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Encyclopedia > Titanium
22 scandiumtitaniumvanadium
-

Ti

Zr
General
Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22
Chemical series transition metals
Group, period, block 44, d
Appearance silvery grey-white metallic
Standard atomic weight 47.867(1) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d2 4s2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 8, 4
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 4.506 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 4.11 g·cm−3
Melting point 1941 K
(1668 °C, 3034 °F)
Boiling point 3560 K
(3287 °C, 5949 °F)
Heat of fusion 14.15 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 425 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) 25.060 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 1982 2171 (2403) 2692 3064 3558
Atomic properties
Crystal structure hexagonal
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1 [2]
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 1.54 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 658.8 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1309.8 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2652.5 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 140 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 176 pm
Covalent radius 136 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 0.420 µΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 21.9 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 8.6 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (r.t.) 5090 m·s−1
Young's modulus 116 GPa
Shear modulus 44 GPa
Bulk modulus 110 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.32
Mohs hardness 6.0
Vickers hardness 970 MPa
Brinell hardness 716 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-32-6
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of titanium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
44Ti syn 63 y ε - 44Sc
γ 0.07D, 0.08D -
46Ti 8.0% 46Ti is stable with 24 neutrons
47Ti 7.3% 47Ti is stable with 25 neutrons
48Ti 73.8% 48Ti is stable with 26 neutrons
49Ti 5.5% 49Ti is stable with 27 neutrons
50Ti 5.4% 50Ti is stable with 28 neutrons
References
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Titanium (pronounced /taɪˈteɪniəm/) is a chemical element with the symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It is a light, strong, lustrous, corrosion-resistant (including to sea water and chlorine) transition metal with a grayish color. Titanium can be alloyed with iron, aluminium, vanadium, molybdenum, among other elements, to produce strong lightweight alloys for aerospace (jet engines, missiles, and spacecraft), military, industrial process (chemicals and petro-chemicals, desalination plants, pulp, and paper), automotive, agri-food, medical (prostheses, orthopaedic implants, dental implants), sporting goods, jewelry, and other applications.[1] Titanium was discovered in England by William Gregor in 1791 and named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth for the Titans of Greek mythology. General Name, symbol, number scandium, Sc, 21 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 3, 4, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 44. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 91. ... Image File history File links Ti-TableImage. ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... Categories: Chemical elements ... sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex... In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... A Group 4 element is an element in periodic table group 4 (IUPAC style) in the periodic table, which consists of: titanium (22) zirconium (40) hafnium (72) rutherfordium (104) All of these elements are classed in Group 4 because their valence shell holds four electrons. ... A period 4 element is one of the chemical elements in the fourth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... D Block is a rap group based in Yonkers, New York. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Titanium strips inside a glass jar as part of the Everest Element Set from Russia. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various mass levels between 10−36 kg and 1053 kg. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... Kilogram per cubic metre is the SI measure of density and is represented as kg/m³, where kg stands for kilogram and m³ stands for cubic metre. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... Not to be confused with oxidation state. ... In chemistry, an amphoteric substance is one that can react with either an acid or base (more generally, the word describes something made of, or acting like, two components). ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... Paramagnetism is the tendency of the atomic magnetic dipoles, due to quantum-mechanical spin, in a material that is otherwise non-magnetic to align with an external magnetic field. ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... K value redirects here. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... For other uses, see Speed of sound (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... Shear strain In materials science, shear modulus or modulus of rigidity, denoted by G, or sometimes S or μ, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain:[1] where = shear stress; is the force which acts is the area on which the force acts = shear strain; is... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... Figure 1: Rectangular specimen subject to compression, with Poissons ratio circa 0. ... The Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material. ... A Vickers hardness tester The Vickers hardness test was developed in the early 1920s as an alternative method to measure the hardness of materials. ... The Brinell scale characterises the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Titanium (Ti) Standard atomic mass: 47. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 109 seconds (a gigasecond) and 1010 seconds (32 years and 320 years). ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... General Name, symbol, number scandium, Sc, 21 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 3, 4, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 44. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... Delayed nuclear radiation can occur in a nuclear decay. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is distinguished by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... Sea water is water from a sea or ocean. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... For other uses, see Missile (disambiguation). ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... Desalination refers to any of several processes that removes the excess salt and minerals from water in order to obtain fresh water suitable for animal consumption or for irrigation, sometimes producing table salt as a byproduct. ... A United States soldier demonstrates Foosball with two prosthetic limbs Jon Comer, Professional skateboarder, gets air with a prosthetic leg. ... An implant is an artificial device made to replace and act as a missing biological structure. ... X-Ray picture of two rectangular dental implants inserted into the jaw. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... William Gregor (25 December 1761 - 11 June 1817) was the English clergyman and mineralogist who discovered the elemental metal titanium. ... Martin Heinrich Klaproth Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1 December 1743 – 1 January 1817) was a German chemist. ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ...


The element occurs within a number of mineral deposits, principally rutile and ilmenite, which are widely distributed in the Earth's crust and lithosphere, and it is found in almost all living things, rocks, water bodies, and soils.[1] The metal is extracted from its principal mineral ores via the Kroll process[2], or the Hunter process. Its most common compound, titanium dioxide, is used in the manufacture of white pigments.[3] Other compounds include titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) (used in smoke screens/skywriting and as a catalyst) and titanium trichloride (used as a catalyst in the production of polypropylene).[1] Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide, TiO2. ... Ilmenite is a weakly magnetic iron-black or steel-gray mineral found in metamorphic and igneous rocks. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... The Kroll process is a pyrometallurgical industrial process used to produce metallic titanium. ... The Hunter process was the first industrial process to produce pure ductile metallic titanium, and was invented in 1910 by M. A. Hunter, an American chemist. ... Flash point non-flammable Related Compounds Other cations Titanium(II) oxide Titanium(III) oxide Titanium(III,IV) oxide Zirconium dioxide Hafnium dioxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium... Titanium tetrachloride (or titanium(IV) chloride) is the chemical compound with the formla TiCl4. ... A U.S. Army Humvee laying a smoke screen A smoke-screen is a release of smoke in order to mask the movement or location of military units such as infantry, tanks or ships. ... Skywriting is the process of using a small aircraft, able to expel special smoke during flight, to fly in certain patterns as to create writing readable by someone on the ground. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... Titanium(III) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula TiCl3. ... Polypropylene lid of a Tic Tacs box, with a living hinge and the resin identification code under its flap Micrograph of polypropylene Polypropylene or polypropene (PP) is a thermoplastic polymer, made by the chemical industry and used in a wide variety of applications, including food packaging, ropes, textiles, stationery, plastic...


The two most useful properties of the metal form are corrosion resistance, and the highest strength-to-weight ratio of any metal.[4] In its unalloyed condition, titanium is as strong as some steels, but 45% lighter.[5] There are two allotropic forms[6] and five naturally occurring isotopes of this element; 46Ti through 50Ti with 48Ti being the most abundant (73.8%).[7] Titanium's properties are chemically and physically similar to zirconium. For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Diamond and graphite are two allotropes of carbon: pure forms of the same element that differ in structure. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 91. ...

