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Encyclopedia > Tobacco
Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking
Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking
Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes
Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes

Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. Its most common usage is for smoking (see tobacco smoking) in the form of a cigarette or cigar. Tobacco has been growing on both American continents since about 6000 BC and began being used by native cultures at about 3000 BC. It has been smoked in one form or another since about 2000 BC. There are drawings of ancient Mayans smoking cigars from about 1400 BC. Tobacco has a very long history of use in Native American culture and played an important part in the foundation of the United States of America, going back to colonial times and the original Jamestown settlement. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Leaves are an Icelandic five-piece alternative rock band who came to prominence in 2002 with their debut album, Breathe, drawing comparisons to groups such as Coldplay and Doves. ... Species See text Nicotiana refers to a genus of short-leafed plants of the nightshade family indigenous to North and South America. ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... Unlit filtered cigarettes. ... For other uses, see Cigar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... In general, the word colonial means of or relating to a colony. In United States history, the term Colonial is used to refer to the period before US independence. ...


Tobacco is commercially available almost everywhere in dried, cured, and natural forms. In addition to being consumed as cigarettes and cigars, it can be smoked in a stem pipe, water pipe, or hookah. Tobacco can also be chewed, "dipped" (placed between the cheek and gum), or sniffed into the nose as finely powdered snuff. Many countries set a minimum smoking age, regulating the purchase and use of tobacco products. Bhutan is the only country in the world where tobacco sales are illegal.[1] According to the World Health Organization, tobacco smoke is the second biggest cause of death worldwide, just between hunger and malaria, having killed 100 million people in the 20th century, and predicted to kill one billion in the 21st century.[2] G. H. Hardy smoking a pipe of tobacco A smoking pipe for tobacco smoking typically consists of a small chamber (the bowl) for the combustion of the tobacco to be smoked and a thin stem (shank) that ends in a mouthpiece (the bit). ... A system of copper water tubes used in a radiator heating system. ... Egyptian hookah Hookah (Hindi: , Urdu: hukka) or shisha (Arabic: ‎, Hebrew: נרגילה) or (Turkish:nargile) is a single or multi-stemmed (often glass-based) water pipe device for smoking. ... The minimum legal age to purchase cigarettes or tobacco products varies from country to country with 18 being the most common. ... WHO redirects here. ...


All methods of tobacco consumption result in varying quantities of nicotine being absorbed into the user's bloodstream. Over time, tolerance and dependence develop. Absorption quantity, frequency, and speed seem to have a direct relationship with how strong a dependence (or addiction) and tolerance, if any, might be created. [3] [4]. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with consumption (economics). ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Absorption, in chemistry, is a physical or chemical phenomenon or a process in which atoms, molecules, or ions enter some bulk phase - gas, liquid or solid material. ... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ... In physiology, tolerance occurs when an organism builds up a resistance to the effects of a substance after repeated exposure. ... A chemical dependency is such a strong dependency on a substance that it becomes necessary to have this substance just to function properly; The need of a substance developed from abusing the substance, requiring the substance for survival, like the need for food, or water See also: addiction drug tolerance... This article is about the concept of addiction. ...

Contents

History

Tobacco flower, leaves, and buds
Tobacco flower, leaves, and buds

Tobacco had already long been used in the Americas when European settlers arrived and introduced the practice to Europe, where it became hugely popular. At extremely high doses, tobacco becomes hallucinogenic[citation needed]; accordingly, Native Americans did not always use the drug recreationally. Rather, it was often consumed in extraordinarily high quantities and used as an entheogen; among some tribes, this was done only by experienced shamans or medicine men. Eastern North American tribes would carry large amounts of tobacco in pouches as a readily accepted trade item and would often smoke it in pipes, either in defined ceremonies that were considered sacred, or to seal a bargain[5], and they would smoke it at such occasions in all stages of life, even in childhood[6]. It was believed that tobacco was a gift from the Creator and that the exhaled tobacco smoke was capable of carrying one's thoughts and prayers to heaven[7]. Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 445 KB)Native American Tobaccoo flower and buds File links The following pages link to this file: Tobacco ... Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 445 KB)Native American Tobaccoo flower and buds File links The following pages link to this file: Tobacco ... The general group of pharmacological agents commonly known as hallucinogens can be divided into three broad categories: psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational rather than medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... This entry covers entheogens as psychoactive substances used in a religious or shamanic context. ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... Medicine man is an English term used to describe Native American religious figures; such individuals are analogous to shamans. ... A Lakota (Sioux) peace pipe pipestem, without the pipe itself, displayed at the United States Library of Congress A peace pipe, also called a calumet or medicine pipe, is a ceremonial smoking pipe used by many Native American tribes, traditionally as a token of peace. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ...


In addition to being smoked, uncured tobacco was often eaten, drunk as tobacco juice, or used in enemas. Early missionaries often reported on the ecstatic state caused by tobacco. As its use spread into Western cultures, however, it was no longer used in such large quantities or for entheogenic purposes. Religious use of tobacco is still common among many indigenous peoples, particularly those of South America and North America. Among the Cree and Ojibway of Canada and the north central United States, it is offered to the Creator with a prayer; it is used in sweatlodges, pipe ceremonies, smudging, and presented as a gift. A gift of tobacco is tradition when asking an Ojibway elder a question of a spiritual nature. Because of its sacred nature, tobacco abuse (thoughtlessly and addictively chain smoking) is seriously frowned upon by the Algonquian tribes of Canada, as it is believed that if one so abuses the plant, it will abuse that person in return, causing sickness[8]. Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Cree (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Chippewa, see Chippewa (disambiguation). ...


With the arrival of Europeans, tobacco became one of the primary products fueling the colonization of the future American South, long before the creation of the United States. The initial colonial expansion, fueled by the desire to increase tobacco production, was one cause of the first colonial conflicts with Native Americans and became a driving factor for the use of African slave labor. This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... The slave trade in Africa has existed for thousands of years. ...


In 1609, John Rolfe arrived at the Jamestown Settlement in Virginia. He is credited as the first man to successfully raise tobacco for commercial use at Jamestown. The tobacco raised in Virginia at that time, Nicotiana rustica (often referred to as Brown Gold), was not to the liking of the Europeans, but Rolfe had brought some seed for Nicotiana tabacum with him from Bermuda. Shortly after arriving, his first wife died, and he married Pocahontas, a daughter of Chief Powhatan. Tobacco was used as currency by the Virginia settlers for years, and Rolfe was able to make his fortune farming it for export at Varina Farms Plantation. When he left for England with Pocahontas, he was wealthy. When Rolfe returned to Jamestown following Pocahontas's death in England, he continued to improve the quality of tobacco. By 1620, 40,000 pounds of tobacco were shipped to England. By the time John Rolfe died in 1622, Jamestown was thriving as a producer of tobacco, and Jamestown's population would top 4,000. Tobacco led to the importation of the colony's first black slaves in 1619. In the year 1616, 2,500 pounds of tobacco were produced in Jamestown, Virginia, quickly rising up to 119,000 pounds in 1620. This article is about the Virginia colonist. ... Sketch of Jamestown c. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Nicotiana rustica is a very potent variety of tobacco. ... Species N. glauca N. longiflora N. rustica N. sylvestris N. tabacum Ref: ITIS 30562 as of August 26, 2005 Tobacco (, L.) refers to a genus of broad-leafed plants of the nightshade family indigenous to North and South America, or to the dried and cured leaves of such plants. ... A 1616 engraving of Pocahontas by Simone van de Passe. ... This article is about the Algonquian tribe. ... Varina (Va-ry-nah) is a former town and current magisterial district in easternmost portion of Henrico County, Virginia, USA. It was named for Varina Farms, a plantation on the James River about 35 miles upstream from the Jamestown Settlement in the Virginia Colony, and across the river from Sir... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... // Jamestown may refer to: Jamestown, South Australia Mount Olive-Silverstone-Jamestown, a neighbourhood of Toronto, Ontario Jamestown, Ghana, a district of the city of Accra Jamestown, Dublin Jamestown, Laois Jamestown, Offaly Jamestown, County Leitrim I live there! Jamestown, Saint Helena, a harbour and the capital of Saint Helena Jamestown, the... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

