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Encyclopedia > Toad
Toads
Golden Toad, Bufo periglenes
Golden Toad, Bufo periglenes
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Families

At least 9, see article. For the article about amphibians, see toad. ... Download high resolution version (3593x2400, 1410 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Binomial name Bufo periglenes Savage, 1967 The Golden Toad or Monte Verde Toad (Bufo periglenes) lived in handfulls of places in the Monteverde forest located in Costa Rica, a country in Central America. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Suborders Archaeobatrachia Mesobatrachia Neobatrachia The Anura is the order of animals in the class Amphibia that includes frogs and toads. ...

Toad refers to a number of species of amphibians. A distinction is often made between frogs and toads by their appearance, prompted by the convergent adaptation among so-called toads to dry environments. For instance, toads often have leathery skin for better water retention, and a brown coloration for camouflage. Many so-called toads also burrow, which requires further adaptations. However, these adaptations merely reflect the environment a species has adapted to, and are not reliable indicators of its ancestry. Since taxonomy reflects only evolutionary relationships, any distinction between frogs and toads is irrelevant to their classification. For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Distribution of frogs (in black) Suborders Archaeobatrachia Mesobatrachia Neobatrachia - List of Anuran families The frogness babe is an amphibian in the order Anura (meaning tail-less from Greek an-, without + oura, tail), formerly referred to as Salientia (Latin saltare, to jump). ... In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. ... A burrow is a hole or tunnel dug into the ground by an animal to create a space suitable for habitation, temporary refuge, or as a byproduct of locomotion. ... For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ...


For instance, many members of the families Bombinatoridae, Discoglossidae, Pelobatidae, Rhinophrynidae, Scaphiopodidae, and some species from the Microhylidae family are commonly called "toads". However, the only family exclusively given the common name "toad" is Bufonidae, the "true toads". Some "true frogs" of the genus Rana have also adapted to burrowing habits, while the species within the toad genus Atelopus are conversely known by the common name "harlequin frogs". Species Genus Barbourula     Barbourula busuangensis     Barbourula kalimantanensis Genus Bombina     Bombina bombina     Bombina fortinuptialis     Bombina lichuanensis     Bombina maxima     Bombina microdeladigitora     Bombina orientalis     Bombina pachypus     Bombina variegata Bombinatoridae are often referred to as fire belly toads because of their brightly colored ventral sides which show that they are highly toxic. ... Species Genus Alytes     Alytes cisternasii     Alytes dickhilleni     Alytes muletensis     Alytes obstetricans Genus Discoglossus     Discoglossus hispanicus     Discoglossus jeanneae     Discoglossus montalenti     Discoglossus nigriventer     Discoglossus pictus     Discoglossus sardus Discoglossidae, common name Disc-Tongued Frogs or Painted Frogs, is a family that contains two genera, alytes and discoglossus. ... Archaic Frogs, Pelobatids and Spadefoots. ... Binomial name Rhinophrynus dorsalis Duméril & Bibron, 1841 The Mexican Burrowing Toad (Rhinophrynus dorsalis) is the only species in the genus Rhinophrynus and the family Rhinophrynidae of order Anura. ... Genera Scaphiopus Spea American Spadefoot Toads, Scaphiopodidae, is a family of order Anura. ... Subfamilies Asterophryinae Brevicipitinae Cophylinae Dyscophinae Genyophryninae Melanobatrachinae Microhylinae Phrynomerinae Scaphiophryninae Microhylidae is a family of order Anura. ... The true toads are amphibians in the Bufonidae family. ... The True frogs (of family Ranidae), have the widest distribution of any frog family. ... Rana is a genus of frogs. ... Atelopus is a large genus of true toads natively distributed in Costa Rica to Bolivia and French Guiana. ...


The type species of the family Bufonidae is the Common Toad, Bufo bufo, and around it cluster a large number of species of the same genus and some smaller genera. B. bufo is a tailless amphibian of stout build with a warty skin and any animal that shares these characteristics is liable to be called a toad, regardless of its location in formal taxonomy. A type species fixes the name of a genus (or of a taxon in a rank lower than genus). ... Binomial name Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758) The Common toad or European toad Bufo bufo is widespread throughout Europe, with the exception of Ireland and some Mediterranean islands. ... A scorpion tail The tail is the section at the rear end of an animals body; in general, the term refers to a distinct, flexible appendage to the torso. ... 1. ...


