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Encyclopedia > Tobacco smoking
The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco.
The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco.

Tobacco smoking is the act of burning dried or cured leaves of the tobacco plant and inhaling the smoke for pleasure, for ritualistic or social purposes, self-medication, but most commonly to simply satisfy physiological dependence on, among other chemicals, nicotine. Tobacco use by Native Americans throughout North and South America dates back to 2000BC and there are depictions of ancient Mayans smoking a crude cigar. The practice was brought back to Europe by the crew of Christopher Columbus. Tobacco smoking took hold in Spain and was introduced to the rest of the world, via trade. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 623 KB) © 2005 by Tomasz Sienicki, tsca#sdf. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 623 KB) © 2005 by Tomasz Sienicki, tsca#sdf. ... Unlit filtered cigarettes. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... For the food preparation, see Smoking (cooking). ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... Self-medication is the use of drugs, sometimes illicit, to treat a perceived or real malady, often of a psychological nature. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Native Americans redirects here. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ...


Tobacco smoke contains nicotine, an addictive stimulant and euphoriant. The effect of nicotine in first time or irregular users is an increase in alertness and memory, and mild euphoria. In chronic users, nicotine simply relieves the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal: confusion, restlessness, anxiety, insomnia, and dysphoria. Nicotine also disturbs metabolism and suppresses appetite. This is because nicotine, like many stimulants, increases blood sugar. This article is about the chemical compound. ... Heroin bottle An addiction is a recurring compulsion by an individual to engage in some specific activity, despite harmful consequences to the individuals health, mental state or social life. ... Stimulants are drugs that temporarily increase alertness and wakefulness. ... Alertness is the the process of paying close and continuous attention. ... Look up euphoria, euphoric in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Withdrawal, also known as withdrawal syndrome, refers to the characteristic signs and symptoms that appear when a drug that causes physical dependence is regularly used for a long time and then suddenly discontinued or decreased in dosage. ... Look up Confusion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Confusion can have the following meanings: Unclarity or puzzlement, e. ... Look up agitation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components (Seligman, Walker & Rosenhan, 2001). ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... Look up dysphoria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ...


Medical research has determined that chronic tobacco smoking can lead to many health problems, particularly lung cancer, emphysema, and cardiovascular disease.[1][2] Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ...

Contents

Methods of smoking

Various smoking equipment including different pipes.
Various smoking equipment including different pipes.

Download high resolution version (2033x1466, 741 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2033x1466, 741 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Cigarette

Main article: Cigarette
See also: List of additives in cigarettes

Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco consumption. Because of the curing process, the smoke is mild enough to inhale in overdose quantities, unlike cigar or pipe tobacco. Cigarettes also contain a number of additives, particularly to enhance taste. "Roll ups" are also very popular, particularly in European countries; these are prepared from loose tobacco, cigarette papers and filters all bought separately. Cigarettes are smoked by some with a cigarette holder. (See also Beedi). Unlit filtered cigarettes. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chemicals in a cigarette. ... A cigarette holder is a slender tube in which a single cigarette is held for smoking, as opposed to the cigarette case which holds many cigarettes for the purpose of carrying. ... A packet of Ganesh beedies. ...


Cigar

Main article: Cigar

A cigar is generally puffed, not inhaled. Cigars come in many shapes and sizes, the most common being the "Corona", "Cigarillo", and "Robusto". The tobacco used is grown throughout the Caribbean in places such as the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, and Cuba. Cigars generally come available in 2 categories in reference to color, "Natural" and "Maduro". "Natural" shades are ones that do not undergo a further fermenting process, unlike "Maduro" which in it's construction involves a further fermenting process to darken and strengthen (in taste) the leaf. pon siva For other uses, see Cigar (disambiguation). ... West Indies redirects here. ...


Pipe

A pipe for smoking typically consists of a small chamber (bowl) for combustion of the substance to be smoked and a thin stem (shank) that ends in a mouthpiece (also called a bit). Pipes are made from a variety of materials (some obscure): briar, corncob, meerschaum, clay, wood, glass, gourd, bamboo, and various other materials, such as metal. Tobacco used for smoking pipes is often chemically treated to change smell and taste not available in other commercial tobacco products. Many of these are mixtures using staple ingredients of variously cured Burley and Virginia tobaccos which are mixed with tobaccos from different areas, such as Oriental or Balkan locations. Latakia (a fire-cured tobacco of Cypriot or Syrian origin), Perique (only grown in St. James Parish, Louisiana) or combinations of Virginia and Burley tobaccos of African, Indian, or South American origins. Traditionally, many U.S. tobaccos are made of American Burley with artificial sweeteners and flavorings added to create an artificial "aromatic" smell, whereas "English" blends are based on natural Virginia tobaccos enhanced with Oriental and other natural tobaccos. There is a growing tendency towards "natural" tobaccos which derive their aromas from blending with spice tobaccos alone and historically-based curing processes. G. H. Hardy smoking a pipe of tobacco A smoking pipe for tobacco smoking typically consists of a small chamber (the bowl) for the combustion of the tobacco to be smoked and a thin stem (shank) that ends in a mouthpiece (the bit). ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... Binomial nomenclature Erica arborea Ref: ITIS 505949 The Tree Heath is a shrub or small evergreen tree with a height of 1-4 (-7) m. ... Freshly picked corn on US farm Corn sample from USDA A corncob is the central core of a maize (Zea mays ssp. ... Meerschaum is a soft white mineral sometimes found floating on the Black Sea, and rather suggestive of sea-foam (German: Meerschaum), whence also the French name for the same substance, écume de mer. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... This article is about the material. ... This article refers to the dried fruit shell. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ... Latakia tobacco is a specially prepared tobacco originally produced in Syria and named after the port city of Latakia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... St. ... Burley may refer to: Burley, a variety of tobacco a brand of leather ball kicked in the game of Australian rules football Places in England Burley, Hampshire Burley, Herefordshire Burley, Leeds Burley, Rutland Burley, Shropshire Burley-in-Wharfedale Places in the United States Burley, Idaho Burley, Washington See also Burley...


Pipes can range from the simple machine-made briar pipe to handmade and artful implements created by pipe-makers which can be expensive collector's items. The popularity of pipe smoking in Western countries has declined in recent years under the onslaught of cigarette advertising. However, it has also enjoyed a resurgence of late among younger and middle aged smokers who find its contemplative nature and age-transcendent status as "hobby not habit" to be both thoroughly enjoyable and stress-relieving[citation needed]. As many pipe-smokers say, "We don't inhale."


Hookah

Main article: Hookah

A hookah (or sheesha) is a type of traditional Middle Eastern and South Asian water pipe, which operates by water-filtration and indirect heat. Hookahs are most popular in the Middle East, but form a niche market in many other places. In other contexts, hookahs are used to smoke cannabis, hashish or opium. This article is about a traditonal smoking pipe. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... Confiscated hashish. ... This article is about the drug. ...


Typically, tobacco is smoked from a hookah by placing richly flavored tobaccos in the smoking bowl, covering it with foil, and placing a coal on top of the foil. This keeps the tobacco from burning, and allows it to bake. The resulting vapors are further cooled by the hookah water, resulting in a moist, warm smoke. The Al-Waha, Al Fakher, and Nakhla tobacco companies compete for market share in the Middle East by producing increasingly luxurious flavored tobaccos for use in the hookah. Some flavors include the traditional apple, grape, double apple, orange, strawberry, cherry, mango, vanilla, and melon flavors; as well as more modern flavors of cola, coconut, cappuccino, and banana milk.