Contents

History

Titanium was discovered combined in a mineral in Cornwall, England in 1791 by amateur geologist and pastor William Gregor, the then vicar of Creed parish. He recognized the presence of a new element in ilmenite[3] when he found black sand by a stream in the nearby parish of Manaccan and noticed the sand was attracted by a magnet. Analysis of the sand determined the presence of two metal oxides; iron oxide (explaining the attraction to the magnet) and 45.25% of a white metallic oxide he could not identify.[5] Gregor, realizing that the unidentified oxide contained a metal that did not match the properties of any known element, reported his findings to the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall and in the German science journal Crell's Annalen.[8] This article or section should be merged with Timeline of chemical element discovery The story of the discoveries of the chemical elements is presented here in chronological order. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... William Gregor (25 December 1761 - 11 June 1817) was the English clergyman and mineralogist who discovered the elemental metal titanium. ... Creed is a village in Cornwall, England, situated near the town of Grampound. ... Ilmenite is a weakly magnetic iron-black or steel-gray mineral found in metamorphic and igneous rocks. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... Manaccan is a village and civil parish in the Kerrier district of Cornwall, England. ... For other uses, see Magnet (disambiguation). ... Iron oxide pigment There are a number of iron oxides: Iron oxides Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide (FeO) The black-coloured powder in particular can cause explosions as it readily ignites. ...

Around the same time, Franz Joseph Muller also produced a similar substance, but could not identify it.[3] The oxide was independently rediscovered in 1795 by German chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth in rutile from Hungary.[9] Klaproth found that it contained a new element and named it for the Titans of Greek mythology.[8] After hearing about Gregor's earlier discovery, he obtained a sample of manaccanite and confirmed it contained titanium. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (848x1108, 209 KB) Title: Martin Heinrich Klaproth Year: unknown Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (848x1108, 209 KB) Title: Martin Heinrich Klaproth Year: unknown Source: http://www. ... Martin Heinrich Klaproth Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1 December 1743 – 1 January 1817) was a German chemist. ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Franz-Joseph Müller Freiherr von Reichenstein or Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein (Hungarian: ) was a Hungarian mineralogist who discovered Tellurium in 1782. ... Martin Heinrich Klaproth Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1 December 1743 – 1 January 1817) was a German chemist. ... Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide, TiO2. ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ...


The processes required to extract titanium from its various ores are laborious and costly; it is not possible to reduce in the normal manner, by heating in the presence of carbon, because that produces titanium carbide.[8] Pure metallic titanium (99.9%) was first prepared in 1910 by Matthew A. Hunter by heating TiCl4 with sodium in a steel bomb at 700–800 °C in the Hunter process.[2] Titanium metal was not used outside the laboratory until 1946 when William Justin Kroll proved that it could be commercially produced by reducing titanium tetrachloride with magnesium in what came to be known as the Kroll process. Although research continues into more efficient and cheaper processes (e.g., FFC Cambridge), the Kroll process is still used for commercial production.[3][2] For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Titanium carbide, TiC, is an extremely hard refractory ceramic material, similar to tungsten carbide. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... The Hunter process was the first industrial process to produce pure ductile metallic titanium, and was invented in 1910 by M. A. Hunter, an American chemist. ... William (in fact Guillaume) J. Kroll was born on November 24th 1889 in Esch-sur-Alzette, the then dawning centre of iron industry in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, in the direct neighbourhood of the blast furnace plant Brasseurs Schmelz run by his father. ... Titanium tetrachloride (or titanium(IV) chloride) is the chemical compound with the formla TiCl4. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... The Kroll process is a pyrometallurgical industrial process used to produce metallic titanium. ... The FFC Cambridge Process is an electrochemical method in which solid metal compounds, particularly oxides, are cathodically reduced to the respective metals or alloys in molten salts. ...

A titanium crystal bar made by the iodide process
A titanium crystal bar made by the iodide process

Titanium of very high purity was made in small quantities when Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer discovered the iodide, or crystal bar, process in 1925, by reacting with iodine and decomposing the formed vapors over a hot filament to pure metal.[10] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 796 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1360 × 1024 pixel, file size: 284 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 796 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1360 × 1024 pixel, file size: 284 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The crystal bar process (or Iodide process) was discovered by Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hedrik de Boer in 1925. ... Anton Eduard van Arkel, (s-Gravenzande Netherlands, November 19, 1893 – Leiden, March 14, 1976) was a Dutch chemist. ... The crystal bar process (or Iodide process) was discovered by Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hedrik de Boer in 1925. ...


In the 1950s and 1960s the Soviet Union pioneered the use of titanium in military and submarine applications (Alfa Class and Mike Class)[11] as part of programs related to the Cold War.[12] Starting in the early 1950s, Titanium began to be used extensively for military aviation purposes, particularly in high-performance jets, starting with aircraft such as the F100 Super Sabre and Lockheed A-12. Alfa class submarine at sea. ... It has been proposed below that Soviet submarine K-278 be renamed and moved to Soviet submarine K-278 Komsomolets. ... F-100A Super Sabre The North American F-100 Super Sabre was a jet fighter aircraft that served with the USAF from 1954 to 1971 and with the ANG until 1979. ... The Lockheed YF-12 was a prototype interceptor aircraft that formed the basis for the SR-71 Blackbird. ...


In the USA, the Department of Defense realized the strategic importance of the metal[13] and supported early efforts of commercialization.[14] Throughout the period of the Cold War, titanium was considered a Strategic Material by the U.S. government, and a large stockpile of titanium sponge was maintained by the Defense National Stockpile Center, which was finally depleted in 2005.[15] Today, the world's largest producer, Russian-based VSMPO-Avisma, is estimated to account for about 29% of the world market share.[16] The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... VSMPO-AVISMA Corporation (Russian: ), where VSMPO stands for Verkhnesaldinskoye metallurgicheskoye proizvodstvennoye obyedineniye (Верхнесалдинское металлургическое производственное объединение, or Metal-producing company of Verkhnyaya Salda), is the worlds largest titanium producer. ...


In 2006, the U.S. Defense Agency awarded $5.7 million to a two-company consortium to develop a new process for making titanium metal powder. Under heat and pressure, the powder can be used to create strong, lightweight items ranging from armor plating to components for the aerospace, transportation, and chemical processing industries.[17] Powder metallurgy is a forming and fabrication technique consisting of three major processing stages. ...


Characteristics

Physical

A metallic element, titanium is recognized for its high strength-to-weight ratio.[6] It is a light, strong metal with low density that, when pure, is quite ductile (especially in an oxygen-free environment),[18] lustrous, and metallic-white in color. The relatively high melting point (over 1,649 °C or 3,000 °F) makes it useful as a refractory metal. This article is about metallic materials. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is distinguished by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... Gold is a highly ductile metal Ductility is a mechanical property which describes how much plastic deformation a material can sustain before fracture occurs. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Refractory metals are a class of metals extraordinarily resistant to heat, wear and corrosion. ...


Commercial (99.2% pure) grades of titanium have ultimate tensile strength of about 63,000 psi (434 MPa), equal to that of some steel alloys, but are 45% lighter.[5] Titanium is 60% heavier than aluminium, but more than twice as strong[5] as the most commonly used 6061-T6 aluminium alloy. Certain titanium alloys (e.g., Beta C) achieve tensile strengths of over 200,000 psi (1380 MPa).[19] However, titanium loses strength when heated above 430 °C (800 °F).[5] Tensile strength isthe measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ... Pounds-force per square inch (lbf/in²) is a non-SI unit of pressure. ... The megapascal, symbol MPa is an SI unit of pressure. ... Aluminum redirects here. ...


It is fairly hard (although not as hard as some grades of heat-treated steel), non-magnetic and a poor conductor of heat. Machining requires precautions, as the material will soften and gall if sharp tools and proper cooling methods are not used. Like those made from steel, titanium structures have a fatigue limit which guarantees longevity in some applications.[20] Fatigue limit, also known as endurance limit, is a property of ferrous iron alloys and titanium [1]. It is the constant amplitude (or range) of cyclic stress that can be applied to a material without causing fatigue failure. ...


