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Encyclopedia > Tofu
Tofu

Tofu may refer to: Tofu, the food TOFU, the military slang acronym for FUBAR TOFU, an acronym for top-posting Category: ... Download high resolution version (680x1024, 85 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Seasoned tofu cubes in a Chinese dish
Chinese name
Chinese: 豆腐 or 荳腐
Hanyu Pinyin: dòufǔ
Literal meaning: bean curd
Filipino name
Tagalog: tokwa
Japanese name
Kanji: 豆腐
Hiragana: とうふ
Korean name
Hangul: 두부
Hanja: 豆腐
Malay name
Malay: tauhu
Tamil name
Tamil: tahu
Thai name
Thai: เต้าหู้ (IPA: [tâohûː])
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese: đậu phụ
or đậu hũ
or tàu hũ
Burmese name
Burmese: Image:Bscript pebya.png (pebya/péprā:)
or Image:Bscript topu.png (tofu/tiuphü:)
Khmer name
Khmer: តៅហ៊ូ
Indonesian name
Indonesian: tahu

Tofu (the Japanese Romaji spelling), also known as doufu (the Chinese Pinyin spelling often used in Chinese recipes) or bean curd (the literal translation), is a food of Chinese origin[1], made by coagulating soy milk, and then pressing the resulting curds into blocks. The making of tofu from soy milk is similar to the technique of making cheese from milk (Fermentation), and hence tofu is to soy milk what cheese is to milk. Wheat gluten, or seitan, in its steamed and fried forms, is often called "tofu" in Asian or vegetarian dishes. Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Map of eastern China and Taiwan, showing the historic distribution of Mandarin Chinese in light brown. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Min (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; POJ: Bân hong-giân; BUC: Mìng huŏng-ngiòng) is a general term for a group of dialects of the Chinese language spoken in the southeastern Chinese province of Fujian as well as by migrants from this province in Guangdong (around Chaozhou-Swatou... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... This article is about all of the Cantonese (Yue) dialects. ... Jyutping (sometimes spelled Jyutpin) is a romanization system for Standard Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) in 1993. ... The Yale romanizations are four systems created during World War II for use by United States military personnel. ... Tagalog (pronunciation: ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Hiragana ) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana and kanji; the Latin alphabet is also used in some cases. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji The Hepburn romanization system ) is named after James Curtis Hepburn, who used it to transcribe the sounds of the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet in the third edition of his Japanese–English dictionary, published... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Romaji ローマ字 Kunrei-shiki (訓令式, Cabinet-ordered system) is a romanization system, that is, a system for transcribing the Japanese language into the Roman alphabet. ... Jamo redirects here. ... Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ... The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Image File history File links Bscript_pebya. ... Image File history File links Bscript_topu. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji The romanization of Japanese is the use of the Latin alphabet (called rōmaji )   in Japanese) to write the Japanese language, which is normally written in logographic characters borrowed from Chinese (kanji) and syllabic scripts... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Curd is a dairy product obtained by curdling (coagulating) milk with rennet or an edible acidic substance such as lemon juice or vinegar and then draining off the liquid portion (called whey). ... A can of Yeos soy milk, poured into a glass Greek Café Frappé prepared with soy milk, topped with additional cinnamon 1 l (2. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... A glass of cows milk. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... A piece of seitan Wheat gluten - also called seitan (pronounced SAY-tahn), wheat meat, wheat-meat, wheatmeat, gluten meat, or simply gluten - is a foodstuff made from the gluten of wheat. ...

Contents

Production

Tofu is made by coagulating soy milk and pressing the resulting curds. Although pre-made soy milk may be used, most tofu producers begin by making their own soy milk, which is produced by soaking, grinding, boiling, and straining dried (or, less commonly, fresh) soybeans. Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ...


Coagulation of the protein and oil (emulsion) suspended in the boiled soy milk is the most important step in the production of tofu. This process is accomplished with the aid of coagulants. Two types of coagulants (salts and acids) are used commercially.[2] The third type of coagulant, enzymes, is not yet used commercially but shows potential for producing both firm and "silken" tofu. Coagulation is the process by which a liquid changes to a thickened, curdlike, insoluble state by some kind of chemical reaction, rather than by evaporation. ... A. Two immisicible liquids, not emulsified; B. An emulsion of Phase B dispersed in Phase A; C. The unstable emulsion progressively separates; D. The surfactant (purple outline) positions itself on the interfaces between Phase A and Phase B, stabilizing the emulsion An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible (unblendable...


Salt coagulants

  • Calcium sulfate (gypsum): The traditional and most widely used coagulant to produce Chinese-style tofu. It produces a tofu that is tender but slightly brittle in texture. The coagulant itself has no perceivable taste. Use of this coagulant also makes a tofu that is rich in calcium, an important mineral for treating and preventing osteoporosis. As such, many tofu manufacturers choose to use this coagulant to be able to market their tofu as a good source of calcium.
  • Chloride-type Nigari salts - Magnesium chloride and calcium chloride: Both of these salts have a high solubility rate in water and affect soy protein in the same way whereas gypsum is only very slightly soluble in water and acts differently in soy protein precipitation, the basis for tofu formation. These are the coagulants used to make Japanese-style tofu with a smooth and tender texture. In Japan, a white powder called nigari, which consists primarily of magnesium chloride, is produced from seawater after the sodium chloride is removed and the water evaporated. Depending on its production method, nigari may also contain small quantities of magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt), potassium chloride, calcium chloride, and trace amounts of other naturally occurring salts. Although the term nigari is derived from nigai, the Japanese word for "bitter," neither nigari nor pure magnesium chloride imparts a perceivable taste to the finished tofu. Calcium chloride is a common coagulant for tofu in North America.[3]

Calcium sulphate is a common laboratory and industrial chemical. ... It has been suggested that Selenite be merged into this article or section. ... Osteoporosis is a disease of bone in which the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of non-collagenous proteins in bone is altered. ... Magnesium chloride is composed of magnesium and chlorine and is a typical ionic halide, being highly polar and soluble in water. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , Related Compounds Other anions calcium fluoride calcium bromide calcium iodide Other cations magnesium chloride strontium chloride Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... It has been suggested that Selenite be merged into this article or section. ... Overview Magnesium chloride is composed of magnesium and chlorine and is a typical ionic halide, being highly polar and soluble in water. ... Sea water is water from a sea or ocean. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Magnesium sulfate (or sulphate) is a chemical compound containing magnesium and sulfate, with the formula MgSO4. ... The chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide composed of potassium and chlorine. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , Related Compounds Other anions calcium fluoride calcium bromide calcium iodide Other cations magnesium chloride strontium chloride Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...

