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Encyclopedia > Tirso de Molina

Tirso de Molina (October, 1571 - March 12, 1648) was a Spanish dramatist and poet. October is the tenth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Events January 11 - Austrian nobility is granted Freedom of religion. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (72nd in Leap years). ... // Events Peace treaty signed at Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War. ... A dramatist is an author of dramatic compositions, usually plays. ...


Originally Gabriel Tellez, he was born in Madrid. He studied at the Alcalá de Henares, joined the Order of Mercy on November 4, 1600, and entered the Monastery of San Antolín at Guadalajara, Spain on January 21, 1601. He had been writing plays for ten years when he was sent by his superiors on a mission to the West Indies in 1615; returning to Europe in 1617, he resided at the Mercenarian monastery in Madrid, took part in the proceedings of the Academía poetica de Madrid, founded by Sebastian Francisco de Medrano, competed in the literary tournaments then in vogue, and wrote copiously for the stage. Plaza de Cibeles (Cibeles square) and the Palacio de Comunicaciones (Communications Palace) Coat of arms Madrid, the capital of Spain, is located in the center of the country at 40°25′ N 3°45′ W. Population of Madrid city was 3,093,000 (Madrilenes, madrileños) as of... November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 57 days remaining. ... // Events January January 1 - Scotland adopts January 1st as being New Years Day February February 17 - Giordano Bruno burned at the stake for heresy in Rome July July 2 - Battle of Nieuwpoort: Dutch forces under Maurice of Nassau defeat Spanish forces under Archduke Albert in a battle on the... Guadalajara is a city in Castile-La Mancha, Spain, capital of the province of Guadalajara. ... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Bold textItalic textLink titlelink title // Headline text Media:Example. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ...


His first publication, the incomplete Cigarrales de Toledo (licensed in 1621, but not published till 1624), is a miscellany, containing short tales, novels, verses and three plays. One of the novels, Los Tres maridos burlados, probably derived from Francesco Cieco da Ferrara's Mambriano, and the play entitled El Vergonzoso en palacio reveal his wit and ingenuity. The preface to the Cigarrales de Toledo states that Tirso de Molina had already written three hundred plays, and at this period of his career he was second only to his friend Lope de Vega in popularity. HE RAPED LOTS OF WOMEN IN HIS TIME, FROM OLD TO YOUNG AND ONCE RAPED A MIDGET! Lope de Vega (also Félix Lope de Vega Carpio or Lope Félix de Vega Carpio) (25 November 1562 – 27 August 1635) was a Spanish playwright and poet. ...


He showed hostility to culteranismo in the Cigarrales de Toledo, and made numerous enemies by his attacks on the new school in such pieces as Amar por arte mayor and La Celosa de si misma. The realistic character of some of his productions gave his rivals an excuse to denounce him as a corrupter of public morals to the council of Castile in 1625, and, though no legal action was taken against him, he appears to have been reprimanded privately. In 1626 it was thought advisable to transfer him to Salamanca, and Tirso de Molina left Madrid determined to write no more for the stage. Though one of his plays, La Huerta de San Juan, is dated 1626, there is no proof that it was begun after his departure from Madrid, and he seems to have written nothing for eight years. Salamanca: Plaza Mayor Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Salamanca Salamanca (population 156,007 (2002)) is a castilian city in central Spain, the capital of the province of Salamanca in the autonomous community of Castile-Leon. ...


He had not lost his interest in the theatre, and published twelve representative pieces as the first part of his dramatic works (1626). This was a formal protest against the weakness of those who had been persuaded to drive him out. On the other hand, he worked zealously on behalf of his order, and rose to an important position; he became superior of the monastery at Trujillo in 1626, was elected later to the posts of reader in theology and definidor general, and in May 1632 was appointed chronicler of the Order of Mercy. His Deleitar aprovechando (1635) is a devout counterpart of the Cigarrales de Toledo, much inferior to its predecessor in interest; a sequel was promised to this collection of pious tales, pious lyrics, and autos, but, as in the case of the Cigarrales de Toledo, the continuation never appeared.