Health effects

Main article: Health effects of tobacco smoking

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Both direct inhalation of tobacco smoke and inhalation of second hand smoke have significant negative effects on health. ...

Establishing a link between smoking and health effects

As the use of tobacco became popular in Europe, some people became concerned about its possible ill effects on the health of its users. One of the first was King James I of Great Britain. In his 1604 treatise, A Counterblaste to Tobacco, King James observed that smoking was: James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... A Counterblaste to Tobacco was written by James VI of Scotland and I of England in 1604. ...

[a] custom loathsome to the eye, hateful to the Nose, harmful to the brain, dangerous to the Lungs, and in the blacke stinking fume thereof, neerest resembling the horrible Stigian smoke of the pit that is bottomelesse.[3]

The late-19th century invention of automated cigarette-making machinery in the American South made possible mass production of cigarettes at low cost, and cigarettes became elegant and fashionable among society men as the Victorian era gave way to the Edwardian. In 1912, American Dr. Isaac Adler was the first to strongly suggest that lung cancer is related to smoking.[4] In 1929, Fritz Lickint of Dresden, Germany, published a formal statistical evidence of a lung cancer–tobacco link, based on a study showing that lung cancer sufferers were likely to be smokers.[5] Lickint also argued that tobacco use was the best way to explain the fact that lung cancer struck men four or five times more often than women (since women smoked much less).[5] Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Dresden (etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. ... Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. ...


Prior to World War I, lung cancer was considered to be a rare disease, which most physicians would never see during their career[6] [7]. With the postwar rise in popularity of cigarette smoking, however, came a virtual epidemic of lung cancer.


In 1950, Dr. Richard Doll published research in the British Medical Journal showing a close link between smoking and lung cancer.[8] Four years later, in 1954 the British Doctors Study, a study of some 40 thousand doctors over 20 years, confirmed the suggestion, based on which the government issued advice that smoking and lung cancer rates were related.[9] The British Doctors Study lasted till 2001, with result published every ten years and final results published in 2004. [10] Sir William Richard Shaboe Doll CH OBE FRS (28 October 1912–24 July 2005) was a British physiologist who became the foremost epidemiologist of the 20th century, turning the subject into a rigorous science. ... The British Medical Journal (BMJ) is a medical journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association (BMA)which published its first issue in 1845. ... The British doctors study is the generally accepted name of a prospective clinical trial which has been running from 1951 to 2001, and in 1956 provided convincing statistical proof that tobacco smoking increased the risk of lung cancer. ...


Health risks of smoking

Because of their nicotine addiction, many smokers find it difficult to cease smoking despite their knowledge of ill health effects.
Because of their nicotine addiction, many smokers find it difficult to cease smoking despite their knowledge of ill health effects.

The health effects of tobacco smoking are related to direct tobacco smoking, as well as passive smoking, inhalation of environmental or secondhand tobacco smoke.[11] The main health risks in tobacco pertain to diseases of the cardiovascular system, in particular myocardial infarction (heart attack), diseases of the respiratory tract such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), asthma[12], emphysema, and cancer, particularly lung cancer and cancers of the larynx and tongue. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x681, 121 KB) Summary I took this photograph and I release it to the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x681, 121 KB) Summary I took this photograph and I release it to the public domain. ... Tobacco smoke used to fill the air of Irish pubs before the smoking ban came into effect on March 29, 2004 Passive smoking (also known as secondhand smoking, involuntary smoking, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, or ETS exposure) occurs when smoke from one persons burning tobacco product (or the... Heart attack redirects here. ... The Respiratory System Among four-legged animals, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... For COPD occuring in horses, see recurrent airway obstruction. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. ... The larynx (plural larynges), colloquially known as the voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. ...


A person's increased risk of contracting disease is directly proportional to the length of time that a person continues to smoke as well as the amount smoked. However, if someone stops smoking, then these chances gradually decrease as the damage to their body is repaired. A year after quitting, the risk of contracting heart disease is half that of a continuing smoker.[2]


The health risks of smoking are not uniform across all smokers. Risks vary according to amount of tobacco smoked, with those who smoke more at greater risk. Light smoking is still a health risk. According to the Surgeon General of The United States, mortality rates for pipe smokers and cigar smokers who smoke less than five cigars per day are roughly the same as for non-smokers. The data regarding smoking to date focuses primarily on cigarette smoking, which even by conservative estimates increases mortality rates by 40%. Men who smoke 10-19 cigarettes a day have a 70% increase in mortality rates, men who smoke 20-39 cigarettes a day have an increase in mortality rate by 90%, for men smoking two packs a day or more, their mortality rates increased 120%.[13] Some studies suggests that hookah smoking is considered to be safer than other forms of smoking. However, water is not effective for removing all relevant toxins, e.g. the carcinogenic aromatic hydrocarbons are not water-soluble. Several negative health effects are linked to hookah smoking and studies indicate that it is likely to be more harmful than cigarettes, due in part to the volume of smoke inhaled. [14] [15] In addition to the cancer risk, there is some risk of infectious disease resulting from pipe sharing, and other risks associated with the common addition of other psychoactive drugs to the tobacco.[16] According to the Canadian Lung Association, tobacco kills between 40,000–45,000 Canadians per year, more than the total number of deaths from AIDS, traffic accidents, suicide, murder, fires and accidental poisoning.[17][18] The United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention describes tobacco use as "the single most important preventable risk to human health in developed countries and an important cause of premature death worldwide". For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... A car accident in Yate, near Bristol, England, in July 2004. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... A developed country is a country that has achieved (currently or historically) a high degree of industrialization, and which enjoys the higher standards of living which wealth and technology make possible. ...

Carcinogenicity

Main article: Carcinogen
The incidence of lung cancer is highly correlated with smoking.
The incidence of lung cancer is highly correlated with smoking.

Smoke, or any partially burnt organic matter, is carcinogenic (cancer-causing). The damage a continuing smoker does to their lungs can take up to 20 years before its physical manifestation in lung cancer. Women began smoking later than men, so the rise in death rate amongst women did not appear until later. The male lung cancer death rate decreased in 1975 — roughly 20 years after the fall in cigarette consumption in men. A fall in consumption in women also began in 1975 but by 1991 had not manifested in a decrease in lung cancer related mortalities amongst women.[19] The hazard symbol for carcinogenic chemicals in the Globally Harmonized System. ... Image File history File links Cancer_smoking_lung_cancer_correlation_from_NIH.svg‎ Other versions File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Cancer_smoking_lung_cancer_correlation_from_NIH.svg‎ Other versions File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The hazard symbol for carcinogenic chemicals in the Globally Harmonized System. ...


The carcinogenity of tobacco smoke is not explained by nicotine per se, which is not carcinogenic or mutagenic. However, it inhibits apoptosis, therefore accelerating existing cancers.[20] Also, NNK, a nicotine derivative converted from nicotine, can be carcinogenic. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) caused by smoking, known as tobacco disease, is a permanent, incurable reduction of pulmonary capacity characterized by shortness of breath, wheezing, persistent cough with sputum, and damage to the lungs, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis.[citation needed] This article is about the chemical compound. ... A section of mouse liver showing an apoptotic cell indicated by an arrow Apoptosis (pronounced apo tō sis) is a process of suicide by a cell in a multicellular organism. ... For COPD occuring in horses, see recurrent airway obstruction. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs. ...

An extremely carcinogenic (cancer-causing) metabolite of benzopyrene, a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon, produced by burning tobacco.
An extremely carcinogenic (cancer-causing) metabolite of benzopyrene, a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon, produced by burning tobacco.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1313x880, 7 KB) Description: Chemical structure of Benzopyrene diol epoxide. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1313x880, 7 KB) Description: Chemical structure of Benzopyrene diol epoxide. ... Benzo[a]pyrene, C20H12, is a five-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is mutagenic and highly carcinogenic. ...

