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Encyclopedia > Tobacco mosaic virus
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Tobacco mosaic virus
Structure of Tobacco Mosaic Virus
A monomeric unit of the much larger Tobacco Mosaic Virus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Virus
(unranked) (+)ssRNA viruses
Genus: Tobamovirus
Species: Tobacco mosaic virus
Schematic model of TMV: 1. nucleic acid (RNA), 2. capsomer (protomer), 3. capsid.
Schematic model of TMV: 1. nucleic acid (RNA), 2. capsomer (protomer), 3. capsid.

Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is an RNA virus that infects plants, especially tobacco and other members of the family Solanaceae, showing characteristic patterns (mottling and discoloration) on the leaves (thus the name). It was the first virus to be discovered. Although it was known from the late 19th century that something was threatening tobacco crops, it was not until 1930 that the cause was identified as a virus, a non-living particle which contains proteins and DNA. Download high resolution version (1268x829, 113 KB)Structure of the coat protein of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus (Acetylseryltyrosylserylisol. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus (from the Latin noun virus, meaning toxin or poison) is a microscopic particle (ranging in size from 20 - 300 nm) that can infect the... Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. ... The genus Tobamovirus contains viruses with a positive sense RNA genome that infect plants. ... Download high resolution version (1268x829, 113 KB)Structure of the coat protein of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus (Acetylseryltyrosylserylisol. ... Download high resolution version (1268x829, 113 KB)Structure of the coat protein of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus (Acetylseryltyrosylserylisol. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers, that acts as a messenger between DNA and ribosomes, and that is also responsible for making proteins out of amino acids. ... A capsid is the outer shell of a virus. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... This article is about the product manufactured from Tobacco plants (Nicotiana spp. ... Genera Acnistus Atropa (deadly nightshade) Browallia Brugmansia (angels trumpet) Brunfelsia Calibrachoa Capsicum (sweet peppers) Cestrum Chamaesaracha Combera Crenidium Cuatresia Cyphanthera Cyphomandra Datura (jimsonweed) Hyoscyamus (henbane) Iochroma Juanulloa Lycium (boxthorn) Mandragora (mandrake) Nicandra Nicotiana (tobacco) Nierembergia or cupflower Nolana Petunia Physalis (tomatillo) Scopolia Solandra Solanum (tomato, potato, eggplant) Streptosolen Withania... “Foliage” redirects here. ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus (from the Latin noun virus, meaning toxin or poison) is a microscopic particle (ranging in size from 20 - 300 nm) that can infect the...


In 1883 Adolf Mayer first described the disease that could be transferred between plants, similar to bacterial infections. However, in 1889, Martinus Beijerinck showed that a filtered, bacteria-free culture medium still contained the infectious agent. Dimitri Ivanovski gave the first concrete evidence for its existence in 1892. In 1935, Wendell Meredith Stanley crystallized the virus for electron microscopy and showed that it remains active even after crystallization. For his work, he was awarded 1/4 of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1946. In 1955, Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat and Robley Williams showed that purified TMV RNA and its capsid (coat) protein assemble by themselves to functional viruses, indicating that this is the most stable structure (the one with the lowest free energy), and likely the natural assembly mechanism within the host cell. Adolf Mayer (1843 – 1942) was director of the Agricultural Experiment Station at Wageningen in the Netherlands. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Martinus Willem Beijerinck (March 16, 1851 - January 1, 1931) was a Dutch microbiologist and botanist. ... Dmitry Iosifovich Ivanovsky (1864-1920) was a Russian-Ukrainian biologist who was the first to discover viruses (1892). ... Wendell Meredith Stanley (August 16, 1904 – June 15, 1971) was an American biochemist, virologist and Nobel prize laureate. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... Heinz Ludwig Fraenkel-Conrat (July 29, 1910 – April 10, 1999) was a biochemist, famous for his viral research. ... Robley Cook Williams (1908 - January 3, 1995) was an early biophysicist and virologist. ... A capsid is the outer shell of a virus. ...