This 1670 painting shows enslaved Africans working in the tobacco sheds of a colonial tobacco plantation
This 1670 painting shows enslaved Africans working in the tobacco sheds of a colonial tobacco plantation

The importation of tobacco into Europe was not without resistance and controversy, even in the 17th century. King James I of England (James VI of Scotland) wrote a famous polemic titled A Counterblaste to Tobacco in 1604 (published in 1672). In his essay, the king denounced tobacco use as "[a] custome lothsome to the eye, hatefull to the Nose, harmefull to the braine, dangerous to the Lungs, and in the blacke stinking fume thereof, neerest resembling the horrible Stigian smoke of the pit that is bottomelesse." In that same year, an English statute was enacted that placed a heavy protective tariff on every pound of tobacco brought into England. Tobacco plants From http://www. ... Tobacco plants From http://www. ... James VI and I King of England, Scotland and Ireland James VI of Scotland and I of England (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was a King who ruled over England, Scotland and Ireland, and was the first Sovereign to reign in the three realms simultaneously. ... This article is about the country. ... Look up Polemic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Counterblast to Tobacco was written by James I of England in 1604. ... The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ... Look up pound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, tobacco continued to be the cash crop of the Virginia Colony, along with The Carolinas. Large tobacco warehouses filled the areas near the wharfs of new thriving towns such as Dumfries on the Potomac, Richmond and Manchester at the fall line (head of navigation) on the James, and Petersburg on the Appomattox. The Carolinas is a term used in the United States to refer collectively to the states of North and South Carolina. ... Dumfries is a town located in Prince William County, Virginia. ... The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ... Nickname: Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... Factories at Manchester, Virginia, looking across James River, circa 1865 Manchester, Virginia was an independent city in Virginia in the United States. ... The fall line has meanings in both geographical features and the sport of alpine skiing. ... Head of navigation is a term used to describe the farthest point above the mouth of a river that can be navigated by ships. ... The James River at Cartersville The James River in the U.S. state of Virginia is 660 km (410 miles) long including its Jackson River source and drains a watershed comprising 27,019 km² (10,432 square miles). ... Nickname: Location in the State of Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States State Virginia County Independent city Founded December 17, 1748 Government  - Mayor Annie M. Mickens Area  - City  23. ... The Appomattox River at Matoaca, Virginia The Appomattox River is a tributary of the James River, approximately 137 mi (220 km), in central and eastern Virginia in the United States. ...


Until 1883, tobacco excise tax accounted for one third of internal revenue collected by the United States government.


A historian of the American South in the late 1860s reported on typical usage in the region where it was grown:[9]

The chewing of tobacco was well-nigh universal. This habit had been widespread among the agricultural population of America both North and South before the war. Soldiers had found the quid a solace in the field and continued to revolve it in their mouths upon returning to their homes. Out of doors where his life was principally led the chewer spat upon his lands without offence to other men, and his homes and public buildings were supplied with spittoons. Brown and yellow parabolas were projected to right and left toward these receivers, but very often without the careful aim which made for clean living. Even the pews of fashionable churches were likely to contain these familiar conveniences. The large numbers of Southern men, and these were of the better class (officers in the Confederate army and planters, worth $20,000 or more, and barred from general amnesty) who presented themselves for the pardon of President Johnson, while they sat awaiting his pleasure in the ante-room at the White House, covered its floor with pools and rivulets of their spittle. An observant traveller in the South in 1865 said that in his belief seven-tenths of all persons above the age of twelve years, both male and female, used tobacco in some form. Women could be seen at the doors of their cabins in their bare feet, in their dirty one-piece cotton garments, their chairs tipped back, smoking pipes made of corn cobs into which were fitted reed stems or goose quills. Boys of eight or nine years of age and half-grown girls smoked. Women and girls "dipped" in their houses, on their porches, in the public parlors of hotels and in the streets.

As a lucrative crop, tobacco has been the subject of a great deal of biological and genetic research. The economic impact of Tobacco Mosaic disease was the impetus that led to the isolation of Tobacco mosaic virus, the first virus to be identified; the fortunate coincidence that it is one of the simplest viruses and can self-assemble from purified nucleic acid and protein led in turn to the rapid advancement of the field of virology. The 1946 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was shared by Wendell Meredith Stanley for his 1935 work crystallizing the virus and showing that it still remains active. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Virology, often considered a part of microbiology or of pathology, is the study of organic viruses: their structure and classification, their ways to infect and exploit cells to reproduce and cause disease, the techniques to isolate and culture them, and their potential uses in research and therapy. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... Wendell Meredith Stanley (August 16, 1904 – June 15, 1971) was an American biochemist, virologist and Nobel prize laureate. ...


Tobacco in the Ottoman Empire

Tobacco was predominant in the Ottoman Empire and helped to create an early modern sociability. Tobacco first arrived in the Ottoman Empire in the late sixteenth century.[10] By 1700, Europe and Asia had tobacco leaves and soon enough it reached the Middle East[11], which was about a hundred years after it had arrived in Europe. Tobacco arrived with the same enthusiasm as coffee did. Tobacco surpassed coffee as another popular commodity[12] and became very popular among people of all statuses. With tobacco leaves coming into the region and being produced locally, the price of tobacco decreased substantially over the years, therefore more and more people were smoking tobacco.[13] Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Sociability is the ability to be fond of the company of others, people who are sociable are inclined to conversating with others. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ...



Because the Ottoman Empire covered a large area of land throughout the Mediterranean, there were many people with many different opinions. Since the arrival of tobacco in the Ottoman Empire, there has almost always been some sort of anti-tobacco protest. Laws were created to restrict tobacco smoking in certain areas such as in the markets or coffeehouses, which did eventually occur.[14] People from North Africa were especially anti-tobacco and were actively aggressive towards people who did smoke tobacco, and were not afraid to use extreme measures to get their message across. Although smoking had become a recreational activity, certain groups of people sought to tear down the power and addiction it was having over people.[15] Certain groups protested that smoking tobacco was a immoral[16], other groups protested it was bad for your health[17], and other groups protested that smoking tobacco was becoming too much of a social activity and people wanted more leisure time than before.[18] Pro-tobacco leaders claimed that it was “God’s creation” and because it came from the earth, there was nothing wrong with consuming something that the earth provided.[19] The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Tigers playing in the water Recreation is the employment of time in a non-profitable way, in many ways also a refreshment of ones body or mind. ... This article is about the concept of addiction. ... Morality is a complex of principles based on cultural, religious, and philosophical concepts and beliefs, by which an individual determines whether his or her actions are right or wrong. ... A relaxing afternoon of leisure: a young girl resting in a pool. ...



When tobacco first arrived in the Ottoman Empire, it attracted the attention of doctors[20] and became a commonly prescribed medicine for many things. Tobacco juice was even prescribed as an antidote for poison.[21] Although tobacco was initially accepted as a helpful medicine, further study of the symptoms of smoking tobacco led to other the negative effects of smoking, which were usually brought forth by anti-tobacco supporters. They would make claims that smoking caused dizziness, fatigue, dulling of the senses, a foul odour in the mouth and breath and usually took a novice smoker to get accustomed to it.[22] These claims are proved correct today with modern science and technology, but at that point in time, their claims were based on reason and bias. For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Many different terms are often used to describe what is collectively known as dizziness. ... Exhaustion redirects here. ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ...