Effects on the heart

Smoking contributes to the risk of developing heart disease. All smoke contains very fine particulates that are able to penetrate the alveolar wall into the blood and exert their effects on the heart in a short time.


Inhalation of tobacco smoke causes several immediate responses within the heart and blood vessels. Within one minute the heart rate begins to rise, increasing by as much as 30 percent during the first 10 minutes of smoking. Carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke exerts its negative effects by reducing the blood’s ability to carry oxygen.[citation needed]


Smoking tends to increase blood cholesterol levels. Furthermore, the ratio of high-density lipoprotein (the “good” cholesterol) to low-density lipoprotein (the “bad” cholesterol) tends to be lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Smoking also raises the levels of fibrinogen and increases platelet production (both involved in blood clotting) which makes the blood viscous. Carbon monoxide binds to haemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying component in red blood cells), resulting in a much stabler complex than haemoglobin bound with oxygen or carbon dioxide--the result is permanent loss of blood cell functionality. Blood cells are naturally recycled after a certain period of time, allowing for the creation of new, functional erythrocytes. However, if carbon monoxide exposure reaches a certain point before they can be recycled, hypoxia (and later death) occurs. All these factors make smokers more at risk of developing various forms of arteriosclerosis. As the arteriosclerosis progresses, blood flows less easily through rigid and narrowed blood vessels, making the blood more likely to form a thrombosis (clot). Sudden blockage of a blood vessel may lead to an infarction (e.g. stroke). However, it is also worth noting that the effects of smoking on the heart may be more subtle. These conditions may develop gradually given the smoking-healing cycle (the human body heals itself between periods of smoking), and therefore a smoker may develop less significant disorders such as worsening or maintenance of unpleasant dermatological conditions, e.g. eczema, due to reduced blood supply. Smoking also increases blood pressure and weakens blood vessels.[citation needed]


Smoker's attitudes

Nicotine is an addictive stimulant and is one of the main factors leading to continued tobacco smoking. Although the percentage of the nicotine inhaled with tobacco smoke is quite small (most of the substance is destroyed by the heat) it is still sufficient to cause physical and/or psychological dependence. This article is about the chemical compound. ... Stimulants are drugs that temporarily increase alertness and wakefulness. ... A chemical dependency is such a strong dependency on a substance that it becomes necessary to have this substance just to function properly; The need of a substance developed from abusing the substance, requiring the substance for survival, like the need for food, or water See also: addiction drug tolerance...


Prior to habituation, tobacco smokers often focus on the reinforcing properties of smoking rather than the associated health risks. The diseases caused by smoking surface relatively later in life. As a result, they do not serve to deter smoking given the immediate gratification offered by smoking.


Some smokers argue that the depressant effect of smoking allows them to calm their nerves, often allowing for increased concentration. This, however, is only partly true. According to the Imperial College London, "Nicotine seems to provide both a stimulant and a depressant effect, and it is likely that the effect it has at any time is determined by the mood of the user, the environment and the circumstances of use. Studies have suggested that low doses have a depressant effect, whilst higher doses have stimulant effect."[21] However, it is impossible to differentiate a drug effect brought on by nicotine use, and the alleviation of nicotine withdrawal. A depressant, referred to in slang as a downer, is a chemical agent that diminishes the function or activity of a specific part of the body. ... Affiliations Russell Group Association of MBAs IDEA League Association of Commonwealth Universities Golden Triangle Oak Ridge Associated Universities Nobel laureates 14 Website http://www. ...


Passive smoking

Main article: Passive smoking
This photo illustrates smoke in a pub, a common complaint from those concerned with passive smoking.
This photo illustrates smoke in a pub, a common complaint from those concerned with passive smoking.

Passive or involuntary smoking occurs when the exhaled and ambient smoke (otherwise known as environmental or secondhand smoke) from one person's cigarette is inhaled by other people. Passive smoking involves inhaling carcinogens, as well as other toxic components, that are present in secondhand tobacco smoke. Tobacco smoke used to fill the air of Irish pubs before the smoking ban came into effect on March 29, 2004 Passive smoking (also known as secondhand smoking, involuntary smoking, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, or ETS exposure) occurs when smoke from one persons burning tobacco product (or the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1128 KB) Summary Taken by me, this photo illustrates smoke in a pub, a common complaint for those concerned with passive smoking. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1128 KB) Summary Taken by me, this photo illustrates smoke in a pub, a common complaint for those concerned with passive smoking. ... Pub redirects here. ...


Secondhand smoke is also known to harm children, infants and reproductive health through acute lower respiratory tract illness, asthma induction and exacerbation, chronic respiratory symptoms, middle ear infection, lower birth weight babies, and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.[22] In a study released on February 12, 2007 warning signs for cardiovascular disease are higher in people exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke, adding to the link between "passive smoke" and heart disease. "Our study provides further evidence to suggest low-level exposure to secondhand smoke has a clinically important effect on susceptibility to cardiovascular disease," said Dr. Andrea Venn of University of Nottingham in Britain, lead author of the study.[23] is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


According to the U.S. Surgeon General’s Report (Chapter 5; pages 180–194), secondhand smoke is connected to SIDS.[24] Infants who die from SIDS tend to have higher concentrations of nicotine and cotinine (a biological marker for secondhand smoke exposure) in their lungs than those who die from other causes. Infants exposed to secondhand smoke after birth are also at a greater risk of SIDS. Cotinine is a metabolite of nicotine. ...


Somatic and psychological effects

Nicotine is a highly addictive psychoactive chemical. When tobacco is smoked, most of the nicotine is pyrolyzed; a dose sufficient to cause mild somatic dependency and mild to strong psychological dependency remains. According to studies by Henningfield and Benowitz, overall nicotine is more addictive than cannabis, caffeine, ethanol, cocaine, and heroin when considering both somatic and psychological dependence. However, due to the stronger withdrawal effects of ethanol, cocaine and heroin, nicotine may have a lower potential for somatic dependence than these substances.[25][26] A study by Perrine concludes that nicotine's potential for psychological dependency exceeds all other studied drugs[27] - even ethanol, an extremely physically addictive substance with severe withdrawal symptoms that can be fatal. About half of Canadians who currently smoke have tried to quit.[28] McGill University health professor Jennifer O'Loughlin stated that nicotine addiction can occur as soon as five months after the start of smoking.[29] This article is about the chemical compound. ... Simple sketch of pyrolysis chemistry Pyrolysis usually means the chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of oxygen or any other reagents, except possibly steam. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja,[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa L. subsp. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... For the beer, see Delirium Tremens (beer). ... McGill University. ...


Recent evidence has shown that smoking tobacco increases the release of dopamine in the brain, specifically in the mesolimbic pathway, the same neuro-reward circuit activated by drugs of abuse such as heroin and cocaine. This suggests nicotine use has a pleasurable effect that triggers positive reinforcement.[30] One study found that smokers exhibit better reaction-time and memory performance compared to non-smokers, which is consistent with increased activation of dopamine receptors.[31] Neurologically, rodent studies have found that nicotine self-administration causes lowering of reward thresholds--a finding opposite that of most other drugs of abuse (e.g. cocaine and heroin). This increase in reward circuit sensitivity persisted months after the self-administration ended, suggesting that nicotine's alteration of brain reward function is either long lasting or permanent. Furthermore, it has been found that nicotine can activate long term potentiation in vivo and in vitro. These studies suggests nicotine’s "trace memory" may contribute to difficulties in nicotine abstinence. For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ...