Acid coagulants

  • Glucono delta-lactone (GDL): A naturally occurring organic acid also used in cheese making, which produces a very fine textured tofu that is almost jelly-like. This coagulant is used especially for "silken" and softer tofus, and confers an almost imperceptible sour taste to the finished product.[4] Commonly used together with calcium sulfate to give soft tofu a smooth tender texture.

Glucono delta-lactone (GDL) is a naturally occurring food additive used as a sequestrant, an acidifier, or a curing, pickling, or leavening agent. ...

Enzyme coagulants

  • Among enzymes that have been shown to produce tofu are papain, and alkaline and neutral proteinases from microorganisms. In the case of papain, the enzyme to substrate ratio, by weight, was held constant at 1:400. An aliquot of 1% crude papain was added to "uncooked" soy milk at room temperature and heated to 90–100 degrees Celsius.[3]

Contemporary tofu manufacturers may choose to use one or more of these coagulants, since they each play a role in producing a desired texture in the finished tofu.[4] Different textures result from different pore sizes and other microscopic features in tofus produced using each coagulant. The coagulant mixture is dissolved into water, and the solution is then stirred into boiled soy milk until the mixture curdles into a soft gel.[2] Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... Papain is a protease enzyme (EC 3. ... Proteases (proteinases, peptidases, or proteolytic enzymes) are enzymes that break peptide bonds between amino acids of proteins. ... In optical filters and theatrical lighting a color gel is a transparent or translucent colored panel used to change the color of transmitted light. ...


The curds are processed differently depending on the form of tofu that is being manufactured. For soft silken tofu (; nèn dòufǔ) or tofu flower (, dòuhuā) the soy milk is curdled directly in the tofu's selling package. For standard firm Asian tofu, the soy curd is cut and strained of excess liquid using cheese cloth or muslin and then lightly pressed to produce a soft cake. Firmer tofus, such as Asian dry tofu () or Western types of tofu, are further pressed to remove even more liquid. In Viet Nam, the curd is strained and molded in a square mold and the end product is called đậu khuôn (molded bean) or đậu phụ (one of the Vietnamese ways to pronounce the Chinese doufu). The tofu curds are allowed to cool and become firm. The finished tofu can then be cut into pieces, flavoured or further processed. Cheesecloth is a loosewoven cotton cloth, such as is used in pressing cheese curds. ... Muslin is a type of finely-woven cotton fabric, introduced to Europe from the Middle East in the 17th century. ...


Although tartness is sometimes desired in dessert tofu, the acid used in flavouring is usually not the primary coagulant since it is not desirable to the flavour or texture of the resulting tofu to add it in a sufficiently high concentration so as to induce coagulation. A sour taste in tofu and a slight cloudiness in its storing liquid is also usually an indication of bacterial growth and, hence, spoilage.


Varieties

There is a wide variety of tofu available in both Western and Eastern markets. Despite the daunting variety, tofu products can be split into two main categories: fresh tofu, which is produced directly from soy milk, and processed tofu, which is produced from fresh tofu. Tofu production also creates important side products which are often used in various cuisines. A can of Yeos soy milk, poured into a glass Greek Café Frappé prepared with soy milk, topped with additional cinnamon 1 l (2. ...


Fresh tofu

Depending on the amount of water that is extracted from the tofu curds, fresh tofu can be divided into three main varieties.

Silken tofu with soy sauce and a decorative carrot slice
Silken tofu with soy sauce and a decorative carrot slice
  • Soft/silken tofu (嫩豆腐 or 滑豆腐, nèn dòufǔ or huá dòufǔ, in Chinese, lit. "soft tofu" or "smooth tofu"; 絹漉し豆腐, kinugoshi tōfu in Japanese, lit. "silk-filtered tofu"; 순두부, sundubu in Korean, lit. "mild tofu"): This undrained tofu contains the highest moisture content of all fresh tofus[5] Its texture can be described as similar to that of very fine custard. In Japan and Korea, traditional soft tofu is made with seawater.[1][2][3] [4][5] Douhua (豆花, dòu huā or 豆腐花, dòufǔ huā in Chinese), or tofu brain (豆腐腦 or 豆腐脑, dòufǔ naǒ in Chinese), often eaten as a dessert, but sometimes with salty pickles or hot sauce added instead, is another type of soft tofu with an even higher moisture content. Because it is nearly impossible to pick up this type of tofu with chopsticks, it is generally eaten with a spoon. Edamame tofu is a Japanese variety of kinugoshi tōfu made from edamame (fresh green soybeans); it is pale green in color and often studded with whole edamame.
  • Asian firm tofu (simply called 豆腐 dòufǔ in Chinese; 木綿豆腐, momendōfu in Japanese, lit. "cotton tofu"): Although drained and pressed, this form of fresh tofu still contains a great amount of moisture. It has the firmness of raw meat but bounces back readily when pressed. The texture of the inside of the tofu is similar to that of a firm custard. The skin of this form of tofu has the pattern of the muslin used to drain it and is slightly more resilient to damage than its inside. Can be picked up easily with chopsticks.[6][5]
  • Western firm/dried tofu (豆乾, dòu gān in Chinese, lit. "dry tofu"): An extra firm variety of tofu with the least amount of moisture of all fresh tofus. It has the firmness of fully cooked meat and a somewhat rubbery feel similar to paneer. When sliced thinly, this tofu can be crumbled easily. The skin of this form of tofu has the pattern of the muslin used to drain and press it. Western firm tofu is milled and reformed after the pressing and sometimes lacks the skin with its cloth patterning. One variety of dried tofu is pressed especially flat and sliced into long strings with a cross section smaller than 2 mm × 2 mm. Shredded dried tofu (豆乾絲, dòu gān sī in Chinese, or simply 乾絲, gān sī), which looks like loose cooked noodles, and can be served cold, stir-fried, or similar in style to Japanese aburaage.photo[6]