Tobacco in the Ottoman Empire became as popular as it did, surpassing coffee’s popularity because people from all statuses, including both men and women, and even children were able to enjoy the privileges of this affordable recreational activity.

In 1682, a Damascene jurist named Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi declared: “Tobacco has now become extremely famous in all the countries of Islam ... People of all kinda have used it and devoted themselves to it ... I have even seen young children of about five years applying themselves to it.”[23]

Smoking tobacco became a great enjoyment for women as they were just as able as men to enjoy their leisure time smoking. With tobacco, there was a level of equality between men and women.

In Damascus in 1750, a townsmen made an observation of how there was “a number of women greater than the men, sitting along the bank of the Barada River. They were eating and drinking, and drinking coffee and smoking tobacco just as the men were doing.”[24]

Further Readings

  • Murphey, Rhoads. Studies on Ottoman Society and Culture: 16th-18th Centuries. Burlington, VT: Ashgate: Variorum, 2007 ISBN: 9780754659310 ISBN: 0754659313
  • Price, Jacob M. “Tobacco Use and Tobacco Taxation: A battle of Interests in Early Modern Europe”. Consuming Habits: Drugs in History and Anthropology. Jordan Goodman, et al. New York: Routledge, 1995 166-169 ISBN: 0-415-09039-3

Etymology

The Spanish word "tabaco" is thought to have its origin in Arawakan language, particularly, in the Taino language of the Caribbean, said to refer to a roll of these leaves (according to Bartolome de Las Casas, 1552) or to the "tabago", a kind of y-shaped pipe for sniffing tobacco smoke (according to Oviedo, the leaves themselves were referred to as Cohiba, but Sp. tobacco (also It. tobacco) was commonly used to define medicinal herbs from 1410, originating from the Arabic "tabbaq", reportedly since the 9th century, as the name of various herbs. Coming from an Arabic origin, the word might then be European, and later applied to this plant from the Americas The Arawakan languages are an indigenous language family of South America and the Caribbean. ... The Taíno are the pre-Hispanic Amerindian inhabitants of the Greater Antilles, which includes Cuba, Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), Puerto Rico, Jamaica and the Bahamas. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Bartolom de Las Casas Bartolom de Las Casas (1484 – July 17, 1566) was a 16th century Spanish priest, the first ordained in the New World and the first Bishop of Chiapas. ... For other uses, see Herb (disambiguation). ... Arabic redirects here. ...


Cultivation

Broadleaf tobacco
Broadleaf tobacco
Tobacco plants growing in a field in Intercourse, Pennsylvania
Tobacco plants growing in a field in Intercourse, Pennsylvania

Tobacco plants From http://www. ... Tobacco plants From http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 373 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1840 × 2953 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 373 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1840 × 2953 pixel, file size: 2. ... Many Amish and Mennonite communities reside in this area Intercourse, Pennsylvania is an unincorporated village in Leacock Township, Lancaster County in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...

Sowing

Tobacco seeds are scattered onto the surface of the soil, as their germination is activated by light. In colonial Virginia, seedbeds were fertilized with wood ash or animal manure (frequently powdered horse manure). Seedbeds were then covered with branches to protect the young plants from frost damage. These plants were left to grow until around April. A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... Not to be confused with Gemination in phonetics. ... Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Look up damage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In the nineteenth century, young plants came under increasing attack from the flea beetle (Epitrix cucumeris or Epitrix pubescens), causing destruction of half the United States tobacco crop in 1876. In the years afterward, many experiments were attempted and discussed to control the flea beetle. By 1880 it was discovered that replacing the branches with a frame covered by thin fabric would effectively protect plants from the beetle. This practice spread until it became ubiquitous in the 1890s. For other uses, see Beetle (disambiguation). ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to retain or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ...


Today, in the United States, unlike other countries, tobacco is often fertilized with the mineral apatite in order to partially starve the plant for nitrogen, which changes the taste. This (together with the use of licorice and other additives) accounts for the different flavor of American cigarettes from those available in other countries. There is, however, some suggestion that this may have adverse health effects attributable to the content of apatite[citation needed]. Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite, and chlorapatite, named for high concentrations of OH-, F-, or Cl- ions, respectively, in the crystal. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Tobacco smoking is the act of smoking tobacco products, especially cigarettes and cigars. ... Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite, and chlorapatite, named for high concentrations of OH-, F-, or Cl- ions, respectively, in the crystal. ...


Transplanting

After the plants have reached a certain height, they are transplanted into fields. This was originally done by making a relatively large hole in the tilled earth with a tobacco peg, then placing the small plant in the hole. Various mechanical tobacco planters were invented throughout the late 19th and early 20th century to automate this process, making a hole, fertilizing it, and guiding a plant into the hole with one motion.


Harvest

Basma leaves drying in the sun at Pomak village of Xanthi, Greece
Basma leaves drying in the sun at Pomak village of Xanthi, Greece

Tobacco can be harvested in several ways. In the oldest method, the entire plant is harvested at once by cutting off the stalk at the ground with a sickle. In the nineteenth century, bright tobacco began to be harvested by pulling individual leaves off the stalk as they ripened. The leaves ripen from the ground upwards, so a field of tobacco may go through several so-called "pullings," more commonly known as topping (topping always refers to the removal of the tobacco flower before the leaves are systematically removed and, eventually, entirely harvested. The stalks are left as compost to postpone over-farming and thus soil lacking essential nutrients for a strong crop the following year. "Cropping," "Topping," "Pulling", and "Priming" are terms for removing mature leaves from tobacco crops. Leaves are cropped as they ripen, from the bottom to the top of the stalk. The first crop of leaves, located near the base of the tobacco stalk, are called "sand lugs" in more rural southern tobacco states, where these leaves are often against the ground, coated with sand and clay, splashed upon them when it rains. Sand lugs weigh the most, and are most difficult to work with. Their weight is due to their large size and the added weight of caked-on soil; slaves would "lug" each stack to the stringer, a typically female slave who bundled each stack of leaves. Eventually workers carried the tobacco and placed it on sleds or trailers. As the industrial revolution approached America, the harvesting wagons used to transport leaves were equipped with man powered stringers, an apparatus which used twine to attach leaves onto a poll. In modern times, large fields are harvested by a single piece of farm equipment, although topping the flower and in some cases the plucking of immature leaves is still done by hand. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4768x3366, 2422 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tobacco ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4768x3366, 2422 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tobacco ... Basma or West Bartaa (Arabic:بسم)is an Israeli-Arab local council located on the Green Line adjacent to the Palestinian town of Bartaa located in the Seam Zone. ... Muslim Bulgarians (also Bulgarian Mohammedans, bul:Българи-мохамедани; local: Pomak, Ahrian, Poganets, Marvak, Poturnak) are descendants of Christian Bulgarians who were forcibly converted to Islam by the Turks, during the 16th and the 18th century. ... Xanthi (Greek: Ξάνθη) is a city in northern Greece, in the East Macedonia and Thrace periphery. ... Look up Harvest in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Some farmers still use "tobacco harvesters." They are not very efficient yet highly cost effective for harvesting premium and rare strains of tobacco. The harvester trailer for in-demand crops are now pulled by gasoline fueled tractors. The croppers pull the leaves off in handfuls, and pass these to the "stringer", which bundles the leaves to a four-sided pole with twine. These poles are hung until the harvester is full; the poles are then placed in much larger wagon to be pulled by modern farm tractors to their destination. For rare tobacco's, they are often cured on the farm. Traditionally, the slaves who cropped, pulled etc... had a very tough time with the first pull of the large, dirty, base leaves in particular. The leaves slapped their faces, dark tobacco sap which dries into a pitch black tar covered their bodies, and the soil stuck to the tar. There was one perk, however: nicotine, the addictive psychotropic stimulant in tobacco acts as a powerful insecticide. Slaves could enjoy a bug free day of forced labor when harvesting tobacco. The croppers were men, and the stringers, seated on the higher elevated seats were women or children. The harvesters had places for one team of ten workers: eight people cropping and stringing, plus a packer who moved the heavy strung poles of wet green tobacco from the stringers and packed them onto the pallet section of the harvester, plus a horseman, making the total crew of each harvester 10 people. Interestingly, the outer seats are suspended from the harvester - slung out over to fit into the aisles of tobacco. As these seats are suspended it is important to balance the weight of the two outside teams (similar to a playground see-saw). Having too heavy or light a person in an unbalanced combination often results in the harvester tipping over especially when turning around at the end of a lane. Water tanks are a common feature on the harvester due to heat, and danger of dehydration for the slaves. For the playground object see Seesaw See-Saw is a female JPop/JRock duo (formerly a trio) consisting of Chiaki Ishikawa (lead vocals) and Yuki Kajiura (back-up vocals, keyboards). ...