The metal is a dimorphic allotrope with the hexagonal alpha form changing into the body-centered cubic (lattice) beta form at 882 °C (1,619 °F).[5] The heat capacity of the alpha form increases dramatically as it is heated to this transition temperature but then falls and remains fairly constant for the beta form regardless of temperature.[5] Similar to zirconium and hafnium, an additional omega phase exists, which is thermodynamically stable at high pressures, but which may exist metastably at ambient pressures. This phase is usually hexagonal (ideal) or trigonal (distorted) and can be viewed as being due to a soft longitudinal acoustic phonon of the beta phase causing collapse of (111) planes of atoms.[21] Diamond and graphite are two allotropes of carbon: pure forms of the same element that differ in structure. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 91. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hafnium, Hf, 72 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 6, d Appearance grey steel Standard atomic weight 178. ... A regular hexagon A hexagon (also known as sexagon) is a polygon with six edges and six vertices. ... In crystallography, the rhombohedral (or trigonal) crystal system is one of the 7 lattice point groups. ... Normal modes of vibration progression through a crystal. ...


Chemical

The most noted chemical property of titanium is its excellent resistance to corrosion; it is almost as resistant as platinum, capable of withstanding attack by acids, moist chlorine gas, and by common salt solutions.[6] Pure titanium is not soluble in water but is soluble in concentrated acids.[22] For the hazard, see corrosive. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... This article is about common table salt. ... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ...


While the following pourbaix diagram shows that titanium is thermodynamically a very reactive metal, it is slow to react with water and air. A Pourbaix diagram, also known as a potential/pH diagram, maps out possible stable (equilibrium) phases of an aqueous electrochemical system. ...

The Pourbaix diagram for titanium in pure water, perchloric acid or sodium hydroxide[23]

This metal forms a passive and protective oxide coating (leading to increased corrosion-resistance) when exposed to elevated temperatures in air, but at room temperatures it resists tarnishing.[18] When it first forms, this protective layer is only 1–2 nm thick but continues to slowly grow; reaching a thickness of 25 nm in four years.[8] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A Pourbaix diagram, also known as a potential/pH diagram, maps out possible stable (equilibrium) phases of an aqueous electrochemical system. ... Passivation is the process of making a material passive in relation to another material prior to using the materials together. ... An oxide is a chemical compound containing at least one oxygen atom and other elements. ... Tarnish is a layer of corrosion that develops over copper, brass, silver, aluminum as well as a degree of semi-reactive metals as they undergo oxidation. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer, symbol nm) (Greek: νάνος, nanos, dwarf; μετρώ, metrÏŒ, count) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre (or one millionth of a millimetre), which is the current SI base unit of length. ...


Titanium burns when heated in air 610 °C (1,130 °F) or higher, forming titanium dioxide.[6] It is also one of the few elements that burns in pure nitrogen gas (it burns at 800 °C or 1,472 °F and forms titanium nitride, which causes embrittlement).[24] Titanium is resistant to dilute sulfuric and hydrochloric acid, along with chlorine gas, chloride solutions, and most organic acids.[2] It is paramagnetic (weakly attracted to magnets) and has fairly low electrical and thermal conductivity.[18] General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... TiN coated drill Dark gray TiCN coating on a Gerber pocketknife Titanium nitride (TiN) is an extremely hard (~85 Rockwell C Hardness or ~2500 Vickers Hardness)1, ceramic material, often used as a coating on titanium alloy, steel, carbide, and aluminum components to improve the substrates surface properties. ... Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... An organic acid is an organic compound that is an acid. ... Paramagnetism is the tendency of the atomic magnetic dipoles, due to quantum-mechanical spin, in a material that is otherwise non-magnetic to align with an external magnetic field. ... For other uses, see Magnet (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with electrical conductance, a measure of an objects or circuits ability to conduct an electric current between two points, which is dependent on the electrical conductivity and the geometric dimensions of the conducting object. ... K value redirects here. ...


Experiments have shown that natural titanium becomes radioactive after it is bombarded with deuterons, emitting mainly positrons and hard gamma rays.[2] When it is red hot the metal combines with oxygen, and when it reaches 550 °C (1,022 °F) it combines with chlorine.[2] It also reacts with the other halogens and absorbs hydrogen.[3] Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... Deuterium (symbol 2H) is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance of one atom in 6500 of hydrogen. ... The first detection of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson The positron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ...


Occurrence

Producer Thousands of tons  % of total
Australia 1291.0 30.6
South Africa 850.0 20.1
Canada 767.0 18.2
Norway 382.9 9.1
Ukraine 357.0 8.5
Other countries 573.1 13.6
Total world 4221.0 100.1
Source: 2003 production of titanium dioxide.[25]
Due to rounding, values do not sum to 100%.

Titanium is always bonded to other elements in nature. It is the ninth-most abundant element in the Earth's crust (0.63% by mass)[5] and the seventh-most abundant metal. It is present in most igneous rocks and in sediments derived from them (as well as in living things and natural bodies of water).[18][2] In fact, of the 801 types of igneous rocks analyzed by the United States Geological Survey, 784 contained titanium.[5] Its proportion in soils is approximately 0.5 to 1.5%.[5] This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ... Igneous rocks (etymology from Latin ignis, fire) are rocks formed by solidification of cooled magma (molten rock), with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlain by limestone. ... InsertSLUTTY WHORES≤ non-formatted text here{| class=toccolours border=1 cellpadding=4 style=float: right; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; width: 20em; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; clear: right; |+ United States Geological Survey |- |style= align=center colspan=2| [[Image:USGS logo. ...


It is widely distributed and occurs primarily in the minerals anatase, brookite, ilmenite, perovskite, rutile, titanite (sphene), as well in many iron ores. Of these minerals, only rutile and ilmenite have any economic importance, yet even they are difficult to find in high concentrations.[3] Significant titanium-bearing ilmenite deposits exist in western Australia, Canada, China, New Zealand, Norway, and Ukraine. Large quantities of rutile are also mined in North America and South Africa and help contribute to the annual production of 90,000 tonnes of the metal and 4.3 million tonnes of titanium dioxide. Total known reserves of titanium are estimated to exceed 600 million tonnes.[8] For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Three crystals from Gouveia, Minas Gerais, Brazil Anatase is one of the three mineral forms of titanium dioxide (the other two being brookite and rutile). ... Brookite is a mineral consisting of titanium oxide, TiO2, and hence identical with rutile and anatase in composition, but crystallizing in the orthorhombic system (see crystal structure). ... Ilmenite is a weakly magnetic iron-black or steel-gray mineral found in metamorphic and igneous rocks. ... Perovskite (calcium titanium oxide, CaTiO3) is a relatively rare mineral occurring in orthorhombic (pseudocubic) crystals. ... Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide, TiO2. ... Titanite Titanite or sphene is a calcium titanium nesosilicate mineral, CaTiSiO5. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... North American redirects here. ... This article is about the metric tonne. ...


Titanium is contained in meteorites and has been detected in the sun and in M-type stars;[2] the coolest type of star with a surface temperature of 3,200 °C (5,792 °F).[8] Rocks brought back from the moon during the Apollo 17 mission are composed of 12.1% TiO2.[2] It is also found in coal ash, plants, and even the human body. Willamette Meteorite A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives an impact with the Earths surface without being destroyed. ... Sol redirects here. ... In astronomy, stellar classification is a classification of stars based initially on photospheric temperature and its associated spectral characteristics, and subsequently refined in terms of other characteristics. ... This article is about the astronomical object. ... This article is about the geological substance. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... This article is about modern humans. ...