Almost all toads of the family Bufonidae have two lumps on either side of the back of their head, called the parotoid glands. These glands contain a poison, which oozes out if the toad is stressed. Some, like the Cane Toad Bufo marinus, are more toxic than others. Some "psychoactive toads" such as the Colorado River Toad Bufo alvaris, have been used recreationally for the effects of the bufotoxin. The largest parotoid gland can be seen just behind the ear of this Cane Toad, although all warts on the toad are also parotoid glands. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Distribution of the Cane Toad. ... Psychoactive toad is a name used for toads from which psychoactive substances from the family of bufotoxins can be derived. ... Binomial name Bufo alvarius Girard in Baird, 1859 The Colorado River Toad or Bufo alvarius, also known as the Sonoran Desert Toad, is a psychoactive toad found in the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational rather than medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... Bufotoxin - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...

Contents

Taxonomy

American Toad, Bufo americanus
American Toad, Bufo americanus
Gulf Coast Toad, Bufo valliceps
Gulf Coast Toad, Bufo valliceps
Oriental Fire-bellied Toad, Bombina orientalis
Oriental Fire-bellied Toad, Bombina orientalis
Eastern Narrowmouthed Toad, Gastrophryne carolinensis
Eastern Narrowmouthed Toad, Gastrophryne carolinensis
Image:Frogy - close look.JPG
Southern Toad (Bufo terrestris)
American Toad Bufo americanus
American Toad Bufo americanus

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Binomial name Bufo americanus (Holbrook, 1836) Habitat range of B. americanus The American toad (Bufo americanus) is a common species of toad found throughout the eastern United States and Canada. ... Image File history File links Bufo_valliceps. ... Image File history File links Bufo_valliceps. ... Binomial name Bufo valliceps Weigmann, 1833 The Gulf Coast Toad (Bufo valliceps) is a species of toad native to the United States, in the states of Louisiana and Texas, and south into Mexico around the Gulf of Mexico region. ... Bombina orientalis This work is copyrighted. ... Bombina orientalis This work is copyrighted. ... Binomial name Bombina orientalis Boulenger, 1890 The Oriental Fire-bellied Toad, (Bombina orientalis) is a small (4 cm, 2) semi-aquatic frog species. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Gastrophryne_carolinensis. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Gastrophryne_carolinensis. ... Binomial name Gastrophryne carolinensis Holbrook, 1835 The Eastern Narrowmouth Toad (Gastrophryne carolinensis) is a species of microhylid frog. ... Binomial name Bufo americanus (Holbrook, 1836) Habitat range of B. americanus The American toad (Bufo americanus) is a common species of toad found throughout the eastern United States and Canada. ...

True toads

Family Bufonidae (Gray, 1825) - True Toads: For other uses, see Toad (disambiguation). ... John Edward Gray. ...