The crystalographer Rosalind Franklin worked for Stanley for about a month at Berkeley, and later designed and built a model of TMV for the 1958 World's Fair at Brussels. In 1958, she speculated that the virus was hollow, not solid, and hypothesized that the RNA of TMV is single-stranded. This conjecture was proven to be correct after her death and is now know to be the + strand. Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 – 16 April 1958) was an English physical chemist and crystallographer who made important contributions to the understanding of the fine structures of DNA, viruses, coal and graphite. ... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... The Atomium Expo 58, also known as the Brussels World’s Fair, was held from April 17 to October 19, 1958. ... Nickname: Map showing the location of Brussels in Belgium Coordinates: Country Belgium Region Brussels-Capital Region Founded 979 Founded (Region) June 18, 1989 Government  - Mayor (Municipality) Freddy Thielemans Area  - Region 162 km²  (62. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers, that acts as a messenger between DNA and ribosomes, and that is also responsible for making proteins out of amino acids. ...


Tobacco mosaic virus has a rod-like appearance. Its capsid is made from 2134 molecules of coat protein (see image above) and one molecule of genomic RNA 6401 bases long. The coat protein self assembles into the rod like helical structure (16.3 proteins per helix turn) around the RNA which forms a hairpin loop structure (see Electron Micrograph below). The protein monomer consists of 158 aminoacids which are assembled into four main alpha-helices, which are joined by a prominent loop proximal to the axis of the virion. Virions are ~300 nm in length and ~18 nm in diameter. Negatively stained electron microphotographs show a distinct inner channel of ~4 nm. The RNA is located at a radius of ~6 nm and is protected from the action of cellular enzymes by the coat protein. There are three RNA nucleotides per protein monomer. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Electron microphotograph of TMV particles
Electron microphotograph of TMV particles

The amino acid sequence of TMV's coat protein has been published in "American Chemical Society's Chemical Abstracts" in 1972 as a single word, Acetylseryltyrosylserylisol...serine, which supposedly is the 3rd longest word in the English language. Download high resolution version (675x675, 97 KB)Electron micrograph of TMV particles T. Moravec, File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (675x675, 97 KB)Electron micrograph of TMV particles T. Moravec, File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This 1185-letter word is the chemical name for Coat Protein, Tobacco Mosaic Virus, Dahlemense Stain. It is supposedly the longest word in the English language. ... There are endless debates over what is the longest word in the English language, demonstrating that the idea of what constitutes a word is not as straightforward as it seems. ...


In plants, tobacco mosaic virus leads to severe crop losses. It is known to infect members of nine plant families, and at least 125 individual species, including tobacco, tomato, pepper, cucumbers, and a number of ornamental flowers. There are many different strains.


The huge scientific literature about TMV and its choice for many pioneering investigations in structural molecular biology, X-ray diffraction, virus assembly and disassembly, and so on, are fundamentally due to the large quantities that can be obtained, plus the fact that it does not infect animals. After growing a few infected tobacco plants in a greenhouse and a few simple laboratory procedures, a scientist can easily produce several grams of virus. So TMV can be treated almost as an organic chemical, rather than an infective agent.


Further reading

  • Creager, Angela N. The Life of a Virus: Tobacco Mosaic Virus as an Experimental Model, 1930-1965. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2002.


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External links

  • TMV-Structure, Replication,Infection
  • Description of plant viruses - TMV - contains information on symptoms, hosts species, purification etc.
  • [1] Further information
  • [2] Electron microscope image of TM

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease (1437 words)
Tobacco mosaic virus is one of the most common causes of virus diseases of plants in Minnesota.
Although tobacco mosaic virus may infect many other types of plants, it generally is restricted to plants that are grown in seedbeds and transplanted or plants that are handled frequently.
Thus, control of tobacco mosaic virus is primarily focused on reducing and eliminating sources of the virus and limiting the spread by insects.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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