Production and fabrication

Titanium (Mineral Concentrate)
Titanium (Mineral Concentrate)

The processing of titanium metal occurs in 4 major steps:[26] reduction of titanium ore into "sponge", a porous form; melting of sponge, or sponge plus a master alloy to form an ingot; primary fabrication, where an ingot is converted into general mill products such as billet, bar, plate, sheet, strip, and tube; and secondary fabrication of finished shapes from mill products. Titanium. ... Titanium. ...


Because the metal reacts with oxygen at high temperatures it cannot be produced by reduction of its dioxide. Titanium metal is therefore produced commercially by the Kroll process, a complex and expensive batch process. (The relatively high market value of titanium is mainly due to its processing, which sacrifices another expensive metal, magnesium.[5]) In the Kroll process, the oxide is first converted to chloride through carbochlorination, whereby chlorine gas is passed over red-hot rutile or ilmenite in the presence of carbon to make TiCl4. This is condensed and purified by fractional distillation and then reduced with 800 °C molten magnesium in an argon atmosphere.[6] The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... The Kroll process is a pyrometallurgical industrial process used to produce metallic titanium. ... Batch production is a manufacturing process used to produce or process any product in batches, as opposed to a continuous production process, or a one-off production. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide, TiO2. ... Ilmenite is a weakly magnetic iron-black or steel-gray mineral found in metamorphic and igneous rocks. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Titanium tetrachloride (or titanium(IV) chloride) is the chemical compound with the formla TiCl4. ... Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ...


A more recently developed method, the FFC Cambridge process,[27] may eventually replace the Kroll process. This method uses titanium dioxide powder (which is a refined form of rutile) as feedstock to make the end product which is either a powder or sponge. If mixed oxide powders are used, the product is an alloy manufactured at a much lower cost than the conventional multi-step melting process. The FFC Cambridge process may render titanium a less rare and expensive material for the aerospace industry and the luxury goods market, and could be seen in many products currently manufactured using aluminium and specialist grades of steel. The FFC Cambridge Process is an electrochemical method in which solid metal compounds, particularly oxides, are cathodically reduced to the respective metals or alloys in molten salts. ... Flash point non-flammable Related Compounds Other cations Titanium(II) oxide Titanium(III) oxide Titanium(III,IV) oxide Zirconium dioxide Hafnium dioxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium... Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide, TiO2. ... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ...


Common titanium alloys are made by reduction. For example, cuprotitanium (rutile with copper added is reduced), ferrocarbon titanium (ilmenite reduced with coke in an electric furnace), and manganotitanium (rutile with manganese or manganese oxides) are reduced.[24] An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Ilmenite is a weakly magnetic iron-black or steel-gray mineral found in metamorphic and igneous rocks. ... Coke Coke is a solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. ... Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide, TiO2. ...

2TiFeO3 + 7Cl2 + 6C (900 °C) → 2TiCl4 + 2FeCl3 + 6CO
TiCl4 + 2Mg (1100 °C) → 2MgCl2 + Ti

About 50 grades of titanium and titanium alloys are designated and currently used, although only a couple of dozen are readily available commercially.[28] The ASTM International recognizes 31 Grades of titanium metal and alloys, of which Grades 1 through 4 are commercially pure (unalloyed). These four are distinguished by their varying degrees of tensile strength, as a function of oxygen content, with Grade 1 being the most ductile (lowest tensile strength with an oxygen content of 0.18%), and Grade 4 the least (highest tensile strength with an oxygen content of 0.40%).[20] The remaining grades are alloys, each designed for specific purposes, be it ductility, strength, hardness, electrical resistivity, creep resistance, resistance to corrosion from specific media, or a combination thereof.[29] Ilmenite is a weakly magnetic iron-black or steel-gray mineral found in metamorphic and igneous rocks. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Titanium tetrachloride (or titanium(IV) chloride) is the chemical compound with the formla TiCl4. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , Related Compounds Other anions Iron(III) fluoride Iron(III) bromide Other cations Iron(II) chloride Manganese(II) chloride Cobalt(II) chloride Ruthenium(III) chloride Related coagulants Iron(II) sulfate Polyaluminium chloride Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Titanium tetrachloride (or titanium(IV) chloride) is the chemical compound with the formla TiCl4. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Magnesium chloride is composed of magnesium and chlorine and is a typical ionic halide, being highly polar and soluble in water. ... ASTM International (ASTM) is an international standards developing organization that develops and publishes voluntary technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Creep is the term used to describe the tendency of a material to move or to deform permanently to relieve stresses. ...


The grades covered by ASTM and other alloys are also produced to meet Aerospace and Military specifications (SAE-AMS, MIL-T), ISO standards, and country-specific specifications, as well as proprietary end-user specifications for aerospace, military, medical, and industrial applications.[30]


In terms of fabrication, all welding of titanium must be done in an inert atmosphere of argon or helium in order to shield it from contamination with atmospheric gases such as oxygen, nitrogen, or hydrogen.[5] Contamination will cause a variety of conditions, such as embrittlement, which will reduce the integrity of the assembly welds and lead to joint failure. Commercially pure flat product (sheet, plate) can be formed readily, but processing must take into account the fact that the metal has a "memory" and tends to spring back. This is especially true of certain high-strength alloys.[31][32] The metal can be machined using the same equipment and via the same processes as stainless steel.[5] Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... The 630 foot (192 m) high, stainless-clad (type 304) Gateway Arch defines St. ...


Applications

Watch with titanium cover
Watch with titanium cover

Titanium is used in steel as an alloying element (ferro-titanium) to reduce grain size and as a deoxidizer, and in stainless steel to reduce carbon content.[18] Titanium is often alloyed with aluminium (to refine grain size), vanadium, copper (to harden), iron, manganese, molybdenum, and with other metals.[33] Applications for titanium mill products (sheet, plate, bar, wire, forgings, castings) can be found in industrial, aerospace, recreational, and emerging markets. Powdered titanium is used in pyrotechnics as a source of bright-burning particles. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (600x800, 89 KB) Ti - covered watches my own photo File links The following pages link to this file: Titanium Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (600x800, 89 KB) Ti - covered watches my own photo File links The following pages link to this file: Titanium Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Ferrotitanium is a ferroalloy, an alloy of iron and titanium with between 10-20. ... A crystallite is a domain of solid-state matter that has the same structure as a single crystal. ... The 630 foot (192 m) high, stainless-clad (type 304) Gateway Arch defines St. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Aluminum redirects here. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... Pyrotechnics is a field of study often thought synonymous with the manufacture of fireworks, but more accurately it has a wider scope that includes items for military and industrial uses. ...


Titanium is used in watchmaking for the production of watch cases. Watchmakers appreciate titanium for its durability, light weight, dent- and corrosion- resistance. Titanium watches are often coated with a protective material to make the surface more scratch-resistant.[34] For other uses, see Watch (disambiguation). ...


Pigments, Additives and Coatings

Titanium dioxide is the most commonly used compound of titanium
Titanium dioxide is the most commonly used compound of titanium

About 95% of titanium ore extracted from the Earth is destined for refinement into titanium dioxide (TiO2), an intensely white permanent pigment used in paints, paper, toothpaste, and plastics.[35] It is also used in cement, in gemstones, as an optical opacifier in paper,[36] and a strengthening agent in graphite composite fishing rods and golf clubs. titanium(IV) oxide This image has been released into the public domain by its creator and original copyright holder. ... titanium(IV) oxide This image has been released into the public domain by its creator and original copyright holder. ... Flash point non-flammable Related Compounds Other cations Titanium(II) oxide Titanium(III) oxide Titanium(III,IV) oxide Zirconium dioxide Hafnium dioxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Modern toothpaste gel Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used to clean and improve the aesthetic appearance and health of teeth. ... The term plastics covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic condensation or polymerization products that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or fibers. ... For other uses, see Cement (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gemstone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ...