Curing

Myrtleford, Victoria, Australia: historic tobacco kiln
Myrtleford, Victoria, Australia: historic tobacco kiln

Cut plants or pulled leaves are immediately transferred to tobacco barns (kiln houses), where they will be cured. Curing methods vary with the type of tobacco grown, and tobacco barn design varies accordingly. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 564 KB) Summary A Tobacco drying hut at Myrtleford, Victoria, Australia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 564 KB) Summary A Tobacco drying hut at Myrtleford, Victoria, Australia. ... Myrtleford (postcode: 3737, ) is a town in Victoria, Australia. ...


Air-cured tobacco is hung in well-ventilated barns and allowed to dry over a period of four to eight weeks.


Fire-cured tobacco is hung in large barns where fires of hardwoods are kept on continuous or intermittent low smoulder and takes between three days and ten weeks, depending on the process and the tobacco.


Flue-cured tobacco was originally strung onto tobacco sticks, which were hung from tier-poles in curing barns (Aus: kilns, also traditionally called Oasts). These barns have flues which run from externally fed fire boxes, heat-curing the tobacco without exposing it to smoke, slowly raising the temperature over the course of the curing. The process will generally take about a week. Charcoal Kilns, California Gold Kiln, Victoria, Australia Hop kiln. ...


Traditional curing barns in the U.S. are falling into disuse, as the trend toward using prefabricated metal curing machines within factories allows greater efficiency. These machines are also found on location at tobacco farms in 2nd world countries.


Curing and subsequent aging allows for the slow oxidation and degradation of carotenoids in tobacco leaf. This produces certain compounds in the tobacco leaves very similar and give a sweet hay, tea, rose oil, or fruity aromatic flavor that contribute to the "smoothness" of the smoke. Starch is converted to sugar which glycates protein and is oxidized into advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), a caramelization process that also adds flavor. Inhalation of these AGEs in tobacco smoke contributes to atherosclerosis and cancer.[25] The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by huge mats of algae and bacteria. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... Rose oil, meaning either rose otto or rose absolute, is the essential oil extracted from the petals of various types of rose. ... Glycation is the result of a sugar-reducing molecule, such as fructose or glucose, bonding to a protein or lipid molecule without the controlling action of an enzyme. ... Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) are the result of a chain of chemical reactions after an initial glycation reaction. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


Non-aged or low quality tobacco is often flavored with these naturally occurring compounds. Tobacco flavoring is a significant source of revenue for the international multi-million dollar flavor and fragrance industry.


The aging process continues for a period of months and often extends into the post-curing harvest process.


After tobacco is cured, it is moved from the curing barn into a storage area for processing. If whole plants were cut, the leaves are removed from the tobacco stalks in a process called stripping. For both cut and pulled tobacco, the leaves are then sorted into different grades. In colonial times, the tobacco was then "prized" into hogsheads for transportation. In bright tobacco regions, prizing was replaced by stacking wrapped "hands" into loose piles to be sold at auction. Today, most cured tobacco is baled before sales are made under pre-sold contracts.


Types

Aromatic Fire-cured

Aromatic Fire-cured smoking tobacco is a robust variety of tobacco used as a condimental for pipe blends. It is cured by smoking over gentle fires. In the United States, it is grown in the western part of Tennessee, Western Kentucky and in Virginia. Fire-cured tobacco grown in Kentucky and Tennessee is used in some chewing tobaccos, moist snuff, some cigarettes and as a condiment leaf in pipe tobacco blends. It has a rich, slightly floral taste, and adds body and aroma to the blend. This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ...


Another fire-cured tobacco is Latakia and is produced from oriental varieties of N. tabacum. The leaves are cured and smoked over smoldering fires of local hardwoods and aromatic shrubs in Cyprus and Syria. Latakia has a pronounced flavor and a very distinctive smoky aroma, and is used in Balkan and English-style pipe tobacco blends. Latakia tobacco is a specially prepared tobacco originally produced in Syria and named after the port city of Latakia. ...

Mowing young tobacco in a greenhouse of half million plants Hemingway, South Carolina

Hemingway is a town located in Williamsburg County, South Carolina. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83...

Brightleaf tobacco

Brightleaf is commonly known as "Virginia tobacco", often regardless of which state they are planted. Prior to the American Civil War, most tobacco grown in the US was fire-cured dark-leaf. This type of tobacco was planted in fertile lowlands, used a robust variety of leaf, and was either fire cured or air cured. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


Sometime after the War of 1812, demand for a milder, lighter, more aromatic tobacco arose. Ohio, Pennsylvania and Maryland all innovated quite a bit with milder varieties of the tobacco plant. Farmers around the country experimented with different curing processes. But the breakthrough didn't come until around 1839. This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N...

Brightleaf tobacco leaf ready for harvest. When it turns yellow-green the sugar content is at its peak, and it will cure to a deep golden color with mild taste. The leaves are harvested progressively up the stem from the base, as they ripen.
Brightleaf tobacco leaf ready for harvest. When it turns yellow-green the sugar content is at its peak, and it will cure to a deep golden color with mild taste. The leaves are harvested progressively up the stem from the base, as they ripen.

It had been noticed for centuries that sandy, highland soil produced thinner, weaker plants. Captain Abisha Slade, of Caswell County, North Carolina had a good deal of infertile, sandy soil, and planted the new "gold-leaf" varieties on it. Slade owned a slave, Stephen, who around 1839 accidentally produced the first real bright tobacco. He used charcoal to restart a fire used to cure the crop. The surge of heat turned the leaves yellow. Using that discovery, Slade developed a system for producing bright tobacco, cultivating on poorer soils and using charcoal for heat-curing. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x2438, 2039 KB) Summary Brightleaf tobacco leaf ready for harvest. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x2438, 2039 KB) Summary Brightleaf tobacco leaf ready for harvest. ... Caswell County Courthouse - 2005 Caswell County redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ...


Slade made many public appearances to share the bright-leaf process with other farmers. Prosperous and outgoing, he built a brick house in Yanceyville, North Carolina, and at one time had many servants.


News spread through the area pretty quickly. The infertile sandy soil of the Appalachian piedmont was suddenly profitable, and people rapidly developed flue-curing techniques, a more efficient way of smoke-free curing. Farmers discovered that Bright leaf tobacco needs thin, starved soil, and those who could not grow other crops found that they could grow tobacco. Formerly unproductive farms reached 20–35 times their previous worth. By 1855, six Piedmont counties adjoining Virginia ruled the tobacco market. Areas included within the Appalachian Regional Commissions charter. ... The James River winds its way among piedmont hills in central Virginia. ...


