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Encyclopedia > Todor Zhivkov
Todor Zhivkov
Toдор Живков


First secretary of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party
In office
March 4, 1954 – November 10, 1989
Preceded by Vulko Chervenkov
Succeeded by Position dissolved

In office
7 July 1971 – 17 November 1989
Preceded by Position created
Succeeded by Petar Mladenov

Born September 7, 1911
Pravets, Bulgaria
Died August 5, 1998
Sofia, Bulgaria
Nationality Bulgarian
Political party Bulgarian Communist Party
Spouse Mara Maleeva

Todor Hristov Zhivkov (Bulgarian: Toдор Xpиcтoв Живков; IPA: [/ˈtɔdɔr ˈxristɔf ˈʒifkɔf/]) (September 7, 1911August 5, 1998) was the Communist leader of Bulgaria from March 4, 1954 until November 10, 1989. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Bulgarian Communist Party (Balgarska Komunisticeska Partija) was the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of Bulgaria from 1946 until 1990 when it ceased to be a Communist state. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Vulko Velev Chervenkov (September 6, 1900–October 21, 1980) was a Bulgarian communist politician. ... This page will list the various republican heads of state of Bulgaria, as well as leaders of Bulgarias communist party during the time when it played the leading role in the Bulgarian state. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Petar Toshev Mladenov (Bulgarian: ) (August 22, 1936 - May 31, 2000) was a Bulgarian communist diplomat and politician. ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Pravets (Bulgarian: Правец, also transliterated as Pravets, Pravetz or Pravec) is a town in central western Bulgaria, located approximately 60 km from the capital Sofia. ... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Position of Sofia in Bulgaria Coordinates: Country Bulgaria Province Sofia-City Government  - Mayor Boyko Borisov Area  - City 1,349 km²  (520. ... The Bulgarian Communist Party (Balgarska Komunisticeska Partija) was the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of Bulgaria from 1946 until 1990 when it ceased to be a Communist state. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


Biography

Zhivkov was born in the small village of Pravets, Bulgaria, the son of poor peasants. As a youth, he moved to Sofia seeking employment. Zhivkov became a Marxist and in 1932 joined the Komsomol, the youth wing of the illegal Bulgarian Communist Party. Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ... Pravets (Bulgarian: Правец, also transliterated as Pravets, Pravetz or Pravec) is a town in central western Bulgaria, located approximately 60 km from the capital Sofia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Position of Sofia in Bulgaria Coordinates: Country Bulgaria Province Sofia-City Government  - Mayor Boyko Borisov Area  - City 1,349 km²  (520. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Komsomol (Комсомол) is a syllabic abbreviation word, from the Russian Kommunisticheski Soyuz Molodiozhi (Коммунистический союз молодёжи), or Communist... The Bulgarian Communist Party (Balgarska Komunisticeska Partija) was the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of Bulgaria from 1946 until 1990 when it ceased to be a Communist state. ...


During World War II, Zhivkov participated in the resistance movement against Nazi Germany. After the war, Zhivkov was backed by the Soviet Union as commander of the People's Militia. As militia (the Bulgarian police) leader in Sofia, he had thousands arrested as political prisoners. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... A political prisoner is anyone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image either challenge or pose a real or potential threat to the state. ...


In 1951, he became a full member of the Politburo, and, in 1954, was made first secretary of the Central Committee. Zhivkov was also head of state (Chairman of the State Council) of Bulgaria from July 7, 1971 to November 17, 1989. Despite a coup attempt by dissident military officers and Party members in 1965, he remained the longest serving leader of any Soviet bloc nation. Todor Zhivkov was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union on May 31, 1977 [1] Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ... Hero of the Soviet Union (Russian: Герой Советского Союза, Geroy Sovyetskovo Soyuza) was the highest honorary title and the superior degree of distinction of the Soviet Union. ... May 31 is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...


Under Zhivkov's rule, all voices of dissent in Bulgaria were harshly suppressed, and until 1962 thousands were locked up in prisons across the country. With aid from the Soviet Union, Zhivkov continued enforcing collectivized farming and completely modernized industry. Collective farming regards a system of agricultural organization in which farm laborers are not compensated via wages. ...


A protégé of Nikita Khrushchev, and a close friend of Leonid Brezhnev, Zhivkov was known for his subservience and allegiance to the Soviet Union. He also sent Bulgarian forces to participate in the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968. The dissident Georgi Markov, who was assassinated in London with a Bulgarian umbrella in 1978, said: "[Zhivkov] served the Soviet Union more ardently than the Soviet leaders themselves did." On the other hand, his close connection with Soviet leaders secured economic deals with the USSR, which were highly beneficial to Bulgaria, and often detrimental to the Soviet Union. Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov[1]; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[2]–September 11, 1971) was the chief director of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (Russian: , Leonid Ilič Brežnev) December 19, 1906 [O.S. December 19, 1906] – November 10, 1982) was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (and thus de facto ruler of the USSR) from 1964 to 1982, serving in that position longer than anyone... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... Georgi Ivanov Markov Georgi Ivanov Markov (Bulgarian: ) (March 1, 1929 - September 11, 1978) was a Bulgarian dissident. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Design of the weapon. ...

