japan. ... The Plasma Physics Laboratory at the University of Saskatchewan was established in 1959 by H. M. Skarsgard, early work centered on research with a Betatron. ... Lilium University of Saskatchewan - The University of Saskatchewan Centennial Lily by plant breeder Donna Hay. ... Tore Supra is a tokamak français en activité après larrêt du TFR (Tokamak de Fontenay-aux-Roses) et de Petula (à Grenoble). ... The Commissariat à lÉnergie Atomique or CEA, the Atomic Energy Commisson, in English, is a French public establishment of an industrial and commercial character whose mission is to develop all applications of atomic energy, both civilian and military. ... Cadarache in Provence-Alpes-Côte-dAzur, France is the site of the future international tokamak ITER. This was decided in a final meeting in Moscow on June 28, 2005. ... Institute for Plasma Research is an autonomous physics research institute located in India. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... DIII-D or D3-D is the name of a tokamak machine developed in the 1980s by General Atomics in San Diego, USA, as part of the ongoing effort to achieve magnetically confined fusion. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin... General Atomics is a nuclear physics and defense contractor headquartered in San Diego, California. ... The Frascati Tokamak Upgrade is a tokamak operating at Frascati, Italy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The ASDEX Upgrade divertor tokamak (Axially Symmetric Divertor EXperiment) went into operation at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching in 1991. ... Garching bei München or Garching is a town in Bavaria, Germany near Munich. ... Alcator C-Mod is a tokamak, a magnetically confined nuclear fusion device, at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1636 Government  - Type Mayor-City Council  - Mayor Kenneth Reeves (D) Area  - City  7. ... Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV): inner view, with the graphite-claded torus. ... The Monster Clothespin from Outer Space, and entrance of the EPFL The École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) is the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne in Switzerland. ... The University of São Paulo (Universidade de São Paulo, USP) is one of the three public universities funded by the State of São Paulo. ... This article is about the Brazilian state, São Paulo. ... HT-7, or Hefei Tokamak-7, is an experimental superconducting tokamak nuclear fusion reactor built in Hefei, China, to investigate the process of developing fusion power. ... Hefei (Chinese: 合肥; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hofei) is a prefecture-level city and the provincial capital of Anhui province, China. ... The Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak, or MAST experiment is a nuclear fusion experiment in operation at Culham since December 1999. ... Culham is a village on the north bank of the River Thames near Abingdon in southern Oxfordshire, England. ... EAST fusion thermonuclear reactor, build at the cost of 200 million Â¥ The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST, internal designation HT-7U) is an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor in Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, in eastern China. ... Hefei (Chinese: 合肥; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hofei) is a prefecture-level city and the provincial capital of Anhui province, China. ...

Previously operated

  • Alcator A and Alcator C, MIT, USA; in operation from 1975 until 1982 and from 1982 until 1988, respectively.
  • TFTR, Princeton University, USA; in operation from 1982 until 1997
  • T-15, in Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia (formerly Soviet Union); 10 MW; in operation from 1988 until 2005
  • UCLA Electric Tokamak, in Los Angeles, United States; in operation from 1999 to 2005
  • Tokamak de Varennes; Varennes, Canada; in operation from 1987 until 1999; operated by Hydro-Québec and used by researchers from Institut de Recherche en Électricité du Québec (IREQ) and the Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS)
  • START in Culham, United Kingdom; in operation from 1991 until 1998

The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was an experimental fusion test reactor built at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (in Princeton, New Jersey) circa 1980. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... The T-15 is a Russian nuclear fusion research reactor, based on the (Russian-invented) tokamak design. ... The Kurchatov Institute is Russias leading research and development institution in the field of nuclear energy. ... The UCLA Electric Tokamak is a low field (0. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality Regional County Municipality of Lajemmerais Established 1672 Incorporated 1972 Government  - Mayor Michel Tremblay  - Governing Body Varennes City Council  - MPs Luc Malo (BQ)  - MNAs Stéphane Bergeron (PQ) Area  - Town 94 km²  (36. ... Hydro-Québec is a crown corporation that provides hydroelectric power for Quebec, Canada and the north-eastern parts of the United States. ... The Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak, or START was a nuclear fusion experiment that used magnetic confinement to hold plasma. ...

