FACTOID # 1: Idaho produces more milk than Iowa, Indiana and Illinois combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Title IX
Accuracy dispute This article or section is currently being developed or reviewed.
Some statements may be disputed, incorrect, unverified, biased or otherwise objectionable.
Please read the discussion on the talk page before making substantial changes.

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, now known as the Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act in honor of its principal author, but more commonly known simply as Title IX, is a 76-word United States law enacted on June 23, 1972 that states: "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance."[1] Although the most prominent "public face" of Title IX is its impact on high school and collegiate athletics, the original statute made no reference to athletics[2]. The legislation covers all educational activities, and complaints under Title IX alleging discrimination in fields such as science or math education, or in other aspects of academic life such as access to health care and dormitory facilities, are not unheard of. It also applies to non-sports activities such as school bands and cheerleaders. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...

Contents

Three-prong test of compliance

In 1979, the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare under Jimmy Carter's administration issued a policy interpretation for Title IX, including what has become known as the "three-prong test" of an institution's compliance. [3] [4] [5] The United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare (also known as HEW) was a cabinet level department of the United States government from 1953 until 1979. ...

  1. Prong one - Providing athletic opportunities that are substantially proportionate to the student enrollment, OR
  2. Prong two - Demonstrate a continual expansion of athletic opportunities for the underrepresented gender, OR
  3. Prong three - Full and effective accommodation of the interest and ability of underrepresented gender.


A recipient of federal funds can demonstrate compliance with Title IX by meeting any one of the three prongs.

Congresswoman Patsy T. Mink wrote the law as an outgrowth of adversities she faced in obtaining her college degrees at the University of Hawaiʻi, University of Nebraska and University of Chicago.

Since its inception, this "three-prong test" of Title IX has been highly controversial in its interpretation and enforcement, and there is dissent over how best to analyze its effectiveness in achieving its intended purpose, which is to eliminate discrimination on the basis of gender in federally funded educational institutions. Critics of the three-prong test contend that it operates as a "quota" in that it places undue emphasis on the first prong (known as the "proportionality" prong) and fails to take into account the genders' differing levels of interest in participating in athletics, such that this interpretation of Title IX actually operates to discriminate against men. Defenders of the three-prong test counter that the genders' differing athletic interest levels is merely a product of past discrimination, and that Title IX should be interpreted to maximize female participation in athletics irrespective of any existing disparity in interest. Thus while defenders argue that the three-prong test embodies the maxim that "opportunity drives interest," critics argue that the three-prong test goes beyond Title IX original purpose of preventing discrimination, and instead amounts to an exercise in governmentally-mandated social engineering whereby athetic opportunities are taken away from male students and given to female students, despite the comparatively lower interest levels of those female students. Congressional photograph of late Congresswoman Patsy Takemoto Mink File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Congressional photograph of late Congresswoman Patsy Takemoto Mink File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Patsy T. Mink was the first non-white woman to serve in Congress. ... This article is about the University of Hawaii system. ... Seal of the University of Nebraska The University of Nebraska is one of two public university systems in the state of Nebraska, USA. The system has four universities and a technical college: University of Nebraska-Lincoln University of Nebraska at Omaha University of Nebraska at Kearney University of Nebraska Medical... The University of Chicago is an elite private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ...


Litigation

Since the advent of Title IX, schools have been increasingly threatened with discrimination lawsuits.[6]


Title IX has caused controversy, with some groups claiming that it has caused some schools to spend less money on 'minor' or 'non-money-making' men's sports programs such as wrestling, cross country, swimming, gymnastics, fencing and volleyball. FILA Greatest Wrestler of 20th Century (Greco-Roman) Alexander Karelin throws Olympian Jeff Blatnick with his Karelin Lift Andrell Durden (top) and Edward Harris grapple for position during the All-Marine Wrestle Offs. ... The Minnesota State High school Cross Country Meet A cross country race in Seaside, Oregon. ... This article concentrates on human swimming. ... Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of sequences of movements requiring physical strength, flexibility, balance and kinesthetic awareness, such as handsprings, handstands, forward rolls, aerials and tucks. ... Fencing advertisement for the 1900 Summer Olympic Games This article is about the sport, which is distinguished from stage fencing and academic fencing (mensur). ... Volleyball is an Olympic sport in which two teams separated by a high net use their hands, arms or (rarely) other parts of their bodies to hit a ball back and forth over the net. ...


Supporters of Title IX point to statistics (from a GAO study[7]) that indicate male collegiate sport participation has increased since the inception of Title IX, and that so-called "non-revenue" sports were being eliminated even before Title IX. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is the audit, evaluation, and investigative agency of the United States Congress. ...


However, while the same GAO study shows that while male participation in sports rose 5% between 1981 and 1998 , male enrollment during those years rose almost 19%. The number of men's sports teams available per male student has declined 21% over that time. Teams such as tennis, track and field, and swimming have decreased for men, while women's teams have increased. Although there are now more teams available to women than to men, the total number of male participants still significantly outnumber women; in 1998-99 there were 232,000 males participating in college athletics and 163,000 females.