Fresh tofu is usually sold completely immersed in water to maintain its moisture content.[7] Download high resolution version (723x689, 85 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (723x689, 85 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... This article focuses on egg-thickened custards. ... Sea water is water from a sea or ocean. ... A bowl of douhua Douhua (豆花, literally: tofu flower) is an extra soft form of tofu that is used in both desserts and salty dishes. ... For other uses, see Chopsticks (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chopsticks (disambiguation). ... Making paneer Paneer (Hindi: पनीर , from Persian پنير sometimes spelled Panir or Paner), is the most common Indian form of cheese. ... For other uses, see Noodle (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Processed tofu

Many forms of processed tofus exist, due to the varied ways in which fresh tofu can be used. Some of these techniques likely originate from the need to preserve tofu before the days of refrigeration, or to increase its shelf life and longevity. Other production techniques are employed to create tofus with unique textures and flavours.[8]


Fermented

  • Pickled tofu ( in Chinese, pinyin: dòufǔ rǔ, lit. "tofu dairy," or ; chao in Vietnamese): Also called "preserved tofu" or "fermented tofu," this food consists of cubes of dried tofu that have been allowed to fully air-dry under hay and slowly ferment from aerial bacteria.[8] The dry fermented tofu is then soaked in salt water, Chinese wine, vinegar, and minced chiles, or a unique mixture of whole rice, bean paste, and soybeans. In the case of red pickled tofu ( in Chinese, Pinyin: hóng dòufǔ rǔ), red yeast rice (cultivated with Monascus purpureus) is added for color.[9]
  • Stinky tofu ( in Chinese, Pinyin: chòu dòufǔ): A soft tofu that has been fermented in a unique vegetable and fish brine.[8] The blocks of tofu smell strongly of certain pungent cheeses, and are described by many as rotten and fecal. Despite its strong odour, the flavour and mouthfeel of stinky tofu is appreciated by aficionados, who describe it as delightful. The texture of this tofu is similar to the soft Asian tofu that it is made from. The rind that stinky tofu develops from frying is said to be especially crisp, and is usually served with soy sauce, sweet sauce, and/or hot sauce.

Pickled tofu (豆腐乳 in Chinese, Pinyin: dòufu rÇ”, lit. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Dried grain red yeast rice Red yeast rice (Chinese: 紅麴米, 红曲米; pinyin: hóng; lit. ... Binomial name Monascus purpureus (Went, 1895) Monascus purpureus (syn. ... Stinky tofu is a form of fermented tofu, which, as the name suggests, has a strong odor. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Soy sauce (US) or soya sauce is a fermented sauce made from soybeans (soya beans), roasted grain, water and salt. ...

Flavoured

Almond "tofu," which is not made of soy milk but rather from gelatin or agarose
Almond "tofu," which is not made of soy milk but rather from gelatin or agarose

Flavours can be mixed directly into curdling soy milk while the tofu is being produced. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1214x1133, 53 KB) Summary Almond Tofu From the Japanese Wikipedia Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1214x1133, 53 KB) Summary Almond Tofu From the Japanese Wikipedia Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... A can of Yeos soy milk, poured into a glass Greek Café Frappé prepared with soy milk, topped with additional cinnamon 1 l (2. ... For the art collective, see Gelitin. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

  • Sweet: Common sweet dessert tofus include peanut tofu (落花生豆腐, luòhuāshēng dòufǔ in Chinese and jimami-dōfu in Japanese), almond tofu (杏仁豆腐, xìngrén dòufǔ in Chinese; 杏仁豆腐, annindōfu in Japanese), mango tofu, and coconut tofu. In order to produce these forms of tofu, sugar, fruit acids, and flavourants are mixed into soy milk prior to curdling. Most sweet tofus have the texture of silken tofu and are served cold.
    • Products called "almond tofu" in some cases are actually not made from tofu but are instead gelatinous desserts made from agar or gelatin and whitened with milk or coconut milk. In Japan these are canned with syrup and sold as a sweet dessert.
Japanese Tofu/ Egg Tofu (卵豆腐)
Japanese Tofu/ Egg Tofu (卵豆腐)
  • Savoury: Egg tofu (蛋豆腐; dàn dòufǔ, in Chinese) (玉子豆腐; yùzǐ dòufǔ; lit. "jade tofu," in Chinese; 卵豆腐; tamagodōfu, in Japanese) is the main type of savoury flavoured tofu. Whole beaten eggs are filtered and incorporated into the soy milk before the coagulant is added. The mixture is filled into tube shaped plastic bags and allowed to curdle. The tofu is then cooked in its packaging and sold. Egg tofu has a pale golden color that can be attributed to the addition of egg and, occasionally, food coloring. This tofu has a fuller texture and flavour than silken tofu, which can be attributed to the presence of egg fat and protein.

This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the art collective, see Gelitin. ... A glass of cows milk. ... Coconut milk is a sweet, milky white cooking base derived from the meat of a mature coconut. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (999 × 749 pixel, file size: 640 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Japanese Tofu (before and after cut) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (999 × 749 pixel, file size: 640 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Japanese Tofu (before and after cut) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

Fried

  • With the exception of the softest tofus, all forms of tofu can be fried. Thin and soft varieties of tofu are deep fried in oil until they are light and airy in their core ( in Chinese, dòupào, lit. "bean bubble," describing the shape of the fried tofu as a bubble).
  • Tofus such as firm Asian and dry tofu, with their lower moisture content, are cut into bite-sized cubes or triangles and deep fried until they develop a golden-brown, crispy surface (豆腐 in Chinese, zhà dòufǔ, lit. "fried tofu"). These may be eaten by themselves or with a light sauce, or further cooked in liquids; they are also added to hot pot dishes or included as part of the vegetarian dish called luohan zhai.

A Deep-fried Twinkie Deep-frying is a cooking method whereby food is submerged in hot oil or fat. ... Buddhas delight , often transliterated as Luóhàn zhāi, lo han jai or lo hon jai (Traditional Chinese: 羅漢齋; Simplified Chinese: 罗汉斋; Hanyu Pinyin: ), is a vegetarian dish well known in Chinese cuisine . ...