Planned

The KSTAR, or Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Reactor is a magnetic fusion device being built at the Korea Basic Science Institute in Daejon, South Korea. ... Daejeon Metropolitan City is a metropolitan city in the centre of South Korea, and the capital of South Chungcheong Province. ... ITER is an international tokamak (magnetic confinement fusion) research/engineering project designed to prove the scientific and technological feasibility of a full-scale fusion power reactor. ... Cadarache in Provence-Alpes-Côte-dAzur, France is the site of the future international tokamak ITER. This was decided in a final meeting in Moscow on June 28, 2005. ... Institute for Plasma Research is an autonomous physics research institute located in India. ... Gandhinagar   (Gujarati: ગાંધીનગર, Hindi: गाँधीनगर) is the capital of Gujarat State, India. ...

See also

The parameters of plasmas, including their spatial and temporal extent, vary by many orders of magnitude. ... The parameters of plasmas, including their spatial and temporal extent, vary by many orders of magnitude. ... An Edge-Localized Mode (ELM) is a disruptive event occurring in the edge region of a tokamak plasma due to the quasi-periodic relaxation of a transport barrier previously formed during an L --> H transition. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd edition, entry on "Токамак", available online here
  2. ^ CASTOR
  3. ^ Tore Supra
  4. ^ DIII-D (video)
  5. ^ Alcator C-Mod
  6. ^ http://www.ipr.res.in/sst1/SST-1.html

Title page of the 3rd ed. ...

References

  • Braams, C.M., Stott, P.E. (2002). Nuclear Fusion: Half a Century of Magnetic Confinement Research. Institute of Physics Publishing. ISBN 0-7503-0705-6. 
  • Dolan, Thomas J. (1982). Fusion Research, Volume 1 - Principles. Pergamon Press. LCC QC791.D64. 
  • Nishikawa, K., Wakatani, M. (2000). Plasma Physics. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-65285-X. 
  • Raeder, J.; et al (1986). Controlled Nuclear Fusion. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-10312-8. 
  • Wesson, John (2000). The Science of JET. 
  • Wesson, John; et al (2004). Tokamaks. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850922-7. 

Library of Congress reading room The Library of Congress Classification (LCC) is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. ...

External links

  • Plasma Science - site on tokamaks from the French CEA.
  • Fusion programs at General Atomics, including the DIII-D National Fusion Facility, an experimental tokamak.
  • Fusion and Plasma Physics Seminar at MIT OCW
  • Unofficial ITER fan club, Club for fans of the biggest tokamak planned to be built in near future.
  • www.tokamak.info Extensive list of current and historic tokamaks from around the world.
  • [1] Overview video of a small scale tokamak concept.
  • [2] Section View Video of a small scale tokamak concept.
  • [3] Fly Through Video of a small scale tokamak concept.


The Commissariat à lÉnergie Atomique or CEA, the Atomic Energy Commisson, in English, is a French public establishment of an industrial and commercial character whose mission is to develop all applications of atomic energy, both civilian and military. ... General Atomics is a nuclear physics and defense contractor headquartered in San Diego, California. ...