Mood and anxiety disorders

Recent studies have linked smoking to anxiety disorders, suggesting the correlation (and possibly mechanism) may be related to the broad class of anxiety disorders, and not limited to just depression. Current ongoing research are attempting to explore the addiction-anxiety relationship.


Data from multiple studies suggest that anxiety disorders such as depression play a role in cigarette smoking.[32] A history of regular smoking was observed more frequently among individuals who had experienced a major depressive disorder at some time in their lives than among individuals who had never experienced major depression or among individuals with no psychiatric diagnosis.[33] People with major depression are also much less likely to quit due to the increased risk of experiencing mild to severe states of depression, including a major depressive episode.[34] Depressed smokers appear to experience more withdrawal symptoms on quitting, are less likely to be successful at quitting, and are more likely to relapse.[35] It is common to feel sad, discouraged , or down once in a while, and anyone in this state might say they are suffering from depression. ... A No Smoking sign Smoking cessation (commonly known as quitting, or kicking the habit) is the effort to stop smoking tobacco products. ...


Health benefits of smoking

Some studies have discovered health benefits correlated with smoking. These studies observed a reduction in the occurrence of some diseases, but all such studies stressed that the benefits of smoking did not outweigh the risks.


Several types of "Smoker’s Paradoxes",[36] (cases where smoking appears to have specific beneficial effects), have been observed; often the actual mechanism remains undetermined. Risk of ulcerative colitis has been frequently shown to be reduced by smokers on a dose-dependent basis; the effect is eliminated if the individual stops smoking.[37][38] Smoking appears to interfere with development of Kaposi's sarcoma,[39] breast cancer among women carrying the very high risk BRCA gene,[40][citation needed] preeclampsia,[41] and atopic disorders such as allergic asthma.[42] A plausible mechanism of action in these cases may be the nicotine in tobacco smoke acting as an anti-inflammatory agent and interfering with the disease process.[43] Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... The BRCA or British Radio (Controlled) Car Association is a club for members of all types of radio controlled cars in Britain. ... Pre-eclampsia (previously called toxemia) is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. ... Eczema-a typical atopic manifestation Atopy (Greek ατοπία - placelessness) or atopic syndrome is an allergic hypersensitivity affecting parts of the body not in direct contact with the allergen. ... Allergic asthma is a type of asthma that is triggered by allergies. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ...


Evidence suggests that non-smokers are up to twice as likely as smokers to develop Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease[44]. A plausible explanation for these cases may be the effect of nicotine, a cholinergic stimulant, decreasing the levels of acetylcholine in the smoker's brain; Parkinson's disease occurs when the effect of dopamine is less than that of acetylcholine. In addition, nicotine stimulates the mesolimbic dopamine pathway (as do other drugs of abuse), causing and effective increase in dopamine levels. Opponents counter by noting that consumption of pure nicotine may be as beneficial as smoking without the risks associated with smoking e.g. CO poisoning. A synapse is cholinergic if it uses acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter. ... Stimulants are drugs that temporarily increase alertness and wakefulness. ... The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ...


Considering the high rates of physical sickness and deaths[45] [46] among persons suffering from schizophrenia, one of smoking's short term benefits is its temporary effect to improve alertness and cognitive functioning in that disease.[47] It has been postulated that the mechanism of this effect is that schizophrenics have a disturbance of nicotinic receptor functioning.[48]


Effects of the habit and industry on society

Effect on healthcare costs

In countries where there is a public health system, society covers the cost of medical care for smokers who become ill through in the form of increased taxes. Two arguments exist on this front, the "pro-smoking" argument suggesting that heavy smokers generally don't live long enough to develop the costly and chronic illnesses which affect the elderly, reducing society's healthcare burden. The "anti-smoking" argument suggests that the healthcare burden is increased because smokers get chronic illnesses younger and at a higher rate than the general population. Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ...


Data on both positions is limited. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published research in 2002 claiming that the cost of each pack of cigarettes sold in the United States was more than $7 in medical care and lost productivity.[49]The cost may be higher, with another study putting it as high as $41 per pack, most of which however is on the individual and his/her family.[50] This is how one author of that study puts it when he explains the very low cost for others: "The reason the number is low is that for private pensions, Social Security, and Medicare — the biggest factors in calculating costs to society — smoking actually saves money. Smokers die at a younger age and don't draw on the funds they've paid into those systems." [50] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ...


By contrast, some non-scientific studies, including one conducted by Philip Morris in the Czech Republic[51] and another by the Cato Institute,[52] support the opposite position. Neither study was peer-reviewed nor published in a scientific journal, and the Cato Institute have received funding from tobacco companies in the past.[citation needed] Philip Morris has explicitly apologised for the former study, saying: "The funding and public release of this study which, among other things, detailed purported cost savings to the Czech Republic due to premature deaths of smokers, exhibited terrible judgment as well as a complete and unacceptable disregard of basic human values. For one of our tobacco companies to commission this study was not just a terrible mistake, it was wrong. All of us at Philip Morris, no matter where we work, are extremely sorry for this. No one benefits from the very real, serious and significant diseases caused by smoking." [51] Altria Group, Inc. ... The Cato Institute is a libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. The Institutes stated mission is to broaden the parameters of public policy debate to allow consideration of the traditional American principles of limited government, individual liberty, free markets, and peace by striving to achieve greater involvement...


Tobacco and other drugs

Main article: Tobacco and other drugs

A number of studies have been conducted to explore the the relationship between tobacco and other drug use. While the association between smoking tobacco and other drug use has been well-established, the nature of this association remains unclear. The two main theories are the phenotypic causation (gateway) model and the correlated liabilities model. The causation model argues that smoking is a primary influence on future drug use, while the correlated liabilities model argues that smoking and other drug use are predicated on genetic or environmental factors. An association between tobacco and other drug use has been well established. ... The gateway drug theory is the belief that use of a lower classed drug can lead to the subsequent use of harder, more dangerous drugs. ...


Advertising

Main article: Tobacco advertising

Before the 1970s, most tobacco advertising was legal in the United States and most European nations. In the United States, in the 1950s and 1960s, cigarette brands were frequently sponsors of television shows—most notably shows such as To Tell the Truth and I've Got a Secret. One of the most famous television jingles of the era came from an advertisement for Winston cigarettes. The slogan "Winston tastes good like a cigarette should!" proved to be catchy, and is still quoted today. Another popular slogan from the 1960s was "Us Tareyton smokers would rather fight than switch!," which was used to advertise Tareyton cigarettes. Tobacco advertising is the promotion of tobacco use (typically cigarette smoking) by the tobacco industry through a variety of media. ... Tobacco advertising is the promotion of tobacco use (typically cigarette smoking) by the tobacco industry through a variety of media. ... Nipsey Russell, Peggy Cass, Bill Cullen and Kitty Carlisle from the 1969-78 version. ... Ive Got a Secret (abbreviated as IGAS) was a weekly panel game show produced by Mark Goodson and Bill Todman for CBS television and was created by Allan Sherman as essentially a knockoff of Whats My Line?. The original version of the show premiered in June 19, 1952... Winston - outdoor advertising. ... A Winston cigarette advertisement from 1971, noting the qualms about the grammar used in the former Winston tastes good like a cigarette should advertisements. ... A Tareyton magazine advertisement from 1965. ... Tareyton is a brand of cigarettes manufactured by the American Tobacco Company. ...