Frozen

Thawed and sliced frozen tofu
Thawed and sliced frozen tofu
  • Thousand layer tofu (, or in Chinese, lit. "thousand layer tofu" or "frozen tofu"): By freezing tofu, the large ice crystals that develop within the tofu results in the formation of large cavities that appear to be layered (pseudostratified). The frozen tofu takes on a yellowish hue in the freezing process. Thousand layer tofu is commonly made at home from Asian soft tofu though it is also commercially sold as a regional specialty in parts of Taiwan. This tofu is defrosted and sometimes squeezed of moisture prior to use.[7]
  • Japanese freeze-dried tofu (kōyadōfu, in Japanese): The name comes from Mount Koya, a center of Japanese Buddhism famed for its shōjin ryōri, or traditional Buddhist vegetarian cuisine. It is excellent for camping, in that it is very light, may be sold flattened, and makes a very filling nutritious meal on the road. Like many freeze-dried foods, it is soaked in hot water or broth before eating, taking on a spongy texture when reconstituted. Freeze-dried tofu is also found in instant soups (such as miso soup), in which the toppings are freeze-dried and stored in sealed pouches.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1110 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tofu ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1110 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tofu ... Freeze drying (also known as Lyophilization) is a dehydration process typically used to preserve a perishable material, or to make the material more convenient for transport. ... Konpon Daito, the central point of Mt. ... Japanese Buddhist priest c. ... Miso soup with miso, wakame, negi and aburaage Miso soup packets Miso soup ) is a traditional Japanese soup consisting of a stock called dashi into which is mixed softened miso paste. ...

Byproducts of tofu production

Tofu production creates some edible byproducts. Food products are made from the protein-oil film, or "skin," which forms over the surface of boiling soy milk in an open shallow pan. The leftover solids from pressing soy milk is called okara.


Tofu skin

Boiling of soy milk, in an open shallow pan , produces a film or skin composed primarily of a soy protein-lipid complex on the liquid surface.[7] The films are collected and dried into yellowish sheets known as soy milk skin (腐皮, fǔ pí in Chinese; 湯葉, yuba in Japanese). Its approximate composition is : 50–55% protein, 24–26% lipids (fat), 12% carbohydrate, 3% ash, and 9% moisture. [10]


The skin can also be bunched up to stick form and dried into something known as "tofu bamboo" (腐竹, fǔ zhú in Chinese; phù chúc in Vietnamese; kusatake, Japanese), or a myriad of other forms. Since tofu skin has a soft yet rubbery texture, it is folded or shaped into different forms and cooked further to imitate meat in vegetarian cuisine.


Some factories dedicate production to tofu skin and other soy membrane products.


Okara

Okara (雪花菜, xuě huā caì, lit. "snowflake vegetable"; 豆腐渣, dòufǔ zhā, lit. "tofu sediment/residue"; kongbiji, 콩비지 in Korean), sometimes known in the west as soy pulp, is the fibre, protein, and starch left over when soy milk has been extracted from ground soaked soybeans.[7] Although it is mainly used as animal feed in most tofu producing cultures, it is sometimes used in Japanese and Korean cuisines. It is also an ingredient for vegetarian burgers produced in many western nations. Okara or soy pulp is a white or yellowish pulp consisting of insoluble parts of the soybean which remain in the filter sack when pureed soybeans are filtered in the production of soy milk. ... A homemade veggie burger. ...


Tofu made from other legumes and grains

To hpu (Burmese tofu), in two forms: fresh and fritters
To hpu (Burmese tofu), in two forms: fresh and fritters
  • Black bean tofu (黑豆花): A type of tofu made from plain black beans and soybeans, which is usually made into dòuhuā () rather than firm or dry tofu. The texture of black bean tofu is slightly more gelatinous than regular tofu flower and the color is greyish in tone. This type of tofu is eaten for the earthy "black bean taste."
  • Burmese tofu (to hpu in Burmese): A type of tofu made from besan (chana dal) flour instead of soybeans; the Shan variety uses yellow split pea flour instead. Both types are yellow in color and generally found only in Myanmar, though the Burman variety is also available in some overseas restaurants serving Burmese cuisine.Burmese tofu recipe
To hpu may be fried as fritters cut in rectangular or triangular shapes; the latter fried twice, hence the name hnapyan gyaw (literally "twice fried"), is the common form in the Shan States. To hpu nway, creamy and soft before it sets, is also popular served hot on its own or with rice noodles. To hpu gyauk, which are deep fried, thin, and crispy, are similar to prawn or fish crackers.
Rice tofu, called hsan to hpu (or hsan ta hpo in Shan regions) is made from rice flour (called hsan hmont or mont hmont) and is white in color, with the same consistency as yellow Burmese tofu when set. It is eaten as a salad in the same manner as yellow tofu.

Preparation

Tofu has very little flavour or smell on its own. As such, tofu can be prepared either in savoury or sweet dishes, acting as a canvas for presenting the flavours of the other ingredients used.


Eastern methods

In Asian cooking, tofu is eaten in myriad ways, including raw, stewed, stir-fried, in soup, cooked in sauce, or stuffed with fillings.


Lightly flavoured

The light greenish "bean" smell of tofu is much enjoyed in East Asian cuisines and fresh tofu is often eaten plain or simply flavoured.


In Japan, a common lunch in the summer months is hiyayakko (), silken or firm Asian tofu served with freshly grated ginger, scallions, and soy sauce. In many parts of China, fresh tofu is similarly eaten with soy sauce or further flavoured with katsuobushi shavings, century eggs (), and sesame seed oil. Hiyayakko (冷奴) is a tofu block served cold. ... For other uses, see Ginger (disambiguation). ... Chopped spring onion The common name scallion(Or Don Patch sword as on Bobobo) is associated with various members of the genus Allium that lack a fully-developed bulb. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Soy sauce (US) or soya sauce is a fermented sauce made from soybeans (soya beans), roasted grain, water and salt. ... Katsuobushi shavings from a package Katsuobushi (鰹節; かつおぶし) (Chinese: 柴魚; chai2 yu2; lit. ... Century egg sliced open. ... Binomial name Sesamum indicum Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a crop grown primarily for its oil-rich seeds. ...

Dòuhuā (豆花), is a soft tofu dish. The fresh tofu is served warm and here dressed with sweet syrup. Lamma Island, Hong Kong.
Dòuhuā (豆花), is a soft tofu dish. The fresh tofu is served warm and here dressed with sweet syrup. Lamma Island, Hong Kong.