By the outbreak of the Civil War, the town of Danville, Virginia actually had developed a bright-leaf market for the surrounding area in Caswell County, North Carolina and Pittsylvania County, Virginia. Nickname: River City, City of Churches Motto: A World Class Organization Country United States State Virginia County Independent City  - Mayor R. Wayne Williams, Jr. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Caswell County Courthouse - 2005 Caswell County redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Pittsylvania County is a county located in the state of Virginia. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Danville was also the main railway head for Confederate soldiers going to the front. These brought bright tobacco with them from Danville to the lines, traded it with each other and Union soldiers, and developed quite a taste for it. At the end of the war, the soldiers went home and suddenly there was a national market for the local crop. Caswell and Pittsylvania counties were the only two counties in the South that experienced an increase in total wealth after the war. Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia...

Tobacco blossom: longtitudinal section Hemingway, South Carolina
Tobacco blossom: longtitudinal section Hemingway, South Carolina

longtitudinal section of flower Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 03:53, Nov 9, 2004 (UTC) ( ) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Hemingway is a town located in Williamsburg County, South Carolina. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83...

White burley

In 1865, George Webb of Brown County, Ohio planted Red Burley seeds he had purchased, and found that a few of the seedlings had a whitish, sickly look. He transplanted them to the fields anyway, where they grew into mature plants but retained their light color. The cured leaves had an exceedingly fine texture and were exhibited as a curiosity at the market in Cincinnati. The following year he planted ten acres (40,000 m²) from seeds from those plants, which brought a premium at auction. The air-cured leaf was found to be mild tasting and more absorbent than any other variety. White Burley, as it was later called, became the main component in chewing tobacco, American blend pipe tobacco, and American-style cigarettes. The white part of the name is seldom used today, since red burley, a dark air-cured variety of the mid-1800s, no longer exists. Brown County is a county located in the state of Ohio. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Burley tobacco is a light air-cured tobacco used primarily for cigarette production. ... Cincinnati redirects here. ...


Shade tobacco

It is not well known that the northern US states of Connecticut and Massachusetts are also one of the important tobacco-growing regions of the country. Long before Europeans arrived in the area, Native Americans harvested wild tobacco plants that grew along the banks of the Connecticut River. Today, the Connecticut River valley north of Hartford, Connecticut is known as "Tobacco Valley", and the fields and drying sheds are visible to travelers on the road to and from Bradley International Airport, the major Connecticut airport. The tobacco grown here is known as shade tobacco, and is used as outer wrappers for some of the world's [cigars]]. Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Connecticut River as seen from the French King Bridge in western Massachusetts. ... Hartford redirects here. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... BDL redirects here. ...

Shade grown tobacco field in East Windsor, Connecticut
Shade grown tobacco field in East Windsor, Connecticut

Early Connecticut colonists acquired from the Native Americans the habit of smoking tobacco in pipes and began cultivating the plant commercially, even though the Puritans referred to it as the "evil weed". The plant was outlawed in Connecticut in 1650, but in the 1800s as cigar smoking began to be popular, tobacco farming became a major industry, employing farmers, laborers, local youths, southern African Americans, and migrant workers. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3016 × 2261 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3016 × 2261 pixel, file size: 2. ... East Windsor is a town located in Hartford County, Connecticut. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... This article refers to a colony in politics and history. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ...


Working conditions varied from backbreaking work for young local children, ages 13 and up, to backbreaking exploitation of migrants. Each tobacco plant yields only 18 leaves useful as cigar wrappers, and each leaf requires a great deal of individual manual attention during harvesting. Although the temperature in the curing sheds sometimes exceeds 38 C (100 F), no work is done inside the sheds while the tobacco is being fired.


In 1921, Connecticut tobacco production peaked, at 31,000 acres (125 km²) under cultivation. The rise of cigarette smoking and the decline of cigar smoking have caused a corresponding decline in the demand for shade tobacco, reaching a minimum in 1992 of 2,000 acres (8 km²) under cultivation. Since then, however, cigar smoking has become more popular again, and in 1997 tobacco farming had risen to 4,000 acres (16 km²). However, only 1,050 acres (4.2 km²) of shade tobacco were harvested in the Connecticut Valley in 2006. Connecticut seed is being grown in Ecuador, where labor is very cheap. The industry has weathered some major catastrophes, including a devastating hailstorm in 1929, and an epidemic of brown spot fungus in 2000, but is now in danger of disappearing altogether, given the value of the land to real estate speculators. The older and much less labor intensive Broadleaf plant, which produces an excellent maduro wrapper as well as binder and filler for cigars, is increasing in area in the Connecticut Valley. Tillage (American English), or cultivation (UK) is the agricultural preparation of the soil to receive seeds. ... Tobacco smoking is the act of smoking tobacco products, especially cigarettes and cigars. ... Catastrophe (Gk. ... This article is about the precipitation. ...


Perique

Main article: Perique

Perhaps the most strongly flavored of all tobaccos is the Perique, from Saint James Parish, Louisiana. When the Acadians made their way into this region in 1755, the Choctaw and Chickasaw tribes were cultivating a variety of tobacco with a distinctive flavor. A farmer called Pierre Chenet is credited with first turning this local tobacco into the Perique in 1824 through the technique of pressure-fermentation. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... St. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Choctaw (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chickasaw (disambiguation). ...


Considered the truffle of pipe tobaccos, the Perique is used as a component of many blended pipe tobaccos, but is too strong to be smoked pure. At one time, the freshly moist Perique was also chewed, but none is now sold for this purpose. It is traditionally a pipe tobacco, and is still very popular with pipe-smokers, typically blended with pure Virginia to lend spice, strength, and coolness to the blend. Species Tuber melanosporum Tuber brumale Tuber aestivum Tuber uncinatum Tuber mesentericum Tuber magnatum Truffle describes a group of edible mycorrhizal (symbiotic relationship between fungus and plant) fungi (genus Tuber, class Ascomycetes, division Ascomycota). ... Youth with pipe by Hendrick Jansz Terbrugghen A pipe is a tool used for smoking. ...


Oriental Tobacco

Oriental tobacco is a sun-cured, highly aromatic, small-leafed variety (Nicotiana tabacum) that is grown in Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria, and Macedonia. Oriental tobacco is frequently referred to as "Turkish tobacco", as these regions were all historically part of the Ottoman Empire. Many of the early brands of cigarettes were made mostly or entirely of Oriental tobacco; today, its main use is in blends of pipe and especially cigarette tobacco (a typical American cigarette is a blend of bright Virginia, burley and Oriental). Turkish tobacco, (Nicotiana spp. ... Species N. glauca N. longiflora N. rustica N. sylvestris N. tabacum Ref: ITIS 30562 as of August 26, 2005 Tobacco (, L.) refers to a genus of broad-leafed plants of the nightshade family indigenous to North and South America, or to the dried and cured leaves of such plants. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...


Dokha

Dokha is a tobacco of Iranian origin mixed with leaves, bark, and herbs for smoking in a midwakh. Midwakh: A midwakh is a small arabian pipe, much like a hashpipe, used to smoke dohka in. ...


Wild Tobacco

Wild tobacco is native to the soutwestern United States, Mexico, and parts of South America. It's botanical name is Nicotiana rustica. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Tobacco products

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

Snuff

Main articles: Snuff (tobacco) and Dipping tobacco
Copenhagen snuff tin
Copenhagen snuff tin

Snuff is a generic term for fine-ground smokeless tobacco products. Originally the term referred only to dry snuff, a fine tan dust popular mainly in the eighteenth century. This is often called "Scotch Snuff", a folk-etymology derivation of the scorching process used to dry the cured tobacco by the factory. Snuff powder originated in the UK town of Great Harwood and was famously ground in the town's monument prior to local distribution and transport further up north to Scotland. Snuff is a type of smokeless tobacco. ... Four tins of dipping tobacco: Skoal Straight, Skoal Long Cut Mint, Copenhagen Straight, and Copenhagen Long Cut. ... Copenhagen Snuff Tin, photographed by Gerald Zuckier. ... Copenhagen Snuff Tin, photographed by Gerald Zuckier. ... Location within the British Isles Great Harwood is an urban district in the Hyndburn parliamentary division of Lancashire, England, 4 1/2 miles north east of Blackburn. ...