Adenomus is a small genus of true toads with only three44 species endemic to Sri Lanka. ... Edward Drinker Cope Edward Drinker Cope (July 28, 1840–April 12, 1897) was an American paleontologist and comparative anatomist, as well as a noted herpetologist and ichthyologist. ... Altiphrynoides is a monotypic genus of toad, commonly referred to as Ethiopian toads. ... Andinophryne is a small genus of true toads with only three species found in the Andes. ... Ansonia is a small genus of true toads. ... Atelophryniscus is a monotypic genus of toad commonly referred to as Rio Viejo Toads. ... Atelopus is a large genus of true toads natively distributed in Costa Rica to Bolivia and French Guiana. ... Constant Duméril. ... Gabriel Bibron (1806 - 1848) was a French zoologist. ... Species See text. ... Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti (December 4, 1735 - February 17, 1805) was an Austrian naturalist. ... Binomial name Bufo meghalayanus Yazdani and Chanda, 1971 Bufoides Meghalayanus is a species of true toad native to north-eastern India. ... Capensibufo is a small genus of true toads with only two species. ... Binomial name Churamiti maridadi Channing and Stanley, 2002 Churamiti maridadi is a species of toad endemic to Tanzania. ... Crepidophryne is a monotypic genus of toad commonly referred to as Cerro Utyum Toad. ... Edward Drinker Cope Edward Drinker Cope (July 28, 1840–April 12, 1897) was an American paleontologist and comparative anatomist, as well as a noted herpetologist and ichthyologist. ... Dendrophryniscus is a genus of true toads. ... Didynamipus is a monotypic genus of toad commonly referred to as Four-digit Toad. ... Atelophryniscus is a monotypic genus of toad. ... Leptophryne is a small genus of true toads with only two species. ... Leopold Fitzinger. ... Species See text. ... Nectophryne is a small genus of true toads with only two species. ... Wilhelm Karl Hartwich Peters (April 22, 1815 - April 20, 1883) was a German naturalist and explorer. ... Nectophrynoides is a genus of true toads endemic to Tanzania. ... Gladwyn Kingsley Noble (September 20, 1894 – December 9, 1940) was an American zoologist. ... Oreophrynella is a genus of true toads. ... George Boulenger. ... Osornophryne is a genus of true toads. ... Pedostibes is a genus of true toads. ... Albrecht Carl Ludwig Gotthilf Günther. ... Pelophryne is a genus of true toads. ... Thomas Barbour (1884 - 1946) was an American herpetologist. ... Johann Jakob von Tschudi (July 25, 1818 - October 8, 1889) was a Swiss naturalist and explorer. ... Rhamphophryne is a genus of true toads. ... Stephopaedes is a genus of true toads. ... Truebella is a genus of true toads. ... Werneria is a genus of true toads. ... Wolterstorffina is a genus of true toads. ... Robert Mertens (December 1, 1894 - August 23, 1975) was a German herpetologist. ...

Other toad families

Family Bombinatoridae (Gray, 1825) - Fire-bellied Toads: Species Genus Barbourula     Barbourula busuangensis     Barbourula kalimantanensis Genus Bombina     Bombina bombina     Bombina fortinuptialis     Bombina lichuanensis     Bombina maxima     Bombina microdeladigitora     Bombina orientalis     Bombina pachypus     Bombina variegata Bombinatoridae are often referred to as fire belly toads because of their brightly colored ventral sides which show that they are highly toxic. ... John Edward Gray. ...

Family Brachyctpoephalidae (Günther, 1858) - Shield Toads: Barbourula is a genus of amphibian commonly referred to as jungle toads. ... Species Bombina bombina Bombina fortinuptialis Bombina lichuanensis Bombina maxima Bombina microdeladigitora Bombina orientalis Bombina pachypus Bombina variegata The Fire-bellied Toads are a group of eight species of small toads (typically 4-7cm in length) belonging to the genus Bombina They used to be classified under the family Discoglossidae (which... Lorenz Oken (August 1, 1779 - August 11, 1851), was a German naturalist, real name Lorenz Ockenfuss. ... Albrecht Carl Ludwig Gotthilf Günther. ...

Family Discoglossidae (Günther, 1858) Distribution of Brachycephalidae (in black) Species Brachycephalus didactylus Brachycephalus ephippium Brachycephalus ferruginus Brachycephalus hermogenesi Brachycephalus nodoterga Brachycephalus pernix Brachycephalus pombali Brachycephalus vertebralis The saddleback toads are a family (Brachycephalidae) in the order Anura. ... Leopold Fitzinger. ... Species Genus Alytes     Alytes cisternasii     Alytes dickhilleni     Alytes muletensis     Alytes obstetricans Genus Discoglossus     Discoglossus hispanicus     Discoglossus jeanneae     Discoglossus montalenti     Discoglossus nigriventer     Discoglossus pictus     Discoglossus sardus Discoglossidae, common name Disc-Tongued Frogs or Painted Frogs, is a family that contains two genera, alytes and discoglossus. ... Albrecht Carl Ludwig Gotthilf Günther. ...

Family Microhylidae (Günther, 1858) Species Alytes cisternasii Boscá, 1879. ... Johann Georg Wagler (1800 - 1832) was a German herpetologist. ... Subfamilies Asterophryinae Brevicipitinae Cophylinae Dyscophinae Genyophryninae Melanobatrachinae Microhylinae Phrynomerinae Scaphiophryninae Microhylidae is a family of order Anura. ... Albrecht Carl Ludwig Gotthilf Günther. ...