In Chinese cuisine, Dòuhuā () is served with toppings like boiled peanuts, azuki beans, cooked oatmeal, tapioca, mung beans and a syrup flavored with ginger or almond. During the summer, dòuhuā is served with crushed ice; in the winter, it is served warm.[11] Download high resolution version (1024x682, 108 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1024x682, 108 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Sok Kwu Wan, Lamma Island Lamma Island Power Station and Hung Shing Yeh beach Lamma Island (Chinese: 南丫島), also known as Pok Liu Chau (博寮洲) or simply Pok Liu (博寮), is the third largest island in Hong Kong and part of the Islands District, Hong Kong. ... Chinese cuisine (Chinese: 中國菜) originated from different regions of China and has become widespread in many other parts of the world — from East Asia to North America, Australasia and Western Europe. ... A bowl of douhua Douhua (豆花, literally: tofu flower) is an extra soft form of tofu that is used in both desserts and salty dishes. ... Binomial name L. This article is about the legume. ... Binomial name Vigna angularis (Willd. ... In the United States and Canada, oatmeal means any crushed oats, rolled oats, or cut oats used in recipes such as oatmeal cookies. ... For other uses, see Tapioca (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (L.) R. Wilczek Synonyms Phaeolus aureus Roxb. ... For other uses, see Ginger (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Mill. ...


In Korean cuisine, dubu jorim consists of cubes of firm tofu that are pan fried and seasoned with soy sauce, garlic, and other ingredients. Cubes of cold, uncooked tofu seasoned with soy sauce, scallions, and ginger, prepared in a manner similar to the Japanese hiyayakkoare also enjoyed. Hanjeongsik Korean cuisine is based on the traditional foods and preparation techniques of Korea. ...


In the Philippines, the sweet delicacy taho is made of fresh tofu with brown sugar syrup and sago. A Php 5. ... For other uses, see Sago (disambiguation). ...


In Vietnam, dòuhuā is pronounced đậu hủ. This variety of soft tofu is made and carried around in an earthenware jar. It is served by being scooped into a bowl with a very shallow and flat spoon, and eaten with either powdered sugar and lime juice or with a ginger-flavored syrup. It is generally eaten hot, even during summer.


Fried

A common cooking technique in many parts of East and Southeast Asia involves deep frying tofu in vegetable oil, sunflower oil, and canola oil to varied results. Although tofu is often sold preprocessed into fried items, pre-fried tofu is seldom eaten directly and requires additional cooking. Depending on the type of tofu used, the texture of deep fried tofu may range from crispy on the outside and custardy on the inside, to puffed up like a plain doughnut. The former is usually eaten plain in Chinese cuisine with garlic soy sauce, while the latter is either stuffed with fish paste or cooked in soups.[11] In Japan, cubes of lightly coated and fried tofu topped with a kombu dashi-based sauce are called agedashi-dofu (揚げ出し豆腐). Soft tofu that has been thinly sliced and deep fried, known as aburage in Japan, is commonly blanched, seasoned with soy sauce and mirin and served in dishes such as kitsune udon. Aburage is sometimes also cut open to form a pocket and stuffed with sushi rice; this dish is called inarizushi (稲荷寿司) . It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... For other uses, see Sunflower (disambiguation). ... In agriculture, Canola is a trademarked cultivar of genetically engineered rapeseed variants from which rapeseed oil is obtained. ... For other uses, see Doughnut (disambiguation). ... [[[[[[ == Foods made from surimi: artificial shrimp and crab legs Surimi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally fish puree/slurry, Japanese: 擂り身, lit. ... Kombu or konbu (Japanese: 昆布), also called dashima (Korean), or haidai (Chinese: 海带; pinyin: ), are edible kelp widely eaten in Northeast Asia. ... Dashi (出汁) is one of several simple soup stocks considered fundamental to Japanese cooking. ... Agedashi tofu (or agedashi dofu, 揚げ出し豆腐 Agedashi dōfu) is a Japanese way to serve hot tofu. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Blanching The first step in blanching green beans Blanching is a cooking term that describes a process of food preparation wherein the food substance, usually a vegetable or fruit, is plunged into boiling water, removed after a brief, timed interval and finally plunged into... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Soy sauce (US) or soya sauce is a fermented sauce made from soybeans (soya beans), roasted grain, water and salt. ... Mirin (kanji: 味醂; hiragana: みりん) is an essential condiment used in Japanese cuisine, with a slightly sweet taste. ... Prince Hanzoku terrorized by a nine-tailed fox. ... This article is about the Japanese noodle dish. ... This article is about Japanese cuisine. ...


Soups, stews, and braised dishes

A rather famous hot Sichuan preparation using firm Asian tofu is mápó dòufu (). This involves braised tofu in a beef, chili, and a fermented bean paste sauce. In the Shanghai region it is called málà dòufǔ (). Szechuan cuisine, Szechwan cuisine, or Sichuan cuisine (Chinese: ) is a style of Chinese cuisine originating in Sichuan Province of southwestern China which has an international reputation for being hot and numbing (麻辣), because of the common ingredient Sichuan peppercorn (花椒). Although the region Sichuan is now romanized as Sichuan, the cuisine is... Mapo doufu (麻婆豆腐); pinyin: Mápó dòufǔ) is a popular Chinese dish from the Szechuan province. ... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ...


Dried tofu is usually not eaten raw but first stewed in a mixture of soy sauce and spices. Some types of dried tofu are preseasoned with special blends of spices, so that the tofu may either be called "five spice tofu" (五香豆腐) or "soy sauce stewed tofu" (鹵水豆腐). Dried tofu is typically served thinly sliced with chopped green onions or with slices of meat for added flavor. Most dried tofu is sold after it has been fried or pre-stewed by tofu vendors.[11] Chopped spring onion The common name scallion(Or Don Patch sword as on Bobobo) is associated with various members of the genus Allium that lack a fully-developed bulb. ...


Soft tofu can also be broken up or mashed and mixed with raw ingredients prior to being cooked. For example, Japanese ganmodoki is a mixture of chopped vegetables and mashed tofu. The mixture is bound together with starch and deep fried. Chinese families sometimes make a steamed meatloaf or meatball dish from equal parts of coarsely mashed tofu and ground pork. In India, tofu is also used as a low fat replacement for paneer providing the same texture with similar taste. This article is about the meat dish. ... For other uses, see Meatball (disambiguation). ... Making paneer Paneer (Hindi: पनीर , from Persian پنير sometimes spelled Panir or Paner), is the most common Indian form of cheese. ...