Types of Snuff

European (dry) snuff is intended to be sniffed up the nose. Snuff is not "snorted" because snuff shouldn't get past the nose, i.e.; into sinuses, throat or lungs. European snuff comes in several varieties: Plain, Toast (fine ground - very dry), "Medicated" (menthol, camphor, eucalyptus, etc.), Scented, and Schmalzler, a German variety. The major brand names of European snuffs are: Toque Tobacco (UK), Bernards (Germany), Fribourg & Treyer (UK), Gawith (UK), Gawith Hoggarth] (UK), Hedges (UK), Lotzbeck (Germany), McChrystal's (UK), Pöschl (Germany) and Wilsons of Sharrow (UK), TUTUN-CTC (Moldova). Hanno Pöschl (b. ... Sharrow Mills. ...


American (moist) snuff is much stronger, and is intended to be dipped. It comes in two varieties—"sweet" and "salty." Until the early 20th century, snuff dipping was popular in the United States among rural people, who would often use sweet barkless twigs to apply it to their gums. Popular brands are Tube Rose and Navy.


Moist snuff is also referred to as dipping tobacco or smokeless tobacco, and its use is known as dipping. In the Southern states, taking a "dip" of moist snuff is called "putting a rub in," the moist snuff in the mouth is known as a "rub." This is occasionally referred to as "snoose" in New England and the Midwest and is derived from the Scandinavian word for snuff, "snus." Like the word, the origins of moist snuff are Scandinavian, and the oldest American brands indicate that by their names. However, snuff may also be called a "dinger" or a "lipper" in New England, and its user may "pack a dinger." American Moist snuff is made from dark fire-cured tobacco that is ground, sweetened, and aged by the factory. Prominent North American brands are Copenhagen, Skoal, Timber Wolf, Chisholm, Grizzly, and Kodiak. Four tins of dipping tobacco: Skoal Straight, Skoal Long Cut Mint, Copenhagen Straight, and Copenhagen Long Cut. ... Dipping tobacco (known more technically as American moist snuff) is a form of smokeless tobacco. ... For other uses, see Snuff (disambiguation). ... Copenhagen tin used on US Smokeless Tobaccos website. ... Skoal tobacco a dipping tobacco (a tobacco snuff product) marketed as smokeless tobacco. ... Different flavors of Grizzly Grizzly tobacco is a dipping tobacco (a tobacco snuff product) marketed as smokeless tobacco. ... Kodiak is a brand of dipping tobacco or smokeless tobacco introduced in 1981. ...


Some modern smokeless tobacco brands, such as Kodiak, have an aggressive nicotine delivery. This is accomplished with a higher dose of nicotine than cigarettes, a high pH level (which helps nicotine enter the blood stream faster), and a high portion of unprotonated (free base) nicotine. For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ...


It has been suggested by The Economist magazine that the ban on smoking tobacco indoors in some areas, such as Britain and New York City, may lead to a resurgence in the popularity of snuff as an alternative to tobacco smoking. Although the large-scale closure of British mines in the 1980s deprived the snuff industry of its major market since snuff became unfashionable (miners took snuff underground instead of smoking to avoid lethal explosions and fires), sales at Britain's largest snuff retailer have reportedly been rising at about 5% per year.[26] The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... No Smoking sign. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ...


Chewing tobacco

Main article: Chewing tobacco
Mail Pouch Barn advertisement: A bit of Americana in southern Ohio. Mail Pouch painted the barns in return for advertising space.
Mail Pouch Barn advertisement: A bit of Americana in southern Ohio. Mail Pouch painted the barns in return for advertising space.

Chewing is one of the oldest ways of consuming tobacco leaves. Native Americans in both North and South America chewed the leaves of the plant, frequently mixed with lime. Modern chewing tobacco is produced in three forms: twist, plug, and scrap. A few manufacturers in the United Kingdom produce particularly strong twist tobacco meant for use in smoking pipes rather than chewing. These twists are not mixed with lime although they may be flavored with whiskey, rum, cherry or other flavors common to pipe tobacco. Chewing tobacco is a smokeless tobacco product. ... Mail Pouch barn ad Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 04:01, Nov 9, 2004 (UTC) ( ) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A Mail Pouch Barn A Mail Pouch Tobacco Barn, or simply Mail Pouch Barn, is a barn with one or more sides painted from 1890 to 1992, in advertisement for the West Virginia Mail Pouch chewing tobacco company, based in Wheeling, West Virginia. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Youth with pipe by Hendrick Jansz Terbrugghen A pipe is a tool used for smoking. ...


Twist is the oldest form. One to three high-quality leaves are braided and twisted into a rope while green, and then are cured in the same manner as other tobacco. This was originally devised by sailors due to fire hazards of smoking at sea, and until recently this was done by farmers for their personal consumption, in addition to other tobacco intended for sale. Modern twist is occasionally lightly sweetened. It is still sold commercially, but rarely seen outside of Appalachia. Popular brands are Mammoth Cave, Moore's Red Leaf, and Cumberland Gap. Users cut a piece off the twist and chew it, expectorating. Areas included within the Appalachian Regional Commissions charter. ...


Plug chewing tobacco is made by pressing together cured tobacco leaves in a sweet (often molasses-based) syrup. Originally this was done by hand, but since the second half of the 19th century leaves were pressed between large tin sheets. The resulting sheet of tobacco is cut into plugs. Like twist, consumers sometimes cut, but more often bite off, a piece of the plug to chew. Major brands are Axton's, Days Work, and Cannonball. Molasses or treacle is a thick syrup by-product from the processing of the sugarcane or sugar beet into sugar. ...


Scrap, or looseleaf chewing tobacco, was originally the excess of plug manufacturing. It is sweetened like plug tobacco, but sold loose in bags rather than a plug. Looseleaf is one of the more popular forms of tobacco in modern times. Among those, popular brands are Red Man, Beechnut, Mail Pouch and Southern Pride. Looseleaf chewing tobacco can also be dipped. For the Japanese television series, see Redman (TV series). ...


Snus

Main article: Snus

Swedish snus is different in that it is made from steam-cured tobacco, made in other ways than fire-cured, and its health effects are markedly different, with epidemiological studies showing in lower rates of cancer and other tobacco-related health problems than cigarettes, American "Chewing Tobacco", Indian Gutka or African other. Prominent Swedish brands are Swedish Match, General, Ettan, and Tre Ankare. In the Scandinavian countries, moist tobacco comes either in loose powder form, to be pressed into a small ball or ovoid either by hand or with the use of a special tool. It is sometimes packaged in small bags, suitable for placing inside the upper lip, called "portion snuff". These small bags keep the loose tobacco from becoming stuck between the users teeth; they also produce less spittle when in contact with mucous membranes inside the mouth which extends the usage time of the tobacco product. Portioned snus of the Granit label. ... Portioned snus of the Granit label. ... Portioned snus of the Granit label. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Gutka street vendor, India Gutka (also spelled gutkha, guttkha, guthka) is a preparation of crushed betel nut, tobacco, and sweet or savory flavorings. ... Snus, a tobacco product marketed by Swedish Match. ... Ettan (The One or Number One) is one of the oldest brands of Swedish snus. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Since it is not smoked, snuff in general generates less of the nitrosamines and other carcinogens in the tar that forms from the partially anaerobic reactions in the smoldering smoked tobacco. The steam curing of snus rather than fire-curing or flue-curing of other smokeless tobaccos has been demonstrated to generate even fewer of such compounds than other options of snuff; 2.8 parts per mil for Ettan brand compared to as high as 127.9 parts per mil in American brands, according to a study by the State of Massachusetts Health Department. It is hypothesized that the widespread use of snus by Swedish men (estimated at 30% of Swedish men, possibly because it is much cheaper than cigarettes), displacing tobacco smoking and other varieties of snuff, is responsible for the incidence of tobacco-related mortality in men being significantly lower in Sweden than any other European country. In contrast, since women are much less likely to use snus, their rate of tobacco-related deaths in Sweden is similar to that in other European countries. Snus is clearly less harmful than other tobacco products; according to Kenneth Warner, director of the University of Michigan Tobacco Research Network, This article is about the U.S. state. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, U-M, UM or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan. ...