TiO2 powder is chemically inert, resists fading in sunlight, and is very opaque: this allows it to impart a pure and brilliant white color to the brown or gray chemicals that form the majority of household plastics.[3] In nature, this compound is found in the minerals anatase, brookite, and rutile.[18] Paint made with titanium dioxide does well in severe temperatures, is somewhat self-cleaning, and stands up to marine environments.[3] Pure titanium dioxide has a very high index of refraction and an optical dispersion higher than diamond.[2] For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Three crystals from Gouveia, Minas Gerais, Brazil Anatase is one of the three mineral forms of titanium dioxide (the other two being brookite and rutile). ... Brookite is a mineral consisting of titanium oxide, TiO2, and hence identical with rutile and anatase in composition, but crystallizing in the orthorhombic system (see crystal structure). ... Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide, TiO2. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... In optics, dispersion is a phenomenon that causes the separation of a wave into spectral components with different frequencies, due to a dependence of the waves speed on its frequency. ... This article is about the mineral. ...


Recently, it has been put to use in air purifiers (as a filter coating), or in film used to coat windows on buildings which when exposed to UV light (either solar or man-made) and moisture in the air produces reactive redox species like hydroxyl radicals that can purify the air or keep window surfaces clean.[37] Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength shorter than that of the visible region, but longer than that of soft X-rays. ...


Aerospace and marine

The four engines alone of the Airbus A380 use about 26 metric tons (57,000 pounds) of titanium
The four engines alone of the Airbus A380 use about 26 metric tons (57,000 pounds) of titanium

Due to their high tensile strength to density ratio,[6] high corrosion resistance[2], and ability to withstand moderately high temperatures without creeping, titanium alloys are used in aircraft, armor plating, naval ships, spacecraft, and missiles.[3][2] For these applications titanium alloyed with aluminium, vanadium, and other elements are used for a variety of components including critical structural parts, fire walls, landing gear, exhaust ducts (helicopters), and hydraulic systems. In fact, about two thirds of all titanium metal produced is used in aircraft engines and frames.[20] The SR-71 "Blackbird" was one of the first aircraft to make extensive use of titanium within its structure, paving the way for its use in modern fighter and commercial aircraft. An estimated 59 metric tons (130,000 pounds) are used in the Boeing 777, 45 in the 747, 18 in the 737, 32 in the Airbus A340, 18 in the A330, and 12 in the A320. The A380 may use 146 metric tons, including about 26 tons in the engines.[38] In engine applications, titanium is used for rotors, compressor blades, hydraulic system components, and nacelles. The titanium 6AL-4V alloy accounts for almost 50% of all alloys used in aircraft applications.[39] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 510 KB) Beschreibung Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce Trent Rolls-Royce plc Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 510 KB) Beschreibung Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce Trent Rolls-Royce plc Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added... The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus, an EADS subsidiary. ... Tensile strength isthe measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ... Creep is the term used to describe the tendency of a material to move or to deform permanently to relieve stresses. ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... Armor plating is by definition to install armor, typically on a vehicle. ... Naval redirects here. ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... For other uses, see Missile (disambiguation). ... Main and nosewheel undercarriage of a Qatar Airways Airbus A330 The undercarriage or landing gear is equipment which supports an aircraft when it is not flying. ... SR-71 redirects here. ... The Boeing 777 is an American long-range wide-body twin-engine airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. ... The Boeing 747, sometimes nicknamed the Jumbo Jet,[4][5] is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing in the United States. ... The Boeing 737 is a short to medium range, single aisle, narrow body jet airliner. ... For the road in England, see A340 road. ... Air Canada Airbus A330 The Airbus A330 is a large_capacity medium_to_long_range commercial passenger airplane manufactured by Airbus. ... The Airbus A320 family of short-to-medium range commercial passenger aircraft are manufactured by Airbus S.A.S.. Family members include the A318, A319, A320, and A321, as well as the ACJ business jet. ... The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus, an EADS subsidiary. ... In airplanes, the nacelle is a covered housing separated from the main structure that usually holds engines, fuel, or equipment. ... Titanium 6AL-4V is one of the most common and available grades of titanium. ...


Due to its high corrosion resistance to sea water, titanium is used to make propeller shafts and rigging and in the heat exchangers of desalination plants;[2] in heater-chillers for salt water aquariums, fishing line and leader, and for divers' knives. Titanium is used to manufacture the housings and other components of ocean-deployed surveillance and monitoring devices for scientific and military use. The former Soviet Union developed techniques for making submarines largely out of titanium, which became both the fastest and deepest diving submarines ever made.[40] Sea water is water from a sea or ocean. ... A heat exchanger is a device built for efficient heat transfer from one fluid to another, whether the fluids are separated by a solid wall so that they never mix, or the fluids are directly contacted. ... Desalination refers to any of several processes that removes the excess salt and minerals from water in order to obtain fresh water suitable for animal consumption or for irrigation, sometimes producing table salt as a byproduct. ... “Aquaria” redirects here. ...



Titanium commercial aerospace requirements (including engine components [e.g., blades, discs, rings and engine cases] and airframe components [e.g., bulkheads, tail sections, landing gear, wing supports and fasteners]) for the manufacture of:



Boeing (including both the airframes and engines)

  • B787 – 295,000 pounds of titanium
  • B777 – 130,000 pounds of titanium
  • B747 – 100,000 pounds of titanium
  • B737 – 40,000 pounds of titanium

Airbus (including both the airframes and engines)

  • A380 – 320,000 pounds of titanium
  • A350 – 165,000 pounds of titanium (estimated minimal requirement)
  • A340 – 70,000 pounds of titanium
  • A330 – 40,000 pounds of titanium
  • A320 – 26,000 pounds of titanium


Source: TIMET 2007 Form 10-K (converted from metric tons to pounds)


Industrial

Welded titanium pipe and process equipment (heat exchangers, tanks, process vessels, valves) are used in the chemical and petrochemical industries primarily for corrosion resistance. Specific alloys are used in downhole and nickel hydrometallurgy applications due to their high strength (titanium Beta C), corrosion resistance, or combination of both. The pulp and paper industry uses titanium in process equipment exposed to corrosive media such as sodium hypochlorite or wet chlorine gas (in the bleachery).[41] Other applications include: ultrasonic welding, wave soldering,[42] and sputtering targets.[43] For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... Hydrometallurgy is the field of extractive metallurgy involving the use of aqueous chemistry for the recovery of metals from ores, concentrates, and recycled or residual materials. ... Pulp and Paper is the name of the largest United States-based trade magazine for the pulp and paper industry. ... Ultrasonic welding is an industrial technique whereby high-frequency ultrasonic acoustic vibrations are used to weld objects together, usually plastics, and especially for joining dissimilar materials. ... Wave Soldering is a large-scale soldering process by which electronic components are soldered to a printed circuit board (PCB) to form an electronic assembly. ...


Consumer and architectural

The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is sheathed in titanium panels.
The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is sheathed in titanium panels.

Titanium metal is used in automotive applications, particularly in automobile or motorcycle racing, where weight reduction is critical while maintaining high strength and rigidity. The metal is generally too expensive to make it marketable to the general consumer market, other than high-end products. Late model Corvettes have been available with titanium exhausts,[44] and racing bikes are frequently outfitted with titanium mufflers. Titanium alloy is used for the connecting rods in the engine of the 2006 and later Corvette Z06. Other automotive uses include piston rods and hardware (bolts, nuts, etc.). Guggenheim Museum Bilbao. ... Guggenheim Museum Bilbao. ... The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, along the Nervión River in downtown Bilbao, with the Maman, a huge spider by Louise Bourgeois The Guggenheim museum in Bilbao, Spain, which is made of glass, titanium, and limestone. ... The Chevrolet Corvette is a sports car that has been manufactured by Chevrolet since 1953. ...