In the 1950s, manufacturers began adding filter tips to cigarettes to remove some of the tar and nicotine as they were smoked. "Safer", "less potent" cigarette brands were also introduced. Light cigarettes became so popular that, as of 2004, half of American smokers preferred them over regular cigarettes [53], in spite the fact that the idea of a "safer" cigarette is a myth. Cigarettes that offer "low tar and nicotine" cause the smoker to smoke more or to inhale more deeply to get the same level of nicotine. According to The Federal Government’s National Cancer Institute (NCI), light cigarettes provide no benefit to smoker's health.[54][55]


In the United States, it was believed by many that tobacco companies are marketing tobacco smoking to minors.[56] For example, Reynolds American Inc. used the Joe Camel cartoon character to advertise Camel cigarettes. Other brands such as Virginia Slims targeted women with slogans like "You've Come a Long Way Baby". Reynolds American Inc. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Camel is a brand of cigarettes introduced by R.J. Reynolds Tobacco (RJR) in 1913. ... 1978 Virginia Slims magazine ad. ...


In 1964, the Surgeon General of the United States, released the Surgeon General's Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health. It was based on over 7000 scientific articles that linked tobacco use with cancer and other diseases. This report led to laws requiring warning labels on tobacco products and to restrictions on tobacco advertisements. As these began to come into force, tobacco marketing became more subtle, with sweets shaped like cigarettes put on the market, and a number of adverts designed to appeal to children, particularly those featuring Joe Camel resulting in increased awareness and uptake of smoking among children[57]. However, restrictions did have an effect on adult quit rates, with its use declining to the point that by 2004, nearly half of all Americans who had ever smoked had quit.[58] US Public Health Service US Public Health Service Collar Device US Public Health Service Cap Device The Surgeon General of the United States is the head of the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC) and thus the leading spokesperson on matters of public health in the U.S... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Many nations, including Russia, Greece and Romania, still allow billboards advertising tobacco use. Tobacco smoking is still advertised in special magazines, during sporting events, in gas stations and stores, and in more rare cases on television. Some nations, including the UK and Australia, have begun anti-smoking advertisements to counter the effects of tobacco advertising.


The actual effectiveness of tobacco advertisement is widely documented. According to an opinion piece by Henry Saffer, public health experts say that tobacco advertising increases cigarette consumption and there is much empirical literature that finds a significant effect of tobacco advertising on smoking, especially in children.[59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66] Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... Advert redirects here. ... A central concept in science and the scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical, or empirically based, that is, dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses. ...


Peer pressure

Many anti-smoking organizations claim that teenagers begin their smoking habits due to peer pressure, and cultural influence portrayed by friends. However, one study found that direct pressure to smoke cigarettes did not play a significant part in adolescent smoking. In that study, adolescents also reported low levels of both normative and direct pressure to smoke cigarettes.[67] A similar study showed that individuals play a more active role in starting to smoke than has previously been acknowledged and that social processes other than peer pressure need to be taken into account.[68] Another study's results revealed that peer pressure was significantly associated with smoking behavior across all age and gender cohorts, but that intrapersonal factors were significantly more important to the smoking behavior of 12–13 year-old girls than same-age boys. Within the 14–15 year-old age group, one peer pressure variable emerged as a significantly more important predictor of girls' than boys' smoking.[69] It is debated whether peer pressure or self-selection is a greater cause of adolescent smoking. It is arguable that the reverse of peer-pressure is true, when the majority of peers do not smoke and ostracize those who do. A separate article is about the punk band called The Adolescents. ... In philosophy, normative is usually contrasted with positive, descriptive or explanatory when describing types of theories, beliefs, or statements. ... Peer pressure comprises a set of group dynamics whereby a group in which one feels comfortable may override personal habits, individual moral inhibitions or idiosyncratic desires to impose a group norm of attitudes and/or behaviors. ... Self-selection is a term used to indicate any situation in which individuals select themselves into a group. ...


Parental smoking

Children of smoking parents are more likely to smoke than children with non-smoking parents. One study found that parental smoking cessation was associated with less adolescent smoking, except when the other parent currently smoked.[70] A current study tested the relation of adolescent smoking to rules regulating where adults are allowed to smoke in the home. Results showed that restrictive home smoking policies were associated with lower likelihood of trying smoking for both middle and high school students.[71]


Smoking in movies and television

Exposure to smoking in movies has been linked with adolescent smoking initiation in cross-sectional studies.[72][73] Films tend to have a high incidence of smoking behavior vis-a-vis the general population. According to a study of movies created between 1988 and 1997, eighty-seven percent of these movies portrayed various tobacco use, with an average of 5 occurrences per film. R-rated movies had the greatest number of occurrences and were most likely to feature major characters using tobacco.[74] Despite the declining tobacco use in the society, the incidence of smoking in 2002 movies was nearly the same as in 1950 movies.[75]


There have been moves to reduce the depiction of protagonists smoking in television shows, especially those aimed at children. For example, Ted Turner took steps to remove or edit scenes that depict characters smoking in cartoons such as Tom and Jerry, The Flintstones and Scooby-Doo,[76] which are shown on his Cartoon Network and Boomerang television channels. For other persons named Ted Turner, see Ted Turner (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Flintstones is an American animated television series produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions. ... Scooby-doo is also British naval divers slang for civilian sport scuba diver. Scooby-Doo is an important character in animation up to this day Scooby-Doo is a long-running animated series produced for television by Hanna-Barbera Productions from 1969 to 1986, 1988 to 1991, and from 2002... For Cartoon Network outside of the United States, see Cartoon Network around the world. ... Boomerang is the name of at least four television networks. ...


The use of smoking to project an image

Famous smokers of the past used cigarettes or pipes as part of their image, such as Jean Paul Sartre's Gauloise-brand cigarettes, Joseph Stalin's, Douglas MacArthur's or Bertrand Russell's pipes, or the news broadcaster Edward R. Murrow's cigarette. Writers in particular seemed to be known for smoking; see, for example, Cornell Professor Richard Klein's book Cigarettes are Sublime for the analysis, by this professor of French literature, of the role smoking plays in 19th and 20th century letters. The popular author Kurt Vonnegut addresses his addiction to cigarettes within his novels. British Prime Minister Harold Wilson was well known for smoking a pipe in public as was Winston Churchill for his cigars. Sherlock Holmes, the fictional detective created by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle smoked a pipe, cigarettes, and cigars, besides injecting himself with cocaine, "to keep his overactive brain occupied during the dull London days, when nothing happened". The DC Vertigo comic book character, John Constantine, created by Alan Moore, is synonymous with smoking, so much so that the first storyline by Preacher creator, Garth Ennis, centred around John Constantine contracting lung cancer. Professional wrestler James Fullington, while in character as "The Sandman", is a chronic smoker in order to appear "tough". Jean Paul Sartre Jean-Paul Sartre (June 21, 1905–April 15, 1980) was a French existentialist philosopher, dramatist, novelist and critic. ... Gauloise is a brand of cigarette of French manufacture that has achieved semi-iconic status. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... Edward R. Ed Murrow (April 25, 1908 – April 27, 1965) was an American journalist and media figure. ... Dr. Richard Klein is an Adjunct Professor of Astronomy at the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) and a Scientific Staff Member at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). ... Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. ... James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, FRS, PC (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was one of the most prominent British politicians of the 20th century. ... Churchill redirects here. ... A portrait of Sherlock Holmes by Sidney Paget from the Strand Magazine, 1891 Sherlock Holmes is a fictional detective of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, who first appeared in publication in 1887. ... Arthur Conan Doyle Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (May 22, 1859 - July 7, 1930) is the British author most famously known for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction. ... DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company. ... Vertigo logo Vertigo is an imprint of comic book and graphic novel publisher DC Comics. ... John Constantine (born May 10, 1953 in Liverpool, England) is the fictional protagonist of the comic series Hellblazer. ... For other persons named Alan Moore, see Alan Moore (disambiguation). ... Preacher is a term the for someone who preaches sermons or gives homilies. ... Garth Ennis (born January 16, 1970 in Holywood, Northern Ireland) is a Northern Irish comics writer, best known for the DC/Vertigo series Preacher, co-created with artist Steve Dillon. ... For the video game, see Pro Wrestling (video game). ... The Sandman Jim Fullington, better known as The Sandman, is an American Professional Wrestler, best known for his career with Extreme Championship Wrestling, where he was dubbed The Extreme Icon due to his gung-ho wrestling style. ...