"The Swedish government has studied this stuff to death, and to date, there is no compelling evidence that it has any adverse health consequences. ... Whatever they eventually find out, it is dramatically less dangerous than smoking."

Public health researchers maintain that, nevertheless, even the low nitrosamine levels in snus cannot be completely risk free, but snus proponents maintain that inasmuch as snus is used as a substitute for smoking or a means to quit smoking, the net overall effect is positive, similar to the effect of nicotine patches, for instance. Snus is banned in the European Union countries outside of Sweden (regular snus, not portion, is allowed in Denmark and snus is also becoming a regular among Norwegians, as cigarettes are seen by Norwegian popular culture as untrendy and much more unhealthy than snus[citation needed]). Although this is officially for health reasons, it is widely regarded, in fact, as being for economic reasons, since other smokeless tobacco products (mainly from India) associated with much greater risk to health are sold too. A nicotine patch is a transdermal patch that releases nicotine into the body through the skin. ...


Although it lacks the carcinogenicity of high levels of nitrosamines, however, any harmful effects of nicotine will still be seen with snus usage. Current research concentrates on nicotine's effect on the circulatory system and on the pancreas.[citation needed]


On June 11, 2006, Reynolds Tobacco announced that the new be nem marketing brand of Camel snus in Portland, Oregon and Austin, Texas by the end of the month. The product would be manufactured in Sweden, in conjunction with British American Tobacco, manufacturers of BAT snus.[27] is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company (RJR), based in Winston-Salem, North Carolina and founded by Richard Joshua Reynolds in 1874, is the second-largest tobacco firm in the global tobacco industry, and the second-largest U.S. firm (behind Philip Morris). ... Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State Counties Multnomah, Washington, Clackamas Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Type Commission  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - City 376. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... British American Tobacco Plc (LSE: BATS, AMEX: BTI, KLSE: BAT) is the second largest listed tobacco company in the world. ...


Creamy snuff

Creamy snuff is a tobacco paste, consisting of tobacco, clove oil, glycerin, spearmint, menthol, and camphor, and sold in a toothpaste tube. It is marketed mainly to women in India, and is known by the brand names Ipco (made by Asha Industries), Denobac, Tona, Ganesh. It is locally known as "mishri" in some parts of Maharashtra. According to the U.S. NIH-sponsored 2002 Smokeless Tobacco Fact Sheet, it is marketed as a dentifrice. The same factsheet also mentions that it is "often used to clean teeth". The manufacturer recommends letting the paste linger in the mouth before rinsing. Creamy snuff is a tobacco paste, consisting of tobacco, clove oil, glycerin, spearmint, menthol, and camphor, and sold in a toothpaste tube. ... The Titles of Nobility Amendment was a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution, introduced in 1810 by Senator Philip Reed, which did not take effect because it was not ratified by enough state legislatures. ... Popular image of Ganesh In Hinduism, Ganesha (Gaṇeśa, lord of the hosts, also spelled Ganesa and sometimes referred to as Ganesh in Hindi, Bengali and other Indian vernaculars) is the god of wisdom, intelligence, education and prudence. ... NIH can refer to: National Institutes of Health Norwegian School of Sports Sciences: (Norges idrettshøgskole - NIH) Not Invented Here This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Modern toothpaste Toothpaste is a paste used to clean teeth, almost always in conjunction with a toothbrush. ...


Gutka

Main article: Gutka

Gutka (also spelled gutkha, guttkha, guthka) is a preparation of crushed betel nut, tobacco, and sweet or savory flavorings. It is manufactured in India and exported to a few other countries. A mild stimulant, it is sold across India in small, individual-size packets. It is consumed much like chewing tobacco, and like chewing tobacco it is considered responsible for oral cancer and other severe negative health effects. Gutka street vendor, India Gutka (also spelled gutkha, guttkha, guthka) is a preparation of crushed betel nut, tobacco, and sweet or savory flavorings. ...


Used by millions of adults, it is also marketed to children. Some packaging does not mention tobacco as an ingredient, and some brands are pitched as candies - featuring packaging with children's faces and are brightly colored. Some are chocolate-flavored, and some are marketed as breath fresheners.


Tobacco water

Tobacco water is a traditional organic insecticide used in domestic gardening. Tobacco dust can be used similarly. Tobacco Water is a traditional organic insecticide used in domestic gardening. ... Organic farming is a form of agriculture which excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, livestock feed additives, and genetically modified organisms. ... It has been suggested that ovicide be merged into this article or section. ... A gardener Gardening is the practice of growing flowering plants, vegetables, and fruits. ...


It is produced by boiling strong tobacco in water, or by steeping the tobacco in water for a longer period. When cooled the mixture can be applied as a spray, or 'painted' on to the leaves of garden plants, where it will prove deadly to insects.


Basque angulero fishermen kill immature eels (elvers) in an infusion of tobacco leaves before parboiling them in salty water for transportation to market as angulas, a seasonal delicacy.[28] Language(s) Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers other native languages Religion(s) Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an ethnic group who inhabit parts of north-central Spain and southwestern France. ... For other uses, see Eel (disambiguation). ... An infusion is a beverage made by steeping a flavoring substance in hot or boiling water. ... Parboil is an action which refers to partially boiling food in water before finishing cooking it by another method. ...


Tobacco paste treatment for stinging insects

Topical tobacco paste is sometimes recommended as a treatment for wasp, hornet, fire ant, scorpion, and bee stings.[29] An amount equivalent to the contents of a cigarette is mashed in a cup with about a 0.5 to 1 teaspoon of water to make a paste that is then applied to the affected area. Paste has a diameter of 4 to 5 cm (1.5 to 2 inches) and may need to be moistened in dry weather. If made and applied immediately, complete remission is common within 20–30 minutes, at which point the paste can be removed. The next day there may be a some residual itching, but virtually no swelling or redness. There seems to be no scientific evidence, as yet, that this common home remedy works to relieve pain.[30] For about 2 percent of people, allergic reactions can be life-threatening and require emergency treatment. For more on this, see bee stings. For other uses, see Wasp (disambiguation). ... This article refers collectively to all true hornets. ... Species S. conjurata S. daguerrei S. fugax S. invicta S. molesta S. richteri S. solenopsidis S. wagneri S. xyloni  many more, see text Fire ants, sometimes referred to as simply red ants, are stinging ants with over 280 species worldwide. ... Superfamilies Pseudochactoidea Buthoidea Chaeriloidea Chactoidea Iuroidea Scorpionoidea See classification for families. ... For other uses, see Bee sting (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bee sting (disambiguation). ...