The Parker Pen Company used titanium to form the T-1 fountain pen, later expanded to T-1 ball pens and rollerballs. The T-1 fountain pen was introduced in 1970 and the T-1 rollerball and ball pen in 1971. Production was stopped in 1972 due to the high cost of manufacturing titanium. Parker T-1's are prized for their collectibility by collectors. The Parker Pen Company is a manufacturer of pens, founded in 1891 by George Safford Parker in Janesville, Wisconsin. ...


Hammer heads made of titanium were introduced in 1999. Their light weight allows for a longer handle which increases the velocity of the head and results in more energy being delivered to the nail, all while decreasing arm fatigue. Titanium also decreases the shock transferred to the user because a titanium head generates about 3% recoil compared to a steel head that generates about 27%. For other uses, see Hammer (disambiguation). ...


Titanium is used in many sporting goods: tennis rackets, golf clubs, lacrosse stick shafts; cricket, hockey, lacrosse, and football helmet grills; and bicycle frames and components. Titanium alloys are also used in spectacle frames. This results in a rather expensive, but highly durable and long lasting frame which is light in weight and causes no skin allergies. Many backpackers use titanium equipment, including cookware, eating utensils, lanterns, and tent stakes. Though slightly more expensive than traditional steel or aluminium alternatives, these titanium products can be significantly lighter without compromising strength. Titanium is also favored for use by farriers, since it is lighter and more durable than steel when formed into horseshoes. Titanium horseshoes can be found in horse racing, and are used by many Amish horse owners, who rely entirely on horse-drawn carriages for transportation. Titanium has even become somewhat popular for use in jewelry, such as rings and body piercings. Squash racquet and ball Racquetball racquet and ball Tennis racquets and balls A racquet (or racket) is a sports implement consisting of a handled frame with an open hoop across which a network of cord is stretched. ... Some golf clubs Golf clubs are used in the sport of golf to hit a golf ball. ... For other uses, see Lacrosse (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sport. ... For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ... A pair of modern glasses Glasses, also called eyeglasses or spectacles are frames, bearing lenses worn in front of the eyes normally for vision correction, eye protection, or for protection from UV rays. ... This article is about backpacking in the wilderness. ... French farrier of Haras nationaux Italian farrier at work A farrier is a specialist in equine hoof care, including the trimming and balancing of a horses hoof so as to fit shoes to the horses foot. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... For the 1923 film starring Oliver Hardy, see Horseshoes (film). ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... This article is about Old Order Amish, but also refers to other Amish sects. ...


Because of its durability, titanium has become more popular for designer jewelry in recent years, whereas until recently the metal was too difficult to work into the intricate shapes with the precision necessary for fine jewelry. Today, titanium rings — including engagement rings and wedding bands — are one of the fastest growing segments of the titanium jewelry market, in part due to the ability of the metal to be grooved, inlaid, and carved without losing strength. Some titanium jewelry also incorporates diamonds or other gemstones, typically in close settings such as bezels, flush, or tension designs. Its inertness again makes it a good choice for those with allergies or those who will be wearing the jewelry in environments such as swimming pools. Jewelry (the American spelling; spelled jewellery in Commonwealth English) consists of ornamental devices worn by persons, typically made with gems and precious metals. ... A yellow gold wedding ring and a single-diamond, gold-banded engagement ring. ... A wedding ring or wedding band consists of a precious metal ring. ... This article is about the gemstone. ...


Titanium has occasionally been used in architectural applications: the 120 foot (40 m) memorial to Yuri Gagarin, the first man to travel in space, in Moscow, is made of titanium for the metal's attractive color and association with rocketry.[45] The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao and the Cerritos Millennium Library were the first buildings in Europe and North America, respectively, to be sheathed in titanium panels. Other construction uses of titanium sheathing include the Frederic C. Hamilton Building in (Denver, Colorado).[46] “Gagarin” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, along the Nervión River in downtown Bilbao, with the Maman, a huge spider by Louise Bourgeois The Guggenheim museum in Bilbao, Spain, which is made of glass, titanium, and limestone. ... Cerritos Millennium Library The Cerritos Millennium Library, the New Cerritos Library, or the Cerritos Public Library is the civic library for the City of Cerritos, California. ... This article refers to the state capital of Colorado. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ...


Due to its superior strength and light weight when compared to other metals traditionally used in firearms (steel, stainless steel, and aluminium), and advances in metal-working techniques, the use of titanium has become more widespread in the manufacture of firearms. Primary uses include pistol frames and revolver cylinders. For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... The 630 foot (192 m) high, stainless-clad (type 304) Gateway Arch defines St. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... For other uses, see Revolver (disambiguation). ...


Medical

A titanium hip prosthesis, with a ceramic head and polyethylene acetabular cup.
A titanium hip prosthesis, with a ceramic head and polyethylene acetabular cup.
This left lateral cephalametric radiograph shows a profile of the human skull. A fracture of the eye socket was repaired by stabilizing the fractured bones with small titanium plates and screws.
This left lateral cephalametric radiograph shows a profile of the human skull. A fracture of the eye socket was repaired by stabilizing the fractured bones with small titanium plates and screws.

Because it is biocompatible (non-toxic and is not rejected by the body), titanium is used in a gamut of medical applications including surgical implements and implants, such as hip balls and sockets (joint replacement) that can stay in place for up to 20 years. Titanium has the inherent property to osseointegrate, enabling use in dental implants that can remain in place for over 30 years. This property is also useful for orthopedic implant applications.[8] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 703 KB) author: Nuno Nogueira I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 703 KB) author: Nuno Nogueira I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... This article is about ceramic materials. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Radiography is the creation of radiographs, photographs made by exposing a photographic film or other image receptor to X-rays. ... In anatomy, the orbit is the cavity or socket of the skull in which the eye and its appendages are situated. ... ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A dental implant is used in restorative dentistry. ...



Since titanium is non-ferromagnetic, patients with titanium implants can be safely examined with magnetic resonance imaging (convenient for long-term implants). Preparing titanium for implantation in the body involves subjecting it to a high-temperature plasma arc which removes the surface atoms, exposing fresh titanium that is instantly oxidized.[8] Titanium is also used for the surgical instruments used in image-guided surgery, as well as wheelchairs, crutches, and any other product where high strength and low weight are important. Ferromagnetism is a phenomenon by which a material can exhibit a spontaneous magnetization, and is one of the strongest forms of magnetism. ... MRI redirects here. ... For other uses, see Plasma. ... A surgical instrument is a specially designed tool or device for performing specific actions of carrying out desired effects during a surgery or operation, such as modifying biological tissue, or to provide access or viewing it. ... Image-guided surgery is the general term used for any surgical procedure where the surgeon uses indirect visualization to operate, i. ...


Its inertness and ability to be attractively colored makes it a popular metal for use in body piercing.[47] Titanium may be anodized to produce various colors.[48] A number of artists work with titanium to produce artworks such as sculptures, decorative objects, and furniture. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... These inexpensive carabiners have an anodised aluminium surface that has been dyed and are made in many colors. ...


Compounds

The +4 oxidation state dominates in titanium chemistry, but compounds in the +3 oxidation state are also common. Because of this high oxidation state, many titanium compounds have a high degree of covalent bonding. In chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. ... In chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. ... Covalent redirects here. ...