Zhivkov's residence on the Black Sea beach

Zhivkov (also known in Bulgaria as "Tato") tried to promote his children, daughter Lyudmila Zhivkova and son Vladimir Zhivkov, up the Communist Party hierarchy. Lyudmila made it to Politburo member and Minister of Culture. She introduced strange ideas related to Far Eastern philosophy and promoted Bulgarian culture. Some of her ideas were not well received by the Old Guard. Some sources maintain her early death in 1981 was due to Soviet meddling. Her husband, Ivan Slavkov, was made a boss of the state-controlled Bulgarian Television, and later President of the Bulgarian Olympic Committee. made by me File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... made by me File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Lyudmila Zhivkova speaking in front of the United Nations Lyudmila Zhivkova (Людмила Живкова) (26 July 1942-21 July 1981) was a Bulgarian politician from the Bulgarian Communist Party and daughter of Communist leader Todor Zhivkov, with whose nepotism she reached the rank of a Politburo member. ... Ivan Slavkov is a Bulgarian sports boss linked to the Communist-era nomenklatura. ... The Bulgarian Olympic Committee (Български олимпийски комитет, abbreviated as БОК, BOC) is a non-profit organization serving as the National Olympic Committee of Bulgaria and a part of the International Olympic Committee. ...


Although Zhivkov was never a despot in the Stalinist mould, by 1981, when he turned 70, his regime was growing increasingly corrupt and erratic. Near the end of his reign, he made several limited attempts to modernise Bulgaria, such as introducing scaled-down versions of Mikhail Gorbachev's glasnost and perestroika, while keeping the country under his control. However, these attempts failed to prevent the collapse of communism. An ill-advised campaign to Bulgarise the names of ethnic Turks in the country (which led to their mass exodus from Bulgaria to Turkey in 1989) contributed to his downfall. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; born March 2, 1931) is a Russian politician. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... “Turkishness” redirects here. ...


At the end of 1989, Zhivkov was ousted from the presidency and expelled from the Bulgarian Communist Party. The Communist Party subsequently gave up its monopoly on power in February 1990, and in June 1990, the first free elections in Bulgaria since 1931 were held.


Zhivkov was arrested in January 1990. Two years later, he was convicted of embezzlement and sentenced to seven years in prison. However, due to his frail health, he was allowed to serve his term under house arrest. He was eventually acquitted by the Bulgarian Supreme Court in 1996. In justice and law, house arrest is the situation where a person is confined (by the authorities) to his or her residence. ...


After his fall Todor Zhivkov regained a large amount of popularity, especially as the economy worsened in the early 1990s. Todor Zhivkov died of pneumonia in 1998. While he was refused a state funeral, it was still widely attended. Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ...


Achievements during the Zhivkov Era

Since the early 1950s the industrial sector in Bulgaria was in a stage of rapid growth. Nevertheless, most of the large industrial complexes like the Kremikovtsi metallurgy works and the Chervena Mogila (Red Hill) heavy industrial equipment factory were built in Zhivkov's time. Bulgaria's first, and for now only, nuclear powerplant at Kozloduy was built in the 1970s, all of the 6 reactors completed in less than 5 years. From 1975 onwards there was a big progress in high technologies, such as space exploration and computers. On 10 April 1979 Bulgaria launched its first astronaut (kosmonavt in Bulgarian) in outer space - Georgi Ivanov. In the 1980s, mass production of computers for domestic usage started - the first of its kind in the Eastern Bloc and the world. The computers were named "Pravets" - after the hometown of Todor Zhivkov. After 1989 the efficiency of Bulgarian industry dropped drastically. Kremikovtsi (Bulgarian: ) is an industrial municipality of Sofia, Bulgaria. ... Georgi Ivanov This article is about Georgi Ivanov the cosmonaut. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc. ...