Religious views on smoking

Main article: Religious views on smoking

Communal smoking of a sacred tobacco pipe is a common ritual of many Native American tribes, and was considered a sacred part of their religion. Sema, the Anishinaabe word for tobacco, was grown for ceremonial use and considered the ultimate sacred plant since its smoke was believed to carry prayers to the heavens.[77] The tobacco used during these rituals varies widely in potency — the Nicotiana rustica species used in South America, for instance, has up to twice the nicotine content of the common North American N. tabacum. Religious views on smoking vary widely. ... Anishinaabe or more properly Anishinaabeg or Anishinabek (which is the plural form of the word) is a self-description often used by the Odawa, Ojibwe, and Algonkin peoples, who all speak closely related Anishinaabemowin/Anishinaabe languages. ... Nicotiana rustica is a very potent variety of tobacco. ...


Before the health risks of smoking were identified through controlled study, smoking was considered an immoral habit by certain Christian preachers and social reformers. The founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, Joseph Smith, Jr, recorded that on February 27, 1833, he received a revelation which addressed tobacco use. Eventually accepted as a commandment, faithful Mormons do not smoke. The Latter Day Saint movement (a subset of Restorationism) is a group of religious denominations and adherents who follow at least some of the teachings and revelations of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... ... Revelation of the Last Judgment by Jacob de Backer Revelation is an uncovering or disclosure via communication from the divine of something that has been partially or wholly hidden or unknown, which could not be known apart from the unveiling (Goswiller 1987 p. ...


The Jewish Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan (1838–1933) was one of the first Jewish authorities to speak out on smoking. A popular image of the Chofetz Chaim. ...


Smoking cessation

Main article: Smoking cessation

Many of tobacco's health effects can be minimized through smoking cessation. The British doctors study[78] showed that those who stopped smoking before they reached 30 years of age lived almost as long as those who never smoked. It is also possible to reduce the risks by reducing the frequency of smoking and by proper diet and exercise. Some research has indicated that some of the damage caused by smoking tobacco can be moderated with the use of antioxidants.[citation needed] A No Smoking sign Smoking cessation (commonly known as quitting, or kicking the habit) is the effort to stop smoking tobacco products. ... The British doctors study is the generally accepted name of a prospective clinical trial which has been running from 1951 to 2001, and in 1956 provided convincing statistical proof that tobacco smoking increased the risk of lung cancer. ... An antioxidant is a chemical that prevents the oxidation of other chemicals. ...


Smokers wanting to quit or to temporarily abstain from smoking can use a variety of nicotine-containing tobacco substitutes, or nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products to temporarily lessen the physical withdrawal symptoms, the most popular being nicotine gum and lozenges. Nicotine patches are also used for smoking cessation. Medications that do not contain nicotine can also be used, such as bupropion (Zyban or Wellbutrin) and varenicline (Chantix). Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is the use of various forms of nicotine delivery methods intended to replace nicotine obtained from smoking or other tobacco usage. ... Withdrawal, also known as withdrawal syndrome, refers to the characteristic signs and symptoms that appear when a drug that causes physical dependence is regularly used for a long time and then suddenly discontinued or decreased in dosage. ... Nicotine gum is a type of chewing gum that delivers nicotine to the body. ... A lozenge (â—Š) is a form of rhombus. ... A nicotine patch is a transdermal patch that releases nicotine into the body through the skin. ... Bupropion (INN; also amfebutamone,[1] brand names Wellbutrin, Zyban, Budeprion and Buproban) is an atypical antidepressant, which acts as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and dopamine reuptake inhibitor,[2] and a nicotinic antagonist. ... Varenicline (trade name Chantix in the USA and Champix in Europe, Mexico and Canada, manufactured by Pfizer, usually in the form of varenicline tartrate) is a prescription medication used to treat smoking addiction. ...


Peer support can be helpful, such as that provided by support groups and telephone quitlines.


Legal issues and regulation

On February 28, 2005, an international treaty, the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, took effect. The FCTC is the world's first public health treaty. Countries that sign on as parties agree to a set of common goals, minimum standards for tobacco control policy, and to cooperate in dealing with cross-border challenges such as cigarette smuggling. Currently the WHO declares that 4 billion people will be covered by the treaty, which includes 168 signatories.[79] Among other steps, signatories are to put together legislation that will eliminate secondhand smoke in indoor workplaces, public transport, indoor public places and, as appropriate, other public places. is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control is a treaty adopted unanimously by the 56th World Health Assembly on May 21, 2003. ...


Age restrictions

Many countries have a smoking age, In many countries, including the United States, most European Union member states, New Zealand, Canada, South Africa, Israel, India, Brazil, Chile and Australia, it is illegal to sell tobacco products to minors and in the Netherlands, Austria, Denmark and South Africa it is illegal to sell tobacco products to people under the age of 16. On 1 September 2007 the minimum age to buy tobacco products in Germany rose from 16 to 18, as well as in Great Britain on 1 October 2007.[80] In 46 of the 50 United States, the minimum age is 18, except for Alabama, Alaska, New Jersey, and Utah where the legal age is 19 (also in the Suffolk and Nassau Counties of Long Island, New York).[citation needed] Some countries have also legislated against giving tobacco products to (i.e. buying for) minors, and even against minors engaging in the act of smoking.[citation needed] Underlying such laws is the belief that people should make an informed decision regarding the risks of tobacco use. These laws have a lax enforcement in some nations and states. In other regions, cigarettes are still sold to minors because the fines for the violation are lower or comparable to the profit made from the sales to minors.[citation needed] However in China, Turkey, and many other countries usually a child will have little problem buying tobacco products, because they are often told to go to the store to buy tobacco for their parents. The minimum age to purchase tobacco products varies from country to country. ...


Taxation

Cigarettes have become very expensive in places that want to reduce the amount of smoking in public; pictured is the cost of a carton of 200 cigarettes in New Jersey.
Cigarettes have become very expensive in places that want to reduce the amount of smoking in public; pictured is the cost of a carton of 200 cigarettes in New Jersey.

Many governments have introduced excise taxes on cigarettes in order to reduce the consumption of cigarettes. Money collected from the cigarette taxes are frequently used to pay for tobacco use prevention programs, therefore making it a method of internalizing external costs. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2816x2112, 1967 KB)picture taken by me showing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2816x2112, 1967 KB)picture taken by me showing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... An excise is an indirect tax or duty levied on items within a country. ... In economics external cost refers to a negative side-effect of an economic transaction, an act of exchange, consumption, or production. ...


In 2002, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said that each pack of cigarettes sold in the United States costs the nation more than $7 in medical care and lost productivity.[81] That's over $2000 per year/smoker. Another study by a team of health economists finds the combined price paid by their families and society is about $41 per pack of cigarettes.[82] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ...