Tofu bamboos are often used in lamb stew or in a dessert soup. Tofu skins are often used as wrappers in dim sum. Freeze-dried tofu and frozen tofu are rehydrated and enjoyed in savoury soups. These products are often taken along on camping trips since a small bag of these dried tofu can provide protein for many days. It has been suggested that Lambing be merged into this article or section. ... Not to be confused with Desert. ... For other uses, see Soup (disambiguation). ... Dim sum (Chinese: 點心; Cantonese IPA: dɪm2sɐm1; Pinyin: diǎnxīn; Wade-Giles: tien-hsin; literally dot heart or order heart, meaning order to ones hearts content; also commonly translated as touch the heart, dotted heart, or snack), a Cantonese term...


In Korean cuisine, soft tofu (sundubu in Korean) is used to make a thick soup called sundubu jjigae (순두부 찌개).


As flavouring

Pickled tofu is commonly used in small amounts together with its soaking liquid to flavour stir-fried or braised vegetable dishes (particularly leafy green vegetables like water spinach). It is often eaten directly as a condiment with rice or congee. A plate of vegetables Vegetable is a culinary term which generally refers to an edible part of a plant. ... Fresh Swiss chard Fresh water spinach Creamed spinach Steamed kale Leaf vegetables, also called potherbs, greens, or leafy greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots. ... Binomial name Ipomoea aquatica Forssk. ... Salt, sugar and pepper are the most essential condiments in Western cuisine. ... Rice congee is a type of rice porridge that is eaten in many Asian countries. ...


Western methods

Generally, the firmer styles of tofu are used for kebabs, mock meats, and dishes requiring a consistency that holds together, while the softer styles can be used for desserts, soups, shakes, and sauces. Left to right: Chenjeh Kabab, Kabab Koobideh, Jujeh Kabab in an Afghan restaurant. ...


Firm western tofus can be barbecued since they will hold together on a barbecue grill. These types of tofu are usually marinated overnight as the marinade does not easily penetrate the entire block of tofu (freezing and thawing prior to marinating will significantly reduce the marinade time required). Grated firm western tofu is sometimes used in conjunction with TVP as a meat substitute. Softer tofus are sometimes used as a dairy-free or low-calorie filler. Silken tofu may be used to replace cheese in certain dishes (such as lasagna). Dry TVP flakes are an inexpensive protein source when purchased in bulk and can be added to a variety of vegetarian dishes or used as a supplement to bulk out a meat dish. ... Lasagna in the crinkly American style. ...


Tofu and soy protein can be industrially processed to match the textures and flavours to the likes of cheese, pudding, eggs, bacon etc. Tofu's texture can also be altered by freezing, pureeing, and cooking. In the Americas, Europe, Australia and New Zealand, tofu is frequently associated with vegetarianism and veganism as it is a source of high-quality, non-animal protein. Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... Pudding can be prepared with a large variety of toppings such as fresh fruit and/or berries, and whipped cream Christmas pudding Dessert pudding Illustrations from Isabella Beetons Mrs Beetons Book of Household Management, 1861 Pudding most often refers to a dessert, but can also be a savory dish. ... An egg is a body consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing of some type, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. ... For other uses, see Bacon (disambiguation). ... In physics and chemistry, freezing is the process whereby a liquid turns to a solid. ... Purée and (more rarely) mash are general terms for food, usually vegetables or legumes, that has been ground, pressed, and/or strained to the consistency of a soft paste or thick liquid. ... Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A variety of vegetarian food ingredients Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes all animal flesh, including poultry, game, fish, shellfish or crustacea, and slaughter by-products. ... Vegan redirects here. ...


History

Tofu originated in ancient China[1], however little else is known about the exact historic origins of tofu and its method of production. While there are many theories regarding tofu's origins, historical information is scarce enough as to relegate the status of most theories to either speculation or legend. Like the origins of cheese and butter, the exact origin of tofu production may never be known or proven. Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ...


What is known is that tofu production is an ancient technique. Tofu was widely consumed in ancient China, and techniques for its production and preparation were eventually spread to many other parts of Asia. For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


Three theories of origin

The most commonly held of the three theories of tofu's origin maintains that tofu was invented in northern China around 164 BC by Lord Liu An, a Han Dynasty prince. Although this is possible, the paucity of concrete information about this period makes it difficult to conclusively determine whether Liu An invented the method for making tofu. Furthermore, in Chinese history, important inventions were often attributed to important leaders and figures of the time.[6][7] Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 169 BC 168 BC 167 BC 166 BC 165 BC - 164 BC - 163 BC 162 BC 161... Liu An (劉安, 179-122 BC) was an advisor to Emperor Wu of Han China and the inventor of tofu. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ...


Another theory states that the production method for tofu was discovered accidentally when a slurry of boiled, ground soybeans was mixed with impure sea salt. Such sea salt would likely have contained calcium and magnesium salts, allowing the soy mixture to curdle and produce a tofu-like gel1. This may have possibly been the way that tofu was discovered, since soy milk has been eaten as a savory soup in ancient as well as modern times. Its technical plausibility notwithstanding, there is little evidence to prove or disprove that tofu production originated in this way.[6]


The last group of theories maintains that the ancient Chinese learned the method for the curdling of soy milk by emulating the milk curdling techniques of the Mongolians or East Indians. For, despite their advancement, no technology or knowledge of culturing and processing milk products existed within ancient Chinese society. The primary evidence for this theory lies with the etymological similarity between the Chinese term for Mongolian fermented milk (rufu, which literally means "milk spoiled") and the term doufu or tofu. Although intriguing and possible, there is no evidence to substantiate this theory beyond the point of academic speculation.[6] The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and South-East Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and...


Established history of tofu

Although its development likely preceded Liu An, tofu is known to have been a commonly produced and consumed food item in China by the 2nd century BC. Although the varieties of tofu produced in ancient times may not have been identical to those of today, descriptions from writings and poetry of the Song and Yuan Dynasty show that the production technique for tofu had already been standardized by then, to the extent that they would be similar to tofu of contemporary times. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ...


Tofu and its production technique were subsequently introduced into Japan in the Nara period (late eighth century) as well as other parts of East Asia. This spread likely coincided with the spread of Buddhism as it is an important source of proteins in the religion's vegetarian diet.[7] Since then, tofu has become a staple in many countries, including Vietnam, Thailand, and Korea, with subtle regional variations in production methods, texture, flavour, and usage. The Nara period ) of the history of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 784. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ...


Tofu was not well known to most Westerners before the middle of the 20th century. However, with increased cultural contact and an interest in vegetarianism, tofu has become a more familiar product to Westerners. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... A variety of vegetarian food ingredients Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes all animal flesh, including poultry, game, fish, shellfish or crustacea, and slaughter by-products. ...