Fusion power
v  d  e

Atomic nucleus | Nuclear fusion | Nuclear power | Nuclear reactor | Timeline of nuclear fusion | Plasma physics | Magnetohydrodynamics | Neutron flux | Fusion energy gain factor | Lawson criterion Internal view of the JET tokamak superimposed with an image of a plasma taken with a visible spectrum video camera. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Timeline of significant events in the study and use of nuclear fusion: 1929 - Atkinson and Houtermans used the measured masses of light elements and applied Einsteins discovery that E=mc² to predict that large amounts of energy could be released by fusing small nuclei together. ... A Plasma lamp In physics and chemistry, a plasma is an ionized gas, and is usually considered to be a distinct phase of matter. ... Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) (magnetofluiddynamics or hydromagnetics) is the academic discipline which studies the dynamics of electrically conducting fluids. ... neutron flux n : the rate of flow of neutrons; the number of neutrons passing through a unit area in unit time via dictionary. ... The fusion energy gain factor, usually expressed with the symbol Q, is the ratio of fusion power produced in a nuclear fusion reactor to the power required to maintain the plasma in steady state. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Methods of fusing nuclei

Magnetic confinement: – Tokamak – Spheromak – Stellarator – Reversed field pinch – Field-Reversed Configuration – Levitated Dipole
Inertial confinement: –
Laser driven – Z-pinch – Bubble fusion (acoustic confinement) – Fusor (electrostatic confinement)
Other forms of fusion: –
Muon-catalyzed fusion – Pyroelectric fusion – Migma – Polywell – Dense plasma focus The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) is a sustained nuclear fusion reaction in a plasma that is contained by magnetic fields. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Stellarator magnetic field and magnets A stellarator is a device used to confine a hot plasma with magnetic fields in order to sustain a controlled nuclear fusion reaction. ... Reversed-Field Pinch is a toroidal magnetic confinement scheme. ... A Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) is a device developed for magnetic fusion energy research that confines a plasma on closed magnetic field lines without a central penetration. ... A Levitated Dipole is a unique form of fusion reactor technology using a solid superconducting torus, magnetically levitated in the reactor chamber. ... Inertial confinement fusion using lasers rapidly progressed in the late 1970s and early 1980s from being able to deliver only a few joules of laser energy (per pulse) to a fusion target to being able to deliver tens of kilojoules to a target. ... In inertial confinement fusion (ICF), nuclear fusion reactions are initiated by heating and compressing a target – a pellet that most often contains deuterium and tritium – by the use of intense laser or ion beams. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pinch (plasma physics). ... Bubble fusion or sonofusion is the common name for a nuclear fusion reaction hypothesized to occur during sonoluminescence, an extreme form of acoustic cavitation; officially, this reaction is termed acoustic inertial confinement fusion (AICF) since the inertia of the collapsing bubble wall confines the energy causing a rise in temperature. ... U.S. Patent 3,386,883 - fusor — June 4, 1968 The Farnsworth–Hirsch Fusor, or simply fusor, is an apparatus designed by Philo T. Farnsworth to create nuclear fusion. ... Inertial electrostatic confinement (often abbreviated as IEC) is a concept for retaining a plasma using an electrostatic field. ... Muon-catalyzed fusion is a process allowing nuclear fusion to take place at room temperature. ... Pyroelectric fusion is a technique for achieving nuclear fusion by using an electric field generated by pyroelectric crystals to accelerate ions of deuterium (tritium might also be used someday) into a metal hydride target also containing detuerium (or tritium) with sufficient kinetic energy to cause these ions to fuse together. ... Migma was a proposed inertial electrostatic confinement fusion reactor designed by Bogdan Maglich around 1973. ... WB-6, the latest experiment, assembled The Polywell is a gridless inertial electrostatic confinement fusion concept utilizing multiple magnetic mirrors. ... A Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) is a plasma machine that produces, by electromagnetic acceleration and compression, short-lived plasma that is so hot and dense that it becomes a copious multi-radiation source. ...