Substantial scientific evidence shows that higher cigarette prices result in lower overall cigarette consumption. Most studies indicate that a 10% increase in price will reduce overall cigarette consumption by 3% to 5%. Youth, minorities, and low-income smokers are two to three times more likely to quit or smoke less than other smokers in response to price increases.[83][84] Smoking is often cited as an example of an inelastic good, however, i.e. a large rise in price will only result in a small decrease in consumption. In economics, elasticity is the ratio of the proportional change in one variable with respect to proportional change in another variable. ...


Many nations have implemented some form of tobacco taxation. As of 1997, Denmark had the highest cigarette tax burden of $4.02 per pack. Taiwan only had a tax burden of $0.62 per pack. Currently, the average price and excise tax on cigarettes in the United States is well below those in many other industrialized nations.[85]


The cigarette taxes vary from state to state in the United States. For example, South Carolina has a cigarette tax of only 7 cents per pack, while Rhode Island has a cigarette tax of $2.46 per pack. In Alabama, Illinois, Missouri, New York City, Tennessee, and Virginia, counties and cities may impose an additional limited tax on the price of cigarettes.[86] Due to the high taxation, the price of an average pack of cigarettes in New Jersey is $6.45,[87][88] which is still less than the approximated external cost of a pack of cigarettes.


In Canada, cigarette taxes have raised prices of the more expensive brands to upwards of ten CAD$.


In the United Kingdom, a packet of cigarettes typically costs between £4.25 and £5.50 ($8.50/$11.00) depending on the brand purchased and where the purchase was made[89]. The UK has a strong black market for cigarettes which has formed as a result of the high taxation, and it is estimated that 25-30% of all cigarettes smoked in the country avoid UK taxes[90]. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ...


Restrictions on cigarette advertising

Prominent Marlboro branding on Ferrari F1 car and team at the Bahrain Grand Prix 2006.
Prominent Marlboro branding on Ferrari F1 car and team at the Bahrain Grand Prix 2006.

Several Western countries have also put restrictions on cigarette advertising. In the United States, all television advertising of tobacco products has been prohibited since 1971. In Australia, the Tobacco Advertising Prohibition Act 1992[91] prohibits tobacco advertising in any form, with a very small number of exceptions (some international sporting events were accepted, but these exceptions were revoked in 2006). Other countries have legislated particularly against advertising that appears to target minors. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1743x1580, 242 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1743x1580, 242 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Marlboro logo Marlboro is a brand of cigarette made by Altria. ... Formula One, abbreviated to F1 and also known as Grand Prix racing, is the highest class of single-seat open-wheel auto racing. ...


Package warnings

Some countries also impose legal requirements on the packaging of tobacco products. For example in the countries of the European Union, Turkey, Australia[92] and South Africa, cigarette packs must be prominently labelled with the health risks associated with smoking.[93] Canada, Australia, Iceland and Brazil have also imposed labels upon cigarette packs warning smokers of the effects, and they include graphic images of the potential health effects of smoking. Cards are also inserted into cigarette packs in Canada. There are sixteen of them, and only one comes in a pack. They explain different methods of quitting smoking. Also, in the United Kingdom, there have been a number of graphic NHS advertisements, one showing a cigarette filled with fatty deposits, as if the cigarette is symbolising the artery of a smoker. Tobacco packaging warning messages are health warning messages that appear on the packaging of cigarettes and other tobacco products. ... NHS redirects here. ...


Currently in Australia, almost 70% of the cigarette packet (including 1/3 of the front, the whole back and both sides) are covered in either graphic imagery or health factoids. These warnings depict images of the effects of smoking (gangrene, children in hospital from passive smoking and browned teeth), name/number of chemicals and annual death rates. Television ads accompany them, involving a doctor amputating a foot and smokers struggling to breathe in hospital. Since then, the number of smokers has been reduced by one quarter.[94] Singapore similarly requires cigarette manufacturers to print images of mouths, feet and blood vessels adversely affected by smoking. Gangrene is the necrosis and subsequent decay of body tissues caused by infection or thrombosis. ...


France has the additional requirement of listing on the side of all packaging the percentages of tobacco present, compared to the weight of the paper and additives present. For one U.S. manufacturer of cigarettes sold in France, the side list indicates only 85.0% is tobacco, 9.0% are the additives, and paper constitutes another 6.0% of the total weight of a cigarette. Filters are not part of the formula. The additives are a syrup sprayed on the chopped tobacco leaf on the conveyer belt and is a combination of the 599 additive ingredients as submitted to Member of Congress Henry Waxman in a 50 page list by the five major U.S. tobacco companies during his Congressional Hearings on April 14, 1994. is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...


Smoking bans

Main article: Smoking ban

Some jurisdictions impose restrictions on where smoking is allowed. Several countries such as the Republic of Ireland, Estonia, Finland, Norway, Canada, Australia, Sweden, Italy, Indonesia, Lithuania, Spain, Iceland, United Kingdom and Slovenia have legislated against smoking in public places, often including bars and restaurants. Restaurateurs have been obligated to build designated smoking areas (or to prohibit smoking). A similar ban is coming into effect in France from 1 January 2008. In the United States, many states prohibit smoking in restaurants, and some also prohibit smoking in bars. In Canada smoking is illegal in bars and restaurants in certain provinces. In Australia, smoking bans vary from state to state. Currently, Queensland has the strictest laws, with total bans within all public interiors (including workplaces, bars, pubs and eateries) as well as patrolled beaches and some outdoor public areas. There are, however, exceptions for designated smoking areas. In Victoria, smoking is banned in train stations, bus stops and tram stops as these are public locations where second hand smoke can affect non-smokers waiting for public transport, and since July 1st 2007 is now extended to all indoor public places. In New Zealand and Brazil, smoking is banned in enclosed public places mainly bars, restaurants and pubs. Hong Kong banned smoking on 1 January 2007 in the workplace, public spaces such as restaurants, karaoke rooms, buildings, and public parks. Bars serving alcohol who do not admit under-18s have been exempted till 2009. In Romania smoking is illegal in trains, metro stations, public institutions (except where designated, usually outside) and public transportation. No Smoking sign. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd... VIC redirects here. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


See the List of smoking bans article for a full list of restrictions in various areas around the world. This is a list of smoking bans by country. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Both direct inhalation of tobacco smoke and inhalation of second hand smoke have significant negative effects on health. ... Youth with pipe by Hendrick Jansz Terbrugghen A pipe is a tool used for smoking. ... A: A cigarette rolling machine. ... No Smoking sign. ... A No Smoking sign Smoking cessation (commonly known as quitting, or kicking the habit) is the effort to stop smoking tobacco products. ... Audrey Hepburn with a cigarette holder in Breakfast at Tiffanys, evoking a sense of flair from the 1960s Since the introduction of tobacco to the world at large in the 1500s, a smoking culture has built around it, and is evident in many parts of the world to this... Smoking fetishism is a sexual fetish (paraphilia), consisting of the fetishisation of the smoking of tobacco, including cigarettes, cigars or even pipes. ...