References

  1. ^ (Russian)Biography at the website on Heroes of the Soviet Union and Russia
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Todor Zhivkov
Preceded by
---
Chairman of the State Council
7 July 1971 - 17 November 1989
Succeeded by
Petar Mladenov
Preceded by
Anton Yugov
Prime Minister of Bulgaria
1962-1971
Succeeded by
Stanko Todorov
Preceded by
Vulko Chervenkov
General secretary of the Bulgarian Communist Party
4 March 1954-10 November 1989
Succeeded by
Petar Mladenov


Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... This page will list the various republican heads of state of Bulgaria, as well as leaders of Bulgarias communist party during the time when it played the leading role in the Bulgarian state. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Petar Toshev Mladenov (Bulgarian: ) (August 22, 1936 - May 31, 2000) was a Bulgarian communist diplomat and politician. ... Anton Yugov (1914-1991) was a leading member of the Bulgarian Communist Party served as Prime Minister of the country from 1956 to 1962. ... Chairmen of the Council of Ministers, 1879-1991 Prime Ministers, 1991-present See also History of Bulgaria Politics of Bulgaria List of Bulgarian monarchs List of Presidents of Bulgaria Categories: Lists of office-holders | Prime Ministers of Bulgaria ... Stanko Todorov (December 10, 1920 - December 17, 1996) was a Bulgarian communist politician. ... Vulko Velev Chervenkov (September 6, 1900–October 21, 1980) was a Bulgarian communist politician. ... The Bulgarian Communist Party (Balgarska Komunisticeska Partija) was the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of Bulgaria from 1946 until 1990 when it ceased to be a Communist state. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Petar Toshev Mladenov (Bulgarian: ) (August 22, 1936 - May 31, 2000) was a Bulgarian communist diplomat and politician. ...

Heads of State of Bulgaria since 1946
 People's Republic of Bulgaria  Kolarov | Naichev | Damyanov | Ganev | Traikov | Zhivkov | Mladenov
 Republic of Bulgaria  Mladenov | Zhelev | Stoyanov | Parvanov


This page will list the various republican heads of state of Bulgaria, as well as leaders of Bulgarias communist party during the time when it played the leading role in the Bulgarian state. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Vasil Petrov Kolarov (July 16, 1877 January 23, 1950) was a Bulgarian communist political leader. ... Mincho Naichev (1897 - 1956) was a Bulgarian Communist political figure. ... Georgi Purvanov Damyanov (September 23, 1892 November 27, 1958) was a Bulgarian communist politician. ... Dimitur Vurbanov Ganev (October 28, 1898 - April 20, 1964) was a Bulgarian communist politician. ... Georgi Traykov Girovski, also known as Georgi Traikov (1898-1975), was a Bulgarian communist politician. ... Petar Toshev Mladenov (Bulgarian: ) (August 22, 1936 - May 31, 2000) was a Bulgarian communist diplomat and politician. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_1971-1990. ... Petar Toshev Mladenov (Bulgarian: ) (August 22, 1936 - May 31, 2000) was a Bulgarian communist diplomat and politician. ... Zhelyu Mitev Zhelev (Bulgarian: ) (born March 3, 1935) is a Bulgarian politician and former dissident who was President of Bulgaria from 1990 to 1997. ... Petar Stefanov Stoyanov (Bulgarian: ) (born May 25, 1952) was President of Bulgaria from 1997 until 2002. ... Georgi Sedefchov Parvanov (Bulgarian: ) (born 28 June 1957) has been president of Bulgaria since 22 January 2002. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ...

Prime Ministers of Bulgaria
 Kingdom of Bulgaria  Burmov | Turnovski | Tsankov | Karavelov | Ehrnrooth | vacant | Sobolev | Tsankov | Karavelov | Turnovski | Karavelov | Radoslavov | Stoilov | Stambolov | Stoilov | Grekov | Ivanchov | Petrov | Karavelov | Danev | Petrov | Petkov | Stanchov* | Gudev | Malinov | Geshov | Danev | Radoslavov | Malinov | Teodorov | Stamboliyski | Tsankov | Lyapchev | Malinov | Mushanov | Georgiev | Zlatev | Toshev | Kyoseivanov | Filov | Gabrovski* | Bozhilov | Bagrianov | Muraviev | Georgiev
 Communist Bulgaria  G. Dimitrov | Kolarov | Chervenkov | Yugov | Zhivkov | Todorov | Filipov | Atanasov | Lukanov
 Republic of Bulgaria  Popov | P. Dimitrov | Berov | Indzhova* | Videnov | Sofiyanski* | Kostov | Sakskoburggotski | Stanishev
* denotes interim

  Results from FactBites:
 
Todor Zhivkov - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (686 words)
Todor Hristov Zhivkov (Bulgarian: Toдор Xpиcтoв Живков; pronounced /ˈtɔdɔr ˈhristɔv ˈʒivkɔv/; (September 7, 1911–August 5, 1998) was the Communist leader of Bulgaria from March 4, 1954 until November 10, 1989.
Zhivkov was born in the small village of Pravets.
Zhivkov was also head of state (Chairman of the State Council) of Bulgaria from July 7, 1971 to November 17, 1989.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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