Star sapphires and rubies get their asterism from the titanium dioxide impurities present in them.[8] Titanates are compounds made with titanium dioxide. Barium titanate has piezoelectric properties, thus making it possible to use it as a transducer in the interconversion of sound and electricity.[6] Esters of titanium are formed by the reaction of alcohols and titanium tetrachloride and are used to waterproof fabrics.[6] A star sapphire ring with two diamonds on a silver band. ... This article is about the mineral. ... Asterism on the surface of a blue star sapphire Asterism as seen in a lab-created blue star sapphire This article is about the characteristic in some gems. ... Flash point non-flammable Related Compounds Other cations Titanium(II) oxide Titanium(III) oxide Titanium(III,IV) oxide Zirconium dioxide Hafnium dioxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium... The chemical compound Titanic acid, Ti(OH)4, is a white weak acid that is a hydrated form of titanium dioxide. ... Barium titanate is an oxide of barium and titanium with the chemical formula BaTiO3. ... Piezoelectricity is the ability of certain crystals to produce a voltage when subjected to mechanical stress. ... This article is about audible acoustic waves. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Textile be merged into this article or section. ...

TiN coated drill bit

Titanium nitride (TiN) is often used to coat cutting tools, such as drill bits. It also finds use as a gold-coloured decorative finish, and as a barrier metal in semiconductor fabrication. Download high resolution version (471x1164, 315 KB)Titanium nitride coated drill, 70mmm, Photographed by Peter Robert Binter, 25. ... Download high resolution version (471x1164, 315 KB)Titanium nitride coated drill, 70mmm, Photographed by Peter Robert Binter, 25. ... TiN coated drill Dark gray TiCN coating on a Gerber pocketknife Titanium nitride (TiN) is an extremely hard (~85 Rockwell C Hardness or ~2500 Vickers Hardness)1, ceramic material, often used as a coating on titanium alloy, steel, carbide, and aluminum components to improve the substrates surface properties. ... Drill bits are cutting tools used to create cylindrical holes. ... Copper-based chips are semiconductor integrated circuits, usually microprocessors, which use copper for interconnections. ... NASAs Glenn Research Center cleanroom. ...


Titanium tetrachloride (titanium(IV) chloride, TiCl4, sometimes called "Tickle") is a colourless liquid which is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of titanium dioxide for paint. It is widely used in organic chemistry as a Lewis acid, for example in the Mukaiyama aldol condensation. Titanium also forms a lower chloride, titanium(III) chloride (TiCl3), which is used as a reducing agent. Titanium tetrachloride (or titanium(IV) chloride) is the chemical compound with the formla TiCl4. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as... In chemistry, a Lewis acid can accept a pair of electrons and form a coordinate covalent bond, after the American chemist Gilbert Lewis. ... Titanium(III) chloride, TiCl3, is a red-violet salt that decomposes at 425 °C. Categories: | ... A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is the element or a compound in a redox (reduction-oxidation) reaction (see electrochemistry) that reduces another species. ...


Titanocene dichloride is an important catalyst for carbon-carbon bond formation. Titanium isopropoxide is used for Sharpless epoxidation. Other compounds include titanium bromide (used in metallurgy, superalloys, and high-temperature electrical wiring and coatings) and titanium carbide (found in high-temperature cutting tools and coatings).[3] Titanocene dichloride (dicholorobis(η5-2,4-cyclopentadien-1-yl) titanium, molecular formula (C5H5)2TiCl2) is a metallocene widely used in organometallic and organic synthesis as both a reagent and a catalyst. ... Titanium isoproxide is a chemical compound with the formula Ti{OCH(CH3)2}4. ... Sharpless epoxidation is a chemical reaction of an allylic alcohol with t-butylperoxide and titanium tetraisopropylate to form an epoxide. ... A superalloy, or high-performance alloy, is an alloy able to withstand extreme temperatures that would destroy conventional metals like steel and aluminum. ... Titanium carbide, TiC, is an extremely hard refractory ceramic material, similar to tungsten carbide. ...


Isotopes

Main article: Isotopes of titanium

Naturally occurring titanium is composed of 5 stable isotopes: 46Ti, 47Ti, 48Ti, 49Ti, and 50Ti, with 48Ti being the most abundant (73.8% natural abundance). Eleven radioisotopes have been characterized, with the most stable being 44Ti with a half-life of 63 years, 45Ti with a half-life of 184.8 minutes, 51Ti with a half-life of 5.76 minutes, and 52Ti with a half-life of 1.7 minutes. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 33 seconds and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than half a second.[7] Titanium (Ti) Standard atomic mass: 47. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ...


The isotopes of titanium range in atomic weight from 39.99 u (40Ti) to 57.966 u (58Ti). The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 48Ti, is electron capture and the primary mode after is beta emission. The primary decay products before 48Ti are element 21 (scandium) isotopes and the primary products after are element 23 (vanadium) isotopes.[7] ... The atomic mass unit (amu), unified atomic mass unit (u), or dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic masses and molecular masses. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... General Name, symbol, number scandium, Sc, 21 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 3, 4, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 44. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ...


Precautions

Nettle contains up to 80 parts per million of titanium
Nettle contains up to 80 parts per million of titanium

Titanium is non-toxic even in large doses and does not play any natural role inside the human body. An estimated 0.8 milligrams of titanium is ingested by humans each day but most passes through without being absorbed. It does, however, have a tendency to bio-accumulate in tissues that contain silica. An unknown mechanism in plants may use titanium to stimulate the production of carbohydrates and encourage growth. This may explain why most plants contain about 1 part per million (ppm) of titanium, food plants have about 2 ppm, and horsetail and nettle contain up to 80 ppm.[8] Image File history File linksMetadata Kopiva. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kopiva. ... Physical Features of the Human Body The human body is the entire physical structure of a human organism. ... To bioaccumulate literally means to accumulate in a biological system. ... The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Parts per million (ppm) is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ... Species The horsetails are vascular plants, comprising 15 species of plants in the genus Equisetum. ... Nettles redirects here. ...


As a powder or in the form of metal shavings, titanium metal poses a significant fire hazard and, when heated in air, an explosion hazard. Water and carbon dioxide-based methods to extinguish fires are ineffective on burning titanium; Class D dry powder fire fighting agents must be used instead.[3] Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Even bulk titanium metal is susceptible to fire, when it is heated to its melting point. A number of titanium fires occur during breaking down devices containing titanium parts with cutting torches. a cutting torch is a device that focuses an intense flame causing high heat and used to cut metal. ...


When used in the production or handling of chlorine, care must be taken to use titanium only in locations where it will not be exposed to dry chlorine gas which can result in a titanium/chlorine fire. Care must be taken even when titanium is used in wet chlorine due to possible unexpected drying brought about by extreme weather conditions. General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ...


Titanium can catch fire when a fresh, non-oxidized surface gets in contact with liquid oxygen. Such surfaces can appear when the oxidized surface is struck with a hard object, or when a mechanical strain causes the emergence of a crack. This poses the possible limitation for its use in liquid oxygen systems, such as those found in the aerospace industry. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Salts of titanium are often considered to be relatively harmless, but its chlorine compounds, such as TiCl2, TiCl3, and TiCl4, have presented several unusual hazards. The dichloride takes the form of pyrophoric black crystals, and the tetrachloride is a volatile fuming liquid. All of titanium's chlorides are corrosive. This article is about common table salt. ... Titanium(II) chloride is a black solid with the formula TiCl2. ... Titanium(III) chloride, TiCl3, is a red-violet salt that decomposes at 425 °C. Categories: | ... Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) is used for commercial production of pure titanium metal. ... A pyrophoric substance is a substance that ignites spontaneously, that is, its autoignition temperature is below room temperature. ... Corrosion is the destructive reaction of a metal with another material, e. ...