Notes

  1. ^ List of health effects by CDC
  2. ^ List of health effects by Australia's myDr
  3. ^ A Counterblaste to Tobacco, by King James I of England
  4. ^ Isaac Adler. Primary Malignant Growth of the Lung and Bronchi. New York, Longmans, Green and Company, 1912, pp. 3-12. Reprinted in 1980 by A Cancer Journal for Clinicians
  5. ^ a b http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/30/1/31
  6. ^ Witschi 2001, A Short History of Lung Cancer. Toxicol Sci. 2001 Nov;64(1):4-6. PMID 11606795
  7. ^ Adler I. Primary malignant growths of the lungs and bronchi. New York: Longmans, Green, and Company; 1912., cited in Spiro SG, Silvestri GA. One hundred years of lung cancer. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 Sep 1;172(5):523-9. PMID 15961694
  8. ^ Doll, Richard; and Hill, A. Bradford (30 September 1950). "Smoking and carcinoma of the lung. Preliminary report". British Medical Journal 2 (4682): 739-748. PMID 14772469. 
  9. ^ Doll, Richard; and Hill, A. Bradford (26 June 1954). "The mortality of doctors in relation to their smoking habits. A preliminary report". British Medical Journal (4877): 1451-55. PMID 13160495. 
  10. ^ Doll R, Peto R, Boreham J, Sutherland I. (2004). "Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 years' observation on male British doctors.". 
  11. ^ [1]
  12. ^ Gilliland FD, Islam T, Berhane K, Gauderman WJ, McConnell R, Avol E, Peters JM. Regular smoking and asthma incidence in adolescents. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Nov 15;174(10):1094-100. PMID 16973983
  13. ^ http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/NN/B/B/K/M/_/nnbbkm.pdf 1967 Surgeon General's Report on Smoking
  14. ^ Genetic risk assessment in hookah smokers.
  15. ^ Carbon monoxide fractions in cigarette and hookah (hubble bubble) smoke.
  16. ^ Water-Pipe (Narghile) Smoking: An Emerging Health Risk Behavior
  17. ^ Smoking and Teens, Canadian Lung Association, Newspaper articles, Canada, Canadian Cancer Society
  18. ^ Allan Rock announces collaborative research initiative on smoking
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References

  • Boffetta, P., Agudo, A., Ahrens, W., Benhamou, E., Benhamou, S., Darby, S.C., Ferro, G., Fortes, C., Gonzalez, C.A., Jockel, K.H., Krauss, M., Kreienbrock, L., Kreuzer, M., Mendes, A., Merletti, F., Nyberg, F., Pershagen, G., Pohlabeln, H., Riboli, E., Schmid, G., Simonato, L., Tredaniel, J., Whitley, E., Wichmann, H.E., Saracci, R. 1998. Multicenter case-control study of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer in Europe. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90:1440–1450.
  • Borio, G., 2006. The Tobacco Timeline. Tobacco.org.
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  • James I of England. 1604. A Counterblaste to Tobacco.
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  • Osvaldo P. Almeida, Gary K. Hulse, David Lawrence and Leon Flicker, "Smoking as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease: contrasting evidence from a systematic review of case-control and cohort studies," Addiction, Volume 97, Issue 1, Page 15 - January 2002.
  • Smoking cessation methods compared Smoking cessation methods compared. Smokingrelief.co.uk.
  • 98. BBC news (2007) Scots 'back smoke ban exemptions'. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/6464521.stm

Further reading

  • Allan M. Brandt: The Cigarette Century; The Rise and Deadly Persistence of the Product that Defined America, Basic Books, N.Y. (2007), ISBN 0-465-07047-7
  • Iain Gately: La Diva Nicotina. The Story of How Tobacco Seduced the World (2001) (ISBN 0-7432-0812-9).
  • David Krough: Smoking: The Artificial Passion (Freeman, 1992) (ISBN 0-7167-2347-6).
  • G Invernizzi et al., Particulate matter from tobacco versus diesel car exhaust: an educational perspective. Tobacco Control 13, S.219-221 (2004)
  • Ian Tyrrell;Deadly Enemies: Tobacco and Its Opponents in Australia (1999)
  • John C. Burnham, Bad Habits: Drinking, Smoking, Taking Drugs, Gambling, Sexual Misbehavior, and Swearing in American History, New York University Press, 1993
  • Michael Givel and Stanton Glantz (Summer 2001) “Tobacco Lobby Political Influence on U.S. State Legislatures in the 1990s.” Tobacco Control (10) pp. 124-134.
  • Jordan Goodman, Tobacco in History: The Cultures of Dependence, Routledge, London, 1993
  • Richard Kluger, Ashes to Ashes, 1996, on smoking in U.S.
  • Robin Walker, Under Fire: A History of Tobacco Smoking in Australia, Penguin, Ringwood, 1984.
  • David Harley, "'The Beginnings of the Tobacco Controversy: Puritanism, James I, and the Royal Physicians'", Bulletin of the History of Medicine, vol. 67, Spring 1993, pp. 28–50
  • Hendricks, P.S., et al. (2006). The early time course of smoking withdrawal effects. Psychopharmacology, 187, 385–396.
  • Ness, R., Grisso, J., Hirschinger, N., Markovic, N., Shaw, L., Day, N., and Kline, J. (1999). Cocaine and Tobacco Use and the Risk of Spontaneous Abortion. New England J. Med. 340:333–339; Oncken, C., Kranzler, H., O'Malley, P., Gendreau, P., Campbell, W. A. (2002). The Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Fetal Heart Rate Characteristics. Obstet Gynecol 99: 751–755.
  • Venners, S.A., X. Wang, C. Chen, L. Wang, D. Chen, W. Guang, A. Huang, L. Ryan, J. O'Connor, B. Lasley, J. Overstreet, A. Wilcox, and X. Xu. (2004). Paternal Smoking and Pregnancy Loss: A Prospective Study Using a Biomarker of Pregnancy Am J Epidemiol 159: 993–1001.
  • Blackwell Synergy - Cookie Absent (See above). Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  • "Health : Young smokers' heart attack risk", BBC. Retrieved on 2005-12-18. 
  • WHO East Mediterranean Regional Office. Islamic ruling on smoking. Cairo: WHO East Mediterranean Regional Office, 2003. This publication cites anti-smoking Fatwas.
  • Gatrad AR, Sheikh A. "Medical ethics and Islam: principles and practice." Arch Dis Child 2001;84: 72-5. [4]
  • Ask the Imam. "Is smoking cigarettes haram?" [www.islam.tc/ask-imam/view.php?q=300] accessed July 25, 2006
  • Jibaly M. "Smoking: a social poison." Detroit: Al-Qur'an was-Sunnah Society of North America, 1996. Cites seven different Islamic law opinions. [5] accessed July 25, 2006
  • Islam Online. "Is the ruling on smoking still controversial?" [6] accessed July 25, 2006 This analysis based primarily on the quoted opinion of Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi.

External links

  • The Social History of Smoking, by G. L. Apperson, 1914, from Project Gutenberg
  • The Tobacco Timeline at tobacco.org
  • Legacy Tobacco Documents Library at University of California San Francisco
  • UCSF Tobacco Industry Videos Collection
  • University of Wisconsin Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention
  • QuitSmokingCounter.com - Online Quit Smoking Counter that measures smoking cessation and the length of time the person has stopped smoking.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tobacco Facts and Cancer, Smoking, Larynx Cancer and Quitting (353 words)
Tobacco use and smoking are very dangerous addictions which commonly cause a wide variety of diseases, cancer and death.
Each year, because of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, an estimated 3,000 nonsmoking Americans die of lung cancer, and 300,000 children suffer from lower respiratory tract infections.
The decision to use tobacco is nearly always made in the teen years, and about one-half of young people usually continue to use tobacco products as adults.
Tobacco smoking (387 words)
Of all the risk factors for ill health, tobacco smoking is responsible for the greatest burden on the health of Australians, accounting for 9.7% of the total burden of disease in 1996 (see The Burden of Disease and Injury in Australia for more detail).
Smoking rates among Australian adults have declined steadily since the early 1970s, and this trend has continued into the 1990s.
Passive smoking is breathing in environmental tobacco smoke, which consists of sidestream smoke directly from the burning tobacco and exhaled mainstream smoke.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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