List of fusion experiments

Magnetic confinement devices
ITER (International) |
JET (European) | JT-60 (Japan) | Large Helical Device (Japan) | KSTAR (Korea) | EAST (China) | T-15 (Russia) | DIII-D (USA) | Tore Supra (France) | TFTR (USA) | NSTX (USA) | NCSX (USA) | UCLA ET (USA) | Alcator C-Mod (USA) | LDX (USA) | H-1NF (Australia) | MAST (UK) | START (UK) | ASDEX Upgrade (Germany) | Wendelstein 7-X (Germany) | TCV (Switzerland) | DEMO (Commercial) Experiments directed toward developing fusion power are invariably done with dedicated machines which can be classified according to the principles they use to confine the plasma fuel and keep it hot. ... ITER is an international tokamak (magnetic confinement fusion) research/engineering project designed to prove the scientific and technological feasibility of a full-scale fusion power reactor. ... Split image of JET with right side showing hot plasma during a shot. ... JT-60 (JT stands for Japan Torus) is the flagship of Japans magnetic fusion program, previously run by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and currently run by the Japan Atomic Energy Agencys (JAEA) Naka Fusion Institute[1] in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. ... Categories: Stub | Nuclear technology ... The KSTAR, or Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Reactor is a magnetic fusion device being built at the Korea Basic Science Institute in Daejon, South Korea. ... The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST, internally called HT-7U) is a project being undertaken to construct an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor in Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, in eastern China. ... The T-15 is a Russian nuclear fusion research reactor, based on the (Russian-invented) tokamak design. ... DIII-D or D3-D is the name of a tokamak machine developed in the 1980s by General Atomics in San Diego, USA, as part of the ongoing effort to achieve magnetically confined fusion. ... Tore Supra is a tokamak français en activité après larrêt du TFR (Tokamak de Fontenay-aux-Roses) et de Petula (à Grenoble). ... The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was an experimental fusion test reactor built at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (in Princeton, New Jersey) circa 1980. ... The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is an innovative magnetic fusion device that was constructed by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in collaboration with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Columbia University, and the University of Washington at Seattle. ... The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is a plasma confinement experiment being conducted at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. ... The UCLA Electric Tokamak is a low field (0. ... Alcator C-Mod is a tokamak, a magnetically confined nuclear fusion device, at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center. ... The Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) is a project devoted to researching a type of nuclear fusion which utilizes a floating superconducting torus to provide an axisymmetric magnetic field which is used to contain plasma. ... The H-1 flexible Heliac is a three field-period helical axis stellarator located in the Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering at the Australian National University. ... The Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak, or MAST experiment is a nuclear fusion experiment in operation at Culham since December 1999. ... The Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak, or START was a nuclear fusion experiment that used magnetic confinement to hold plasma. ... The ASDEX Upgrade divertor tokamak (Axially Symmetric Divertor EXperiment) went into operation at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching in 1991. ... Wendelstein 7-X is an experimental stellarator (nuclear fusion reactor) currently being built in Greifswald, Germany by the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), which will be completed by 2012. ... Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV): inner view, with the graphite-claded torus. ... This article or section contains speculation and may try to argue its points. ...


Inertial confinement devices
Laser driven:NIF (USA) |
OMEGA laser (USA) | Nova laser (USA) | Novette laser (USA) | Nike laser (USA) | Shiva laser (USA) | Argus laser (USA) | Cyclops laser (USA) | Janus laser (USA) | Long path laser (USA) | 4 pi laser (USA) | LMJ (France) | Luli2000 (France) | GEKKO XII (Japan) | ISKRA lasers (Russia) | Vulcan laser (UK) | Asterix IV laser (Czech Republic) | HiPER laser (European)
Non-laser driven:Z machine (USA) |
PACER (USA)
A construction worker inside NIFs 10 meter target chamber. ... The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) is a scientific research facility which is part of the University of Rochesters south campus, located in Rochester, New York. ... The Nova laser was a laser built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1984 and which conducted advanced inertial confinement fusion experiments until its dismantling in 1999. ... The Novette target chamber with two laser chains visible in background. ... Final amplifier of the Nike laser where laser beam energy is increased from 150 J to ~5 Kj by passing through a krypton/fluorine/argon gas mixture excited by irradiation with two opposing 670,000 volt electron beams. ... The Shiva laser was an extremely powerful 20 beam infrared neodymium glass (silica glass) laser built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1977 for the study of inertial confinement fusion and long-scale-length laser-plasma interactions. ... Argus laser overhead view. ... The single beam Cyclops laser at LLNL around the time of its completion in 1975. ... The Janus laser as it appeared in 1975. ... The Long Path laser was an early high energy infrared laser at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory used to study inertial confinement fusion. ... Physicist Frank Rainer (inset), who was involved in laser research and development at LLNL since 1966, holds the target chamber seen at the center of the larger picture. ... Laser Mégajoule (LMJ) is an experimental inertial confinement fusion (ICF) device being built in France by the French nuclear science directorate, CEA. Laser Mégajoule plans to deliver about 1. ... LULI2000 is a high-power laser system dedicated to scientific research. ... GEKKO XII is a high-power 12-beam neodymium doped glass laser at the Osaka Universitys Institute for Laser Engineering completed in 1983, which is used for high energy density physics and inertial confinement fusion research. ... The ISKRA-4 and ISKRA-5 lasers are lasers which were built by the Russian federation at RFNC-VNIIEF in Arzamas-16() with the ~2Kj output ISKRA-4 laser being completed in 1979 and the ~30Kj output ISKRA-5 laser which was completed in 1989. ... The Vulcan laser is an 8 beam 2. ... The Asterix IV laser in Prague (commonly reffered to by the acronym PALS for Prague Asterix Laser System) is a high power photolytically pumped iodine gas laser which is capable of producing ~300 to 500 picosecond long pulses of light at the fundamental line of 1. ... HiPER is an experimental laser-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) device currently undergoing preliminary design for possible construction in the European Union starting around 2010. ... Zork universe Zork games Zork Anthology Zork trilogy Zork I   Zork II   Zork III Beyond Zork   Zork Zero   Planetfall Enchanter trilogy Enchanter   Sorcerer   Spellbreaker Other games Wishbringer   Return to Zork Zork: Nemesis   Zork Grand Inquisitor Zork: The Undiscovered Underground Topics in Zork Encyclopedia Frobozzica Characters   Kings   Creatures Timeline   Magic   Calendar... The PACER project, carried out at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the mid-1970s, explored the possibility of a fusion power system that would involve exploding small hydrogen bombs (fusion bombs)—or, as stated in a later proposal, fission bombs—inside an underground cavity. ...


See also: International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility The International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility, also known as IFMIF, is an international scientific research program designed to test materials for suitability for use in a fusion reactor. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Spherical Tokamak advantages (352 words)
A spherical tokamak or ST (sometimes called spherical torus) has a much tighter ring shape, more like a cored apple (illustrated by the inner shape in the figure).
The START (Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak) experiment at Culham provided the world's first experimental results on hot spherical tokamak plasmas, achieving electron temperatures of more than 10 million °C. Keeping the plasma stable is vital for the efficiency of a fusion machine.
The toroidal magnetic field (supplied by the current flowing in the central column) needed to keep the plasma stable can be a factor of 10 less in a spherical tokamak than that of a conventional tokamak carrying the same plasma current.
Newswise Science News | Improved Controls for Advanced Tokamak Fusion Reactor (751 words)
Researchers at UCSD, General Atomics, and dozens of university and government laboratories around the world are collaborating on a variety of fronts to improve the efficiency of the current generation of tokamaks, which use magnetic fields to confine the ionized hydrogen fuel, or plasma, in a circular cloud called a torus.
Nuclear fusion occurs in tokamaks when a mixture of deuterium, and tritium -- isotopes of hydrogen with two and three times the mass, respectively, of ordinary hydrogen atoms -- fuse into helium.
Several years ago tokamaks demonstrated the ability to produce more power than they consume, an important milestone, but the first commercial fusion reactors are estimated to be 30 years away.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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