See also

Titanium alloys are metallic materials which contain a mixture of titanium and other chemical elements. ... TiN coated drill Dark gray TiCN coating on a Gerber pocketknife Titanium nitride (TiN) is an extremely hard (~85 Rockwell C Hardness or ~2500 Vickers Hardness)1, ceramic material, often used as a coating on titanium alloy, steel, carbide, and aluminum components to improve the substrates surface properties. ... Titanium mining in Africa has been beset by environmental problems due to the polluting nature of processing rutile, a principal titanium ore. ... VSMPO-AVISMA Corporation (Russian: ), where VSMPO stands for Verkhnesaldinskoye metallurgicheskoye proizvodstvennoye obyedineniye (Верхнесалдинское металлургическое производственное объединение, or Metal-producing company of Verkhnyaya Salda), is the worlds largest titanium producer. ... Titanium Metals Corporation NYSE: TIE is a leading manufacturer of titanium-based metals products, focusing primarily on the aerospace industry. ...

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Anton Eduard van Arkel, (s-Gravenzande Netherlands, November 19, 1893 – Leiden, March 14, 1976) was a Dutch chemist. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Defense National Stockpile Center (DNSC) is a branch of the Defense Logistics Agency whose purpose it is to store, secure, and sell raw materials. ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... 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Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ASTM International (ASTM) is an international standards developing organization that develops and publishes voluntary technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services. ... West Conshohocken is a borough in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... ASTM International (ASTM) is an international standards developing organization that develops and publishes voluntary technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services. ... West Conshohocken is a borough in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Titanium Metals Corporation NYSE: TIE is a leading manufacturer of titanium-based metals products, focusing primarily on the aerospace industry. ... InsertSLUTTY WHORES≤ non-formatted text here{| class=toccolours border=1 cellpadding=4 style=float: right; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; width: 20em; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; clear: right; |+ United States Geological Survey |- |style= align=center colspan=2| [[Image:USGS logo. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... GlobalSecurity. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Encarta Dictionary Technology (to be written) Encarta made use of various Microsoft technologies. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Image File history File links Titanium. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... The Periodic Table redirects here. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number beryllium, Be, 4 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 2, s Appearance white-gray metallic Standard atomic weight 9. ... For other uses, see Boron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number scandium, Sc, 21 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 3, 4, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 44. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Not to be confused with Galium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 72. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... Bromo redirects here. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Standard atomic weight 85. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 88. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 91. ... General Name, Symbol, Number niobium, Nb, 41 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 92. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... General Name, Symbol, Number technetium, Tc, 43 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metal Standard atomic weight [98](0) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 13, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ruthenium, Ru, 44 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 101. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 114. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 127. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lanthanum, La, 57 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block 3, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 138. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cerium, Ce, 58 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number praseodymium, Pr, 59 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Standard atomic weight 144. ... General Name, Symbol, Number promethium, Pm, 61 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance metallic Atomic mass [145](0) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f5 6s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 150. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 157. ... General Name, Symbol, Number terbium, Tb, 65 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 158. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dysprosium, Dy, 66 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 162. ... General Name, Symbol, Number holmium, Ho, 67 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 164. ... General Name, Symbol, Number erbium, Er, 68 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 167. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thulium, Tm, 69 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block ?, 6, f Appearance silvery gray Atomic mass 168. ... Yb redirects here; for the unit of information see Yottabit General Name, Symbol, Number ytterbium, Yb, 70 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 173. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lutetium, Lu, 71 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 174. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hafnium, Hf, 72 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 6, d Appearance grey steel Standard atomic weight 178. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tantalum, Ta, 73 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 6, d Appearance gray blue Standard atomic weight 180. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhenium, Re, 75 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 186. ... General Name, Symbol, Number osmium, Os, 76 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 6, d Appearance silvery, blue cast Standard atomic weight 190. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thallium, Tl, 81 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 6, p Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 204. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous pink Standard atomic weight 208. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number astatine, At, 85 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 6, p Appearance metallic (presumed) Standard atomic weight (210) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 575 K... For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Standard atomic weight (223) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase  ? solid Density (near r. ... For other uses, see Radium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number actinium, Ac, 89 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block 3, 7, f Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (227) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... General Name, Symbol, Number protactinium, Pa, 91 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance bright, silvery metallic luster Standard atomic weight 231. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neptunium, Np, 93 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight (237) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number americium, Am, 95 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white sometimes yellow Standard atomic weight (243) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near... General Name, Symbol, Number curium, Cm, 96 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery Atomic mass (247) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number berkelium, Bk, 97 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (247) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f9 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 27, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number californium, Cf, 98 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (251) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f10 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number einsteinium, Es, 99 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight (252) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f11 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 29, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase... General Name, Symbol, Number fermium, Fm, 100 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (257) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f12 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number mendelevium, Md, 101 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (258) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f13 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 31, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number nobelium, No, 102 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (259) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting... General Name, Symbol, Number lawrencium, Lr, 103 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight [262] g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 9, 2 Physical... General Name, Symbol, Number rutherfordium, Rf, 104 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 7, d Standard atomic weight (265) g·mol−1 Electron configuration probably [Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2 Physical properties Phase presumably a solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dubnium, Db, 105 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (262) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d3 7s2 (guess based on tantalum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 11... General Name, Symbol, Number seaborgium, Sg, 106 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (266) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2 (guess based on tungsten) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 12... General Name, Symbol, Number bohrium, Bh, 107 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (264) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s2 (guess based on rhenium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 13... General Name, Symbol, Number hassium, Hs, 108 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (269) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d6 7s2 (guess based on osmium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 14... General Name, Symbol, Number meitnerium, Mt, 109 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (268) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d7 7s2 (guess based on iridium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number darmstadtium, Ds, 110 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (281) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s1 (guess based on platinum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 17... General Name, Symbol, Number roentgenium, Rg, 111 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably yellow or orange metallic Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s1 (guess based on gold) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 1... General Name, Symbol, Number ununbium, Uub, 112 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray liquid Atomic mass (285) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 (guess based on mercury) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununtrium, Uut, 113 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p1 (guess based on thallium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununquadium, Uuq, 114 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight [289] g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2 (guess based on lead) Electrons per shell 2, 8... General Name, Symbol, Number ununpentium, Uup, 115 Group, Period, Block 15, 7, p Atomic mass (299) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p3 (guess based on bismuth) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 5 CAS registry number 54085-64-2 Selected isotopes References... General Name, Symbol, Number ununhexium, Uuh, 116 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 16, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (302) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p4 (guess based on polonium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununseptium, Uus, 117 Chemical series presumably halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably dark metallic Standard atomic weight predicted, (310) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p5 (guess based on astatine) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununoctium, Uuo, 118 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably colorless Atomic mass predicted, (314) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p6 (guess based on radon) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 8 Phase... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... The alkaline earth metals are a series of elements comprising Group 2 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). ... The lanthanide (or lanthanoid) series comprises the 15 elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum to lutetium[1]. All lanthanides are f-block elements, corresponding to the filling of the 4f electron shell, except for lutetium which is a d-block lanthanide. ... The actinide series encompasses the 14 chemical elements that lie between actinium and nobelium on the periodic table with atomic numbers 89 - 102 inclusive. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Metalloid is a term used in chemistry when classifying the chemical elements. ... Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... This article is about the chemical series. ...


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