Nutrition and health information

Tofu is low in calories, contains beneficial amounts of iron (especially important for women of child bearing age) and has no cholesterol (a risk factor for heart disease[12].) Depending on the coagulant used in manufacturing, the tofu may also be high in calcium (important for bone development and maintenance), and magnesium (especially important for athletes). Etymology: French calorie, from Latin calor (heat), from calere (to be warm). ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ...


Protein

Tofu is relatively high in protein, about 10.7% for firm tofu and 5.3% for soft "silken" tofu with about 2% and 1% fat respectively as a percentage of weight.3 A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ...


In 1995, the New England Journal of Medicine (Vol. 333, No. 5) published a report from the University of Kentucky entitled, "Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Soy Protein Intake on Serum Lipids." It was financed by the PTI division of DuPont, The Solae Co. St. Louis, Missouri. This meta-analysis concluded that soy protein is correlated with significant decreases in serum cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein LDL (bad cholesterol) and triglyceride concentrations. However, High Density Lipoprotein HDL (good cholesterol) did not increase. Soy phytoestrogens (isoflavones: genistein and daidzein) absorbed onto the soy protein were suggested as the agent reducing serum cholesterol levels. On the basis of this research PTI, in 1998, filed a petition with Food and Drug Administration for a health claim that soy protein may reduce cholesterol and the risk of heart disease. The University of Kentucky, also referred to as UK, is a public, co-educational university located in Lexington, Kentucky. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) refers to a class and range of lipoprotein particles, varying somewhat in their size and contents, which carry cholesterol in the blood and around the body, for use by various cells. ... High-density lipoproteins (HDL) form a class of lipoproteins, varying somewhat in their size (8–11 nm in diameter), that carry cholesterol from the bodys tissues to the liver. ... Phytoestrogens are chemicals produced by plants that act like estrogens in animal/+human cells and bodies. ... A phytoestrogen that is thought of by many as useful in treating cancer. ... “FDA” redirects here. ...


The FDA granted this health claim for soy: "25 grams of soy protein a day, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease." One serving, (1 cup or 240 mL) of soy milk, for instance, contains 6 or 7 grams of soy protein.


In January 2006 an American Heart Association review (in the journal Circulation) of a decade-long study of soy protein benefits cast doubt on the FDA allowed "Heart Healthy" claim for soy protein.[13] Among the conclusions the authors state, "In contrast, soy products such as tofu, soy butter, soy nuts, or some soy burgers should be beneficial to cardiovascular and overall health because of their high content of polyunsaturated fats, fiber, vitamins, and minerals and low content of saturated fat. Using these and other soy foods to replace foods high in animal protein that contain saturated fat and cholesterol may confer benefits to cardiovascular health."[14] The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke American Stroke Association Web site. ...


Isoflavones

Soy isoflavones have not been shown to reduce post menopause hot flashes in women and the efficacy and safety of isoflavones to help prevent cancers of the breast, uterus or prostate is in question. Thus, soy isoflavone supplements in food or pills is not recommended. The original paper is in the journal Circulation: January 17, 2006. [15] Menopause is the physiological cessation of menstrual cycles associated with advancing age in women. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


A study done by the Pacific Health Research Institute followed over 3000 Japanese men between 1965 and 1999, which showed a positive correlation between brain atrophy and consumption of tofu.[16] Nevertheless, this is a single study and by itself, does not show conclusively that soy isoflavones cause brain atrophy.


This study by L.R. White, et al., from the National Institute of Aging, NIH, was rejected as not credible by the Food and Drug Administration when it issued its health claim for soy: "25 grams of soy protein a day, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease." [17] NIH can refer to: National Institutes of Health Norwegian School of Sports Sciences: (Norges idrettshøgskole - NIH) Not Invented Here This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... “FDA” redirects here. ...


Sales and distribution

In the West, tofu can be obtained in Asian markets, farmers' markets, and health food stores. Depending on its local popularity, many grocery stores also stock tofu. The largest provider of tofu products in the United States is House Foods America Corp, a subsidiary of Japan based company, House Foods Corp. For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Healthful eating is the act of following a balanced nutritional diet. ...


House Foods America Corp. has tofu plants in California and New Jersey with a combined capacity of manufacturing 350,000 pieces of tofu per day. Other major brands are Vitasoy, a subsidiary of a Hong Kong based company, which also manufactures the brands Nasoya and Azumaya; and Mori-Nu (Morinaga Nutritional Foods), a subsidiary of Morinaga Milk Company of Japan, which pioneered the sale of shelf-stable, aseptically packaged tofu. Vitasoy (Traditional Chinese: ) (SEHK: 0345) is a brand of beverages and desserts in Hong Kong. ... Tetrapak logo Tetra Pak is a multinational food packaging company of Swedish origin. ...


In the East, tofu may be produced locally by relatively small vendors or distributed widely by large national brands. Fresh tofu is usually bought from local vendors and is sold directly from large bins or pots at street markets. Asian firm tofu and "tofu flower" are commonly sold in this manner and are usually no more than a few hours old. Tofu that is sold by large manufacturers often comes packaged in sealed plastic cartons or tubes, and may be at most two weeks old. Most silken and flavoured tofus are produced by large factories. This is due to the fact that such factories have the facilities to meet the required sanitary conditions for production of these forms of tofu on a large scale. In Chinese supermarkets, tofu can be found in many different flavours and grades of consistency. A street market is an outdoor market such as traditionally held in a market square in a market town, and are often held only on particular days of the week. ... Packaged food aisles in a Fred Meyer store in Portland, Oregon A supermarket is a departmentalized self-service store offering a wide variety of food and household merchandise. ...


Etymology

The English word "tofu" comes from the Japanese tōfu (豆腐),5 listen  which itself derives from the Chinese dòufǔ (豆腐 or 荳腐). Although in both languages the characters together translate as "bean curd," the literal meaning of the individual characters is "bean" () and "curdled" (). Image File history File links Tofu. ...