Family Pelobatidae (Bonaparte, 1850) - European Spadefoot Toads: Genera See text. ... Species See text. ... Leopold Fitzinger. ... Archaic Frogs, Pelobatids and Spadefoots. ... Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte (May 24, 1803 _ July 29, 1857) was a French naturalist and ornithologist. ...

Family Scaphiopodidae (Cope, 1865) - North American Spadefoot Toads: The distribution of Pelobatidae (in black). ... Johann Georg Wagler (1800 - 1832) was a German herpetologist. ... Genera Scaphiopus Spea American Spadefoot Toads, Scaphiopodidae, is a family of order Anura. ... Edward Drinker Cope Edward Drinker Cope (July 28, 1840–April 12, 1897) was an American paleontologist and comparative anatomist, as well as a noted herpetologist and ichthyologist. ...

Family Rhinophrynidae (Günther, 1859) - Burrowing Toads: Scaphiopus is a genus of North American amphibian commonly referred to as the southern spadefoot toads. ... John Edwards Holbrook. ... Spea is a genus of North American amphibian commonly referred to as the wester nspadefoot toad. ... Edward Drinker Cope Edward Drinker Cope (July 28, 1840–April 12, 1897) was an American paleontologist and comparative anatomist, as well as a noted herpetologist and ichthyologist. ... Binomial name Rhinophrynus dorsalis Duméril & Bibron, 1841 The Mexican Burrowing Toad (Rhinophrynus dorsalis) is the only species in the genus Rhinophrynus and the family Rhinophrynidae of order Anura. ... Albrecht Carl Ludwig Gotthilf Günther. ...

Binomial name Rhinophrynus dorsalis Duméril & Bibron, 1841 Distribution of Rhinophyrnidae (in black) The Mexican Burrowing Toad (Rhinophrynus dorsalis) is the only species in the genus Rhinophrynus and the family Rhinophrynidae of order Anura. ... Constant Duméril. ... Gabriel Bibron (1806 - 1848) was a French zoologist. ...

Other

Moche Toad. 200 A.D. Larco Museum Collection Lima, Peru.

The Moche people of ancient Peru worshipped animals and often depicted toads in their art. [1] The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ... The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc. ...


To Vietnamese people, toad is the uncle of the Sky. According to a Vietnamese ancient story, whenever toads grind their teeth, it is going to rain.


Superstition

It is commonly believed that if you touch a toad or if it urinates on you, that you will become infected with warts. This is in fact false. Warts are caused by an internal viral infection. Therefore, it is impossible for warts to be caused by an external source, such as a toad.


In addition, the paratoidal glands, which toads use to secrete poison for protection, are often mistaken for warts. It is likely this misconception that led to the 'toads cause warts' myth.


References

  1. ^ Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997.

The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ... Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) are a publisher, especially of art and illustrated books, founded in 1949 by Walter and Eva Neurath. ... The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is a partnership designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

  • List of frogs and toads by state (U.S.)

General reference

  • Beltz, Ellin (2005). Frogs: Inside their Remarkable World. Firefly Books. ISBN 1552978699. 

External links

  • Toad with fluorescent purple markings discovered

  Results from FactBites:
 
Toad - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (251 words)
The true toads are amphibians in the Bufonidae family.
This is because the characteristics that are popularly used to distinguish frogs from toads are not quite the same as those used for scientific classification.
The type species of the family Bufonidae is the Common toad, Bufo bufo, and around it cluster a large number of species of the same genus, and some smaller genera.
Toad (Nintendo) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2020 words)
Toads, the general collective name of the "Mushroom People" found in the Mushroom Kingdom, are a sapient, anthropomorphic mushroom race, with a peaceful, human-following monarchistic culture.
A folk etymology attests that Toad is simply a variation of the word "toadie", or loyal follower: Toad is viewed as a sort of son by Princess Peach and always her constant companion.
The comic Toad, who was featured the same way in other Mario print media published in the early 1990s was seemingly based more towards his game counterpart, as he did not have the Brooklyn accent of his cartoon counterpart, and he had the color scheme depicted in official Nintendo artwork.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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