See also

Chewing tobacco is a smokeless tobacco product. ... Tobacco Chop Chop is an Australian term for home grown or untaxed, illegal tobacco. ... Unlit filtered cigarettes. ... For other uses, see Cigar (disambiguation). ... Four tins of dipping tobacco: Skoal Straight, Skoal Long Cut Mint, Copenhagen Straight, and Copenhagen Long Cut. ... Both direct inhalation of tobacco smoke and inhalation of second hand smoke have significant negative effects on health. ... The tobacco industry comprises those persons and companies engaged in the growth, preparation for sale, shipment, advertisement, and distribution of tobacco and tobacco-related products. ... The tobacco industry comprises those persons and companies engaged in the growth, preparation for sale, shipment, advertisement, and distribution of tobacco and tobacco-related products. ... Tobacco field This article deals with slaves and tobacco plantation owners in Colonial Virginia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... Turkish tobacco, (Nicotiana spp. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Tobacco smoke used to fill the air of Irish pubs before the smoking ban came into effect on March 29, 2004 Passive smoking is the involuntary inhalation of smoke from tobacco products. ... Shag or rolling tobacco is fine-cut tobacco used to make self made cigarettes by hand rolling the tobacco into rolling paper or injecting it into filter tubes. ... For the food preparation, see Smoking (cooking). ... No Smoking sign. ... A No Smoking sign Smoking cessation (commonly known as quitting, or kicking the habit) is the effort to stop smoking tobacco products. ... Quitline – a telephone based treatment for tobacco cessation Unfortunately, self reported 12-month abstinence rate for motivated smokers trying to quit without assistance is only approximately 7%. [1] One way to assist smokers who want to quit is to establish telephone helplines (quitlines) easily available to all. ... Audrey Hepburn with a cigarette holder in Breakfast at Tiffanys, evoking a sense of flair from the 1960s Since the introduction of tobacco to the world at large in the 1500s, a smoking culture has built around it, and is evident in many parts of the world to this...

Notes

  1. ^ The First Nonsmoking Nation,Slate.com
  2. ^ 2008 report on tobacco smoke, World Health Organization, 2008
  3. ^ Tobacco Facts - Why is Tobacco So Addictive?
  4. ^ Philip Morris Information Sheet
  5. ^ eg. Heckewelder, History, Manners and Customs of the Indian Nations who Once Inhabited Pennsylvania, p. 149 ff.
  6. ^ "They smoke with excessive eagerness ... men, women, girls and boys, all find their keenest pleasure in this way." - Dièreville describing the Mi'kmaq, c. 1699 in Port Royal.
  7. ^ Tobacco: A Study of Its Consumption in the United States, Jack Jacob Gottsegen, 1940, p. 107.
  8. ^ Aboriginal Youth Network / Health Canada, "A Tribe called Quit"
  9. ^ A History of the United States since the Civil War Volume: 1. by Ellis Paxson Oberholtzer; 1917. P 93.
  10. ^ Grehan, p.1
  11. ^ Grehan, p.2
  12. ^ Shechter, p.15
  13. ^ Grehan, p.3
  14. ^ Grehan, p.11
  15. ^ Grehan, p.1
  16. ^ Grehan, p.7,12
  17. ^ Grehan, p.7
  18. ^ Grehan, p.16
  19. ^ Shechter, p.17
  20. ^ Grehan, p.2
  21. ^ Grehan, p.3
  22. ^ Grehan, p.7
  23. ^ Grehan, p.3
  24. ^ Grehan, p.3
  25. ^ Cerami C, Founds H, Nicholl I, Mitsuhashi T, Giordano D, Vanpatten S, Lee A, Al-Abed Y, Vlassara H, Bucala R, Cerami A (1997). "Tobacco smoke is a source of toxic reactive glycation products". PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (PNAS) 94 (25): 13915-20. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.25.13915. PMID 9391127. 
  26. ^ The Economist: Thou shalt not inhale, Issue 8465, February 18th, pg 28
  27. ^ Reynolds Makes Big Move Into Smokeless Tobacco
  28. ^ Angulas
  29. ^ Beverly Sparks, "Stinging and Biting Pests of People" Extension Entomologist of the University of Georgia College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences Cooperative Extension Service.
  30. ^ Glaser, David. Are wasp and bee stings alkali or acid and does neutralising their ph them give sting relief?. www.insectstings.co.uk. Retrieved on 2007-05-03.

Slate is an online news and culture magazine created in 1996 by former New Republic editor Michael Kinsley and owned by Microsoft (as part of MSN). ... WHO redirects here. ... The Mikmaq The Mikmaq (; (also spelled Míkmaq, Migmaq, Miqmac, or priorly Micmac) are a First Nations or Native American people, indigenous to northeastern New England, Canadas Atlantic Provinces, and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Breen, T. H. (1985). Tobacco Culture. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00596-6. Source on tobacco culture in eighteenth-century Virginia pp. 46–55
  • W.K. Collins and S.N. Hawks. "Principles of Flue-Cured Tobacco Production" 1st Edition, 1993
  • Fuller, R. Reese (Spring 2003). Perique, the Native Crop. Louisiana Life.
  • Gately, Iain. Tobacco: A Cultural History of How an Exotic Plant Seduced Civilization. Grove Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8021-3960-4.
  • Graves, John. "Tobacco that is not Smoked" in From a Limestone Ledge (the sections on snuff and chewing tobacco) ISBN 0-394-51238-3
  • Grehan, James. “Smoking and “Early Modern” Sociability: The Great Tobacco Debate in the Ottoman Middle East (Seventeenth to Eighteenth Centuries)”. The American Historical Review, Vol. III, Issue 5. 2006. 22 March 2008

http://www.historycooperative.org.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/journals/ahr/111.5/grehan.html

  • Killebrew, J. B. and Myrick, Herbert (1909). Tobacco Leaf: Its Culture and Cure, Marketing and Manufacture. Orange Judd Company. Source for flea beetle typology (p. 243)
  • Poche, L. Aristee (2002). Perique tobacco: Mystery and history.
  • Tilley, Nannie May. The Bright Tobacco Industry 1860–1929 ISBN 0-405-04728-2. Source on flea beetle prevention (pp. 39–43), and history of flue-cured tobacco
  • Rivenson A., Hoffmann D., Propokczyk B. et al. Induction of lung and pancreas exocrine tumors in F344 rats by tobacco-specific and areca-derived N-nitrosamines. Cancer Res (48) 6912–6917, 1988. (link to abstract; free full text pdf available)
  • Schoolcraft, Henry R. Historical and Statistical Information respecting the Indian Tribes of the United States (Philadelphia, 1851-57)
  • Shechter, Relli. Smoking, Culture and Economy in the Middle East: The Egyptian Tobacco Market 1850-2000. New York: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd., 2006 ISBN 1-84511-1370

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, or CIRC in its French acronym) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organisation of the United Nations. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tobacco - MSN Encarta (1337 words)
Tobacco, plant grown commercially for its leaves and stems, which are rolled into cigars, shredded for use in cigarettes and pipes, processed for chewing, or ground into snuff, a fine powder that is inhaled through the nose.
Tobacco plants are susceptible to attack from a wide range of insects and bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases.
Tobacco products include cigarettes, cigars, and pipe tobacco, which are smoked; snuff, which is inhaled into the nose; and chewing tobacco, which is chewed but not swallowed.
Tobacco - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5576 words)
Tobacco leaves are often smoked (see tobacco smoking) in the form of a cigar or cigarette, or in a smoking pipe, or in a water pipe or a hookah.
Tobacco is also chewed, "dipped" (placed between the cheek and gum), and sniffed into the nose as finely powdered snuff.
The substantially increased risk of developing cancer as a result of tobacco usage seems to be due to the plethora of nitrosamines and other carcinogenic compounds found in tobacco and its residue as a result of anaerobic heating, either due to smoking or to flue-curing or fire-curing.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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