Twelve plays constitute the third part of his dramatic works which was published (before the second) in 1634, supposedly edited by the writer's nephew, "Francisco Lucas de Ávila", possibly a cover identity for himself. The second part (1635), the printing of which was paid for by the confraternity of St Jerome, contains four plays by Tirso de Molina, and eight written by him in collaboration with other dramatists; one of these collaborators was Juan Ruiz de Alarcón, but Tirso de Molina was the predominant spirit in these literary partnerships. The fourth and fifth parts of his dramatic works (1635 and 1636) each contain twelve plays; the haste with which these five volumes were issued indicates the author's desire to save some part of his work from destruction, and the appearance of his "nephew"'s name on the title-pages of the last four volumes indicates his desire to avoid conflict with the authorities. A sixth volume of dramatic pieces, consisting of light comedies, was announced; but the project was abandoned. That dramatic composition still entertained the scanty leisure of Tirso's old age is shown by the fact that the fragmentary autograph copy of Las Quinas de Portugal is dated March 8, 1638; but his active career as a dramatist ended two years earlier. He was absorbed by other duties. As official chronicler of his order, he compiled the elaborate Historia de la merced, which occupied him till December 24, 1639, and still survives in manuscript. As a tribute to the count de Sastago, who had accepted the dedication of the fourth part of the plays, and who had probably helped to defray the publishing expenses, Tirso de Molina is said to have compiled the Genealogía de la casa de Sastago (1640), but the ascription of this genealogical work is disputed. On September 29, 1645 Tirso de Molina became superior of the monastery at Soría, and died there. Juan Ruiz de Alarcón y Mendoza (1581? - August 4, 1639), was a Mexican dramatist. ... March 8 is the 67th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (68th in Leap years). ... Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ... December 24 is the 358th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (359th in leap years). ... Events January 14 - Connecticuts first constitution, the Fundamental Orders, is adopted. ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years). ... // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill, London. ... Soria is a city in north-central Spain, the capital of the province of Soria in the autonomous community of Castile-Leon. ...


It is only within the last century that it has become possible to give an outline of his life; it will always be impossible for posterity to do justice to his genius, for but a fraction of his plays have been preserved. The earliest of his extant pieces is dated 1605 and bears no sign of immaturity; in 1624 he had written three hundred plays, and in 1634 he stated that he had composed four hundred within the previous twenty years; of this immense production not more than eighty plays, are in existence. Tirso de Molina is universally known as the author of El Burlador de Sevilla y convidado de piedra, the piece in which Don Juan is first presented on the stage; but El Burlador de Sevilla represents only one aspect of his genius. No less remarkable than his representation of perverse depravity in El Burlador de Sevilla is his dramatic treatment of a philosophical enigma in El Condenado por desconfiado. Though manifestly attracted by exceptional cases, by every kind of moral aberration, by the infamous and the terrible, his range is virtually unlimited. He reveals himself as a master of historical interpretation in La Prudencia de la mujer and of tragical pathos in La Venganza de Tamar; his sympathetic, malicious wit finds dramatic expression in El Vergonzoso en palacio and Don Gil de las calzas verdes, and the fine divination of feminine character in Averígüelo, Vargas and La Villana de Vallecas is incomparable. Don Juan is a legendary fictional libertine, whose story has been told many times by different authors. ...


Tirso de Molina has neither Lope de Vega's inventive resource, nor his infinite seduction; he has neither Calderón's idealistic visions, nor his golden music; but he exceeds Lope in massive intellectual power and in artistic self-restraint, and he exceeds Calderón in humour, in creative faculty, and in dramatic intuition. That his reputation extended beyond the Pyrenees in his own lifetime may be gathered from the fact that James Shirley's Opportunity is derived from El Castigo del penséque; but he was neglected in Spain itself during the long period of Calderón's supremacy, and his name was almost forgotten till the end of the 18th century, when some of his pieces were timidly recast by Dionisio Solis and later by Juan Carretero. The renaissance of his fame, however, dates from 1839-1842, when an incomplete but serviceable edition of his plays was published by Hartzenbusch; and he is now accepted as among the greatest dramatists of Spain. Pedro Calderon de la Barca Pedro Calderón de la Barca (January 17, 1600 – May 25, 1681), Spanish dramatist and poet, was born in Madrid. ... James Shirley (or Sherley) (September 1596 - October 29, 1666), was an English dramatist. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Juan Eugenio Hartzenbusch (September 6, 1806-August 2, 1880) was a Spanish dramatist. ...


Bibliography

  • "Comedias escogidas," edited by JE Hartzenbusch in the Biblioteca de autores españoles, vol. v.
  • "Comedias," edited by E Cotarelo in the Nueva biblioteca de autores españoles (supplementary to Hartzenbusch's edition)
  • P Muñoz Peña, El Teatro del Maestro Tirso de Molina (Madrid, 1889)
  • E Cotarelo y Mori, Tirso de Molina; investigaciones bio-bibliográficos (Madrid, 1893)
  • M Menéndez y Pelayo, Estudios de critica literaria; segunda serie, pp. 131-198 (weslaco, 2005)
  • R Menéndez Pidal, Discurso ante la Real Academía española
  • "El Condenado por desconfiado" (Madrid, 1902) and "Mas sobre las fuentes del condenado por desconfