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Encyclopedia > Toga
Marcus Aurelius wearing a toga.
Marcus Aurelius wearing a toga.

The toga, a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome, was a sash of perhaps twenty feet (6 meters) in length which was wrapped around the body and was generally worn over a tunic. The toga was invariably made of wool,[1] and the tunic under it was often made of linen. For most of Rome's history, the toga was a garment worn exclusively by men, while women wore the stola. Non-citizens were forbidden to wear the toga. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 225 × 597 pixelsFull resolution‎ (415 × 1,102 pixels, file size: 218 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 225 × 597 pixelsFull resolution‎ (415 × 1,102 pixels, file size: 218 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (called the Wise) (April 26, 121[2] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ... Torn linen cloth, recovered from the Dead Sea Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant. ... The stola was the traditional garment of Roman women, corresponding to the toga that was worn by men. ... The toga was the characteristic garment of the Roman citizen. ...

Contents

History

The toga was based on a formal dress robe used by the Etruscans, even though it is usually linked with the Romans. The toga was the earliest dress clothing of the Romans; a thick woollen cloak worn over a loincloth or apron. It was taken off indoors, or when hard at work in the fields, but it was the only decent attire out-of-doors. (We learn this from the story of Cincinnatus: he was ploughing in his field when the messengers of the Senate came to tell him that he had been made dictator, and on seeing them he sent his wife to fetch his toga from the house so that they could be received appropriately.[2] The truth of the story may be doubtful, but it nevertheless expresses the Roman sentiment on the subject.) A toga was a very popular matter of clothing to the Romans. The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... A loincloth is a one-piece male garment, sometimes kept in place by a belt, which covers the genitals and, at least partially, the buttocks. ... This article is about the garment. ... With one hand he returns the fasces, symbol of power as appointed dictator of Rome. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... A dictator is an authoritarian, often totalitarian ruler (e. ...


As time went on, dress styles changed. Romans adopted the shirt (tunica, or in Greek chiton) which the Greeks and Etruscans wore, made the toga more bulky, and wore it in a looser manner. The result was that it became useless for active pursuits, such as those of war. Thus, its place was taken by the handier sagum (woolen cloak) on all military occasions. In times of peace, too, the toga was eventually superseded by the laena, lacerna, paenula, and other forms of buttoned or closed cloaks. However, the toga did remain the court dress of the Empire.[3] A Danaid, wearing a low-girded chiton A chiton was a piece of clothing in the Ancient Greek world. ... Extent of Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ... Roman soldier wearing a sagum. ... Evening cloak or manteau, from Costume Parisien, 1823 A cloak is a type of loose garment that is worn over indoor clothing and serves the same purpose as an overcoat—it protects the wearer from the cold, rain or wind for example, or it may form part of a fashionable... The paenula was a cloak worn by the Romans, akin to the poncho of the modern Spaniards and Spanish Americans ( i. ... Court dress comprises two forms of dress: dress prescribed for Royal courts; and dress prescribed for courts of law. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


Significance

The same process that removed the toga from every-day life gave it an increased importance as a ceremonial garment, as is often the case with clothing. As early as the fifth century B.C., and probably even before, the toga (along with the calceus) was looked upon as the characteristic badge of Roman citizenship. It was denied to foreigners[4], and even to banished Romans,[5] and it was worn by magistrates on all occasions as a badge of office. In fact, for a magistrate to appear in a Greek cloak (pallium) and sandals was considered by all, except unconventional folk, as highly improper, if not criminal.[6] Augustus, for instance, was so much incensed at seeing a meeting of citizens without the toga, that, quoting Virgil's proud lines, "Romanos, rerum dominos, gentemque togatam" ("Romans, lords of the world, the race that wears the toga"), he gave orders to the aediles that in the future no one was to appear in the Forum or Circus without it. The toga was the characteristic garment of the Roman citizen. ... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ... now. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Aedile (Latin Aedilis, from aedes, aedis temple, building) was an office of the Roman Republic. ... Part of the Roman Forum. ... For other uses, see Circus Maximus (disambiguation). ...


Because the toga was not worn by soldiers, it was regarded as a sign of peace. A civilian was sometimes called togatus, "toga-wearer", in contrast to sagum-wearing soldiers. Cicero's De Officiis contains the phrase cedant arma togae: literally, "let arms yield to the toga", meaning "may peace replace war", or "may military power yield to civilian power." Roman soldier wearing a sagum. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... De Officiis (On Duties or On Obligations) is an essay by Marcus Tullius Cicero divided into three books, where Cicero explains his view on the best way to live. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ...


Varieties

A contemporary portrayal of a toga picta
A contemporary portrayal of a toga picta

There were many kinds of togae, each used differently. Image File history File links Contemporary_portrayal_of_a_toga_picta. ... Image File history File links Contemporary_portrayal_of_a_toga_picta. ...

  • Toga virilis (or toga alba or toga pura): A plain white toga worn on formal occasions by most Roman men of legal age, generally about 14 to 18 years.[7]
  • Toga candida: "Bright toga"; a toga bleached by chalk to a dazzling white (Isidorus Orig. xix. 24, 6), worn by candidates for public office.[8] Thus Persius speaks of a cretata ambitio, "chalked ambition". Oddly, this custom appears to have been banned by plebiscite in 432 BC, but the restriction was never enforced.[9] The term is the etymologic source of the word candidate.
  • Toga praetexta: An ordinary white toga with a broad purple stripe on its border. It was worn by:
Those with the right to wear a toga praetexta were sometimes termed laticlavius, "having a broad crimson stripe". It also gave its name to a literary form known as praetexta.
  • Toga pulla: Literally just "dark toga". It was worn mainly by mourners, but could also be worn in times of private danger or public anxiety. It was sometimes used as a protest of sorts—when Cicero was exiled, the Senate resolved to wear togae pullae as a demonstration against the decision.[16] Magistrates with the right to wear a toga praetexta wore a simple toga pura instead of pulla.
  • Toga picta: This toga, unlike all others, was not just dyed but embroidered and decorated. It was solid purple, embroidered with gold. Under the Republic, it was worn by generals in their triumphs, and by the Praetor Urbanus when he rode in the chariot of the Gods into the circus at the Ludi Apollinares.[17] During the Empire, the toga picta was worn by magistrates giving public gladiatorial games, and by the consuls, as well as by the emperor on special occasions.
  • Toga trabea: According to Servius, there were three different kinds of trabea: one of purple only, for the gods; another of purple and a little white, for kings; and a third, with scarlet stripes and a purple hem,[18] for augurs and Salii.[19] Dionysius of Halicarnassus says that those of equestrian class wore it as well, but this is not borne out by other evidence.

Look up Candidate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Public administration is, broadly speaking, the implementation of policy within a state framework. ... Persius, in full Aulus Persius Flaccus (AD 34-62), was a Roman poet and satirist. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Magistratus Curulis was a magistrate in Ancient Rome entitled to use sella curulis, a chair of office made of ivory. ... The Flamen Dialis was an important position in Roman religion. ... In ancient Rome, the College of Pontiffs or Collegium Pontificum was a body whose members were the highest-ranking priests of the polytheistic state religion. ... The Augur was a priest or official in ancient Rome. ... Arval Brethren (latin: Fratres Arvales) were a body of priests in ancient Rome who offered annual sacrifices to lares and gods to guarantee good harvests. ... There were seven traditional Kings of Rome before the establishment of the Roman Republic. ... A Praetexta or Praetexta Fabula was a category of Roman tragedy which dealt with the themes of historical Roman figures, instead of the conventional Greek myths. ... Margaret of Spain, Empress of Austria, in Mourning, 1666; note the children and servants in mourning dress behind her. ... A Roman Triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly honour the military commander (dux) of a notably successful foreign war or campaign and to display the glories of Roman victory. ... The Apollinarian games, or Ludi Apollinares, in ancient Rome, were solemn games held annually by the Romans in honor of the god Apollo. ... For other uses, see Gladiator (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Roman rank. ... Maurus (or Marius) Servius Honoratius, Roman grammarian and commentator on Virgil, flourished at the end of the 4th century AD. He is one of the interlocutors in the Saturnalia of Ambrosius Theodosius Macrobius, and allusions in that work and a letter from Quintus Aurelius Symmachus to Servius show that he... The Salii were Roman priests of Mars. ... Dionysius Halicarnassensis (of Halicarnassus), Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, flourished during the reign of Augustus. ... An Equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites) was a member of one of the two upper social classes in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. ...

Modern usage

A male's exomis
A male's exomis
Main article: Toga party

In several countries, the tradition of the toga party has become popular in recent decades, generally at colleges and universities, perhaps best illustrated in (if not inspired by) the film Animal House. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Greek clothes: 1) Man wearing a chiton and a pilos hat. ... Students wearing togas, including sashes, cord belts and head-dresses. ... Students wearing togas, including sashes, cord belts and head-dresses. ... Students attend a lecture at a tertiary institution. ... National Lampoons Animal House is a 1978 comedy film in which a misfit group of fraternity boys take on the system at their college. ...


This practice trades on the myth of Roman debauchery, and participants dress in togas, which are usually makeshift garments fashioned from bed linen. As such, these "togas" bear little resemblance to the Ancient Roman garment, being both flimsier and scantier.


References

  1. ^ "Toga". A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. (1890). Ed. William Smith, LLD; William Wayte; G. E. Marindin. London: John Murray. 
  2. ^ Livius, Titus (ca. 1st century BCE). "Book III: The Decemvirate", chapter 26, Ab Urbe Condita.
  3. ^ Spart. Sever. 1, 7. As cited by The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.
  4. ^ Suetonius Tranquillus, Gaius (121 CE). 15.2, The Life of Claudius. "In a case involving citizenship a fruitless dispute arose among the advocates as to whether the defendant ought to make his appearance in the toga or in a Greek mantle..."
  5. ^ Plinius Caecilius Secundus, Gaius (ca. 105 CE). Line 3, epistle 11, book 4, Epistulae. "Idem cum Graeco pallio amictus intrasset—carent enim togae iure, quibus aqua et igni interdictum est..." ("Likewise he would have gone clothed with the Greek garb—for those who have been barred from fire and water are without the right of a toga...")
  6. ^ Tullius Cicero, Marcus (63 BC). Pro Rabirio Perduellionis Reo ("For Rabirius on a Charge of Treason"). "Rabirius... was now accused of... wearing the dress of an Egyptian."
  7. ^ cf. Mart. viii. 28, 11. As cited by The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.
  8. ^ cf. Polybius, x. 4, 8. As cited by The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.
  9. ^ Liv. iv. 25, 13. As cited by The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.
  10. ^ Liv. xxiv. 7, 2. As cited by The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.
  11. ^ cf. Cic. post red. in Sen. 5, 12. As cited by The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.
  12. ^ Zonar. vii. 19. As cited by The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.
  13. ^ Liv. xxxiv. 7, 2. As cited by The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.
  14. ^ cf. Cic. Phil. ii. 4. 3, 110. As cited by The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.
  15. ^ Liv. xxvii. 8, 8; xxxiii. 42. As cited by The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.
  16. ^ post red. in Sen. 5, 12. As cited by The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.
  17. ^ cf. Liv. v. 41, 2. As cited by The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.
  18. ^ cf. Isid. Orig. xix. 24, 8. As cited by The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.
  19. ^ ad Aen. vii. 612; cf. ad vii. 188. As cited by The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.

Title page A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities is single volume encyclopedia in English language first published in 1842. ... Sir William Smith (1813 - 1893), English lexicographer, was born at Enfield in 1813 of Nonconformist parents. ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... (Redirected from 1st century BCE) (2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century - other centuries) The 1st century BC starts on January 1, 100 BC and ends on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st... Penguin Classics 1976 edition of Livys Ab Urbe condita, books XXXI-XLV Ab Urbe condita (literally, from the city, having been founded) is a monumental history of Rome, from its founding (ab Urbe condita, dated to 753 BC by Varro and most modern scholars). ... Title page A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities is an English-language encyclopedia first published in 1842 and then in many revised editions through 1890. ... Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... The Twelve Caesars is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire. ... Gayus Plinius Colonoscopy Caecilius Secundus (63 - ca. ... Title page A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities is an English-language encyclopedia first published in 1842 and then in many revised editions through 1890. ... Title page A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities is an English-language encyclopedia first published in 1842 and then in many revised editions through 1890. ... Title page A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities is an English-language encyclopedia first published in 1842 and then in many revised editions through 1890. ... Title page A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities is an English-language encyclopedia first published in 1842 and then in many revised editions through 1890. ... Title page A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities is an English-language encyclopedia first published in 1842 and then in many revised editions through 1890. ... Title page A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities is an English-language encyclopedia first published in 1842 and then in many revised editions through 1890. ... Title page A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities is an English-language encyclopedia first published in 1842 and then in many revised editions through 1890. ... Title page A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities is an English-language encyclopedia first published in 1842 and then in many revised editions through 1890. ... Title page A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities is an English-language encyclopedia first published in 1842 and then in many revised editions through 1890. ... Title page A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities is an English-language encyclopedia first published in 1842 and then in many revised editions through 1890. ... Title page A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities is an English-language encyclopedia first published in 1842 and then in many revised editions through 1890. ... Title page A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities is an English-language encyclopedia first published in 1842 and then in many revised editions through 1890. ... Title page A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities is an English-language encyclopedia first published in 1842 and then in many revised editions through 1890. ...

External links

This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities by William Smith (1870). The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Title page A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities is single volume encyclopedia in English language first published in 1842. ... Sir William Smith (1813 - 1893), English lexicographer, was born at Enfield in 1813 of Nonconformist parents. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Toga - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1158 words)
The toga was a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome.
Toga candida: "Bright toga"; a toga bleached to a dazzling white by chalk (Isidorus Orig.
Toga trabea: According to Servius, there were three different kinds of trabea: one of purple only, for the gods; another of purple and a little white, for kings; and a third, with scarlet stripes and a purple hem (cf.
Rotary D7150 Conference 2001 in Saratoga! (3779 words)
The toga was the formal garment of ancient Romans and a symbol of citizenship.
The trabea was a toga ornamented with purple horizontal stripes.
The former was the toga densa, pinguis, or hirta.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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