Choosing tofu

Unless one purchases it in sterilized containers, tofu does require some choosing when purchasing and some care while storing:

  • Tofu can easily be spoiled if not refrigerated properly during transportation; any trace of sour odour or taste is a tell-tale sign of staleness or spoilage.
  • Once purchased, unpackaged tofu should be kept in the refrigerator. The water in which the tofu is kept should be changed on a daily basis and the tofu should be consumed or cooked within several days. Tofu in sealed packages can be kept from one to several weeks in the refrigerator. Tofu packaged in aseptic Tetra Brik containers have a shelf life of one year if unopened.

Fridge redirects here. ... Tetra Pak is a Swedish food packaging company. ...

Miscellaneous

  • Tofu is so highly esteemed in Korean culture that the menus of many Korean restaurants are based almost entirely on tofu, including some which feature only sundubu jjigae (a stew made with soft tofu and gochujang (red chili paste).
  • The book Tofu Hyakuchin (豆腐百珍), published in the Edo period, lists 100 recipes for cooking tofu.
  • In Chinese culture, tofu is traditionally used as a food offering when visiting the graves of deceased relatives. It is claimed that the spirits (or ghosts) have long lost their chins and jaws, and that only tofu is soft enough for them to eat.
  • Buddhist monks use tofu as a substitute for meat, since tofu can be made to resemble the texture of meat if cooked properly. In Chinese cuisine there are numerous tofu dishes cooked to imitate the texture and flavours of meat. See Buddhist cuisine.
  • Chinese war hero Guan Yu used to be a tofu maker before he enlisted in the army.
  • Before refrigeration was available in China, tofu was often only sold during the winter time, due to the tofu not spoiling in the colder weather. During the warmer months, any leftover tofu would be spoiled if left for more than a day.
  • Chinese martial arts expert and hero, Yim Wing-chun, was a celebrated tofu maker in her village. Tofu as such plays a part in the 1994 movie about her life, "Wing Chun".

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Jjigae (pronounced jih- geh)is a Korean dish similar to a Western stew. ... Gochujang is a popular Korean condiment made from glutinous rice powder mixed with powdered fermented soybeans and powdered red peppers. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... Chinese cuisine (Chinese: 中國菜) originated from different regions of China and has become widespread in many other parts of the world — from East Asia to North America, Australasia and Western Europe. ... Buddhist cuisine is a kind of East Asian cuisine mainly for the believers of Buddhism. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Guan (關) Guan Yu (關羽) (160–219) was a general under the warlord Liu Bei during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of China. ... Refrigeration is the process of removing heat from an enclosed space, or from a substance, and rejecting it elsewhere for the primary purpose of lowering the temperature of the enclosed space or substance and then maintaining that lower temperature. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Wing Chun (Yong Chun) is a wuxia film made in Hong Kong in 1994. ...

Notes

1Korean sundubu (soft tofu) is still produced in a similar manner, traditionally using seawater as a coagulant.
2Volume 333, no 5, from the University of Kentucky entitled "Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Soy Protein Intake on Serum Lipids." It was financed by the PTI division of DuPont,"The Solae Co.", St. Louis.
3Ang.
4Sacks, Doheny.
5American Heritage Dictionary.

References

  1. ^ a b History of Tofu
  2. ^ a b Berk, Zeki. (1992). "Tofu". Chapter 9.5. Technology of Production of Edible Flours and Protein Products from Soybeans.. FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin No.97. ISBN 92-5-103118-5
  3. ^ a b Liu, KeShun. (1997). Soybeans: Chemistry, Technology, and Utilization
  4. ^ a b Guo S.-T. and Ono T. (2005). The Role of Composition and Content of Protein Particles in Soymilk on Tofu Curding Glucono-d-lactone or Calcium Sulfate. Journal of Food Science 70 (4): 258–262.
  5. ^ a b Shurtleff, William and Aoyagi, Akiko. (2000). Tofu & Soymilk Production: The Book of Tofu Vol. II, 3rd edition. Soyfoods Center. ISBN 1-928914-05-5.
  6. ^ a b c d e Shurtleff, William and Aoyagi, Akiko. (2004). History of Tofu. A Special Report on The History of Traditional Non-Fermented Soyfoods (unpublished manuscript) Soyinfo Center website
  7. ^ a b c d e f 森井源一 and 一志治夫. (2004). 豆腐道:嵯峨豆腐「森嘉」五代目. 新潮社. ISBN 4-10-471901-3
  8. ^ a b c Shurtleff, William and Aoyagi, Akiko. (2004). History of Fermented Tofu A Special Report on The History of Traditional Fermented Soyfoods (unpublished manuscript) Soyinfo Center website
  9. ^ The Hwang Ryh Shang Company of Taiwan, a major producer of pickled tofu, mislabels this ingredient as "red date" (jujube) on the English-language list of ingredients on its product labelsYifanmall, although the Chinese list of ingredients on the same product lists 紅糟 (red yeast rice).
  10. ^ The soy daily
  11. ^ a b c 夏威廉 and 青柳昭子. (2005). 豆腐之書. 柿子文化. ISBN 986-81319-1-X
  12. ^ http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/reprint/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.169404v1
  13. ^ circ.ahajournals.org sec2
  14. ^ circ.ahajournals.org sec5
  15. ^ circ.ahajournals.org
  16. ^ www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  17. ^ fda.gov
  • Ang, Catharina Y. W., KeShun Liu, and Yao-Wen Huang, eds. (1999). Asian Foods: Science & Technology. Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Technomic Publishing Co.
  • Doheny, Kathleen. "Soy Claim as Heart Helper in Dispute", HealthDay News (January 27, 2006).
  • Sacks, Frank M., et al; "Soy Protein, Isoflavones, and Cardiovascular Health. An American Heart Association Science Advisory for Professionals From the Nutrition Committee," Circulation, (2006).Abstract.

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Tofu - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5320 words)
Soft/silken tofu (嫩豆腐 or 滑豆腐, nèn doùfu or huá doùfu, in Chinese, lit.
Tofu bamboos are often used in lamb stew or in a dessert soup.
Tofu is relatively high in protein, about 10.7% for firm tofu and 5.3% for soft “silken” tofu with about 2% and 1% fat respectively as a percentage of weight.
Tofu Takes on Tempting Flavors (1067 words)
Of the two types of tofu that are generally available, firm tofu is the better choice for cooked dishes; soft tofu is ideal for creamy salad dressings and desserts.
Tofu in aseptic packaging, which requires no refrigeration, is available on the shelf (often in the ethnic food section).
Tofu textures vary, ranging from the soft mushy one that repels the wary, to the firm and extra-firm kind used in stir-fry cooking.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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