A few non-college sports leagues have opened competition to men and women in the same events, such as equestrian competitions, auto racing, sailing, a few golf tournaments, and inline skating under the so-called "Fabiola rule", named for Fabiola da Silva. A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... Racing cars redirects here. ... For the songs, see Sailing (song). ... The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews, generally regarded as the worlds Home of Golf. Golf is a sport in which individual players or teams hit a ball into a hole using various clubs, and also is one of the few ball games that does not use... Roller skating girl in Rome, Italy (soul grind) Roller skating is travelling on smooth terrain with roller skates. ... Fabiola da Silva (born June 18, 1979 in Sao Paolo, Brazil), nicknamed Fabby, is a Brazilian rollerblader who competes at the X Games and other international extreme sports competitions. ...


Legal rulings

In one specific instance, Title IX was instrumental in a court case involving Louisiana State University. In 1996, a federal court referenced Title IX in ruling that LSU violated the civil rights of female athletes with "arrogant ignorance" of their needs. Since this ruling, LSU has made changes in its athletic programs to achieve compliance.[8] Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College at Baton Rouge, generally known as Louisiana State University or LSU, is a public, coeducational university located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana and the main campus of the Louisiana State University System. ...


In an unusual case, Title IX played a key role in a school's decision to upgrade its football program from Division I-AA to Division I-A. The Western Kentucky University Board of Regents approved this move in November 2006, to take effect in 2009.[9] At the time of the vote, WKU was out of Title IX compliance because it offered approximately 20 too few scholarships for men; moving its football program to Division I-A would add 22 men's scholarships.[10] Western Kentucky University (WKU) is a public university in Bowling Green, Kentucky. ...


Commission on Opportunity in Athletics

On June 27, 2002 Secretary of Education Rod Paige announced the creation of the Commission on Opportunity in Athletics (COA), a blue-ribbon panel to examine ways to strengthen enforcement and expand opportunities to ensure fairness for all college athletes. The purpose of the Commission was to collect information, analyze issues, and obtain broad public input directed at improving the application of Federal standards for measuring equal opportunity for men and women and boys and girls to participate in athletics under Title IX.


Co-chairs for the COA were Cynthia Cooper and Ted Leland. Cynthia Cooper is the former head coach of the WNBA's Phoenix Mercury and a member of the 1988 and 1992 Olympic women's basketball teams. Leland is the Athletic Director at Stanford University.


Four town hall meetings were held in Atlanta, Chicago, Colorado Springs, and San Diego to allow the general public to comment on the past, present, and future of Title IX. On February 26, 2003 the COA issued its final report. The COA provided twenty-three recommendations to the Secretary of Education. The most controversial recommendations dealt with considering non-scholarship athletes in prong one of the three part test for compliance and allowing interest surveys to determe compliance with prong three. These recommendations were passed by 8-5 votes. On the same day, Secretary of Education Rod Paige announced he would only consider unanimous recommendations, essentially giving veto power to current or former Women's Sports Foundation members Julie Foudy and Donna deVarona.


Clarification of Prong Three

On March 17, 2005, the Office of Civil Rights (OCR) announced a clarification of prong three of the three-part test of Title IX compliance. Prong three specifies the institution is in compliance if "the school is fully and effectively accommodating the interests and abilities of the underrepresented sex." The clarification issued guidance on using web-based surveys to determine the level of interest in varsity athletics among the under-represented sex.


Renaming

The law was renamed as the Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act on October 29, 2002, upon the death of the law's author, Congresswoman Patsy T. Mink, although she was also assisted in writing this by Edith Green. October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Patsy T. Mink was the first non-white woman to serve in Congress. ... Edith Louise Starrett Green (January 17, 1910 – April 21, 1987) was a former Democratic U.S. congresswoman from Oregon. ...


Notes

  1. ^ 20 U.S.C. § 1681
  2. ^ Carpenter, Linda Jean; & Acosta, R. Vivian (2005). Title IX. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. ISBN 0-7360-4239-3.
  3. ^ http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/t9interp.html
  4. ^ IX:http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1568/is_10_31/ai_59580155
  5. ^ http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=3731
  6. ^ http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=3731
  7. ^ Intercollegiate Athletics: Four-Year Colleges' Experiences Adding and Discontinuing Teams, GAO-01-291, March 28, 2001
  8. ^ SPORTS PEOPLE: COLLEGE SPORTS;Bias Found at L.S.U. In Title IX Ruling Associated Press 1996
  9. ^ WKU Regents Approve Move To Division 1-A Football. Western Kentucky University (2006-11-02). Retrieved on 2006-11-03.
  10. ^ Bailey, Rick (2006-10-05). State College Notebook: Toppers' switch to I-A probable. Lexington Herald-Leader. Retrieved on 2006-10-06.

The United States Code (U.S.C.) is a compilation and codification of the general and permanent federal law of the United States. ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (88th in leap years). ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... The Lexington Herald-Leader is a Lexington, Kentucky-based newspaper owned by The McClatchy Company. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years). ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Title IX - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (808 words)
Title IX has recently created controversy, with some groups claiming that it has caused some schools to spend less money on men's sports programs such as wrestling, cross country, swimming, gymnastics, and volleyball.
In one specific instance, Title IX was instrumental in a court case involving Louisiana State University.
In an unusual case, Title IX played a key role in a school's decision to upgrade its football program from Division I-AA to Division I-A. The Western Kentucky University Board of Regents approved this move in November 2006, to take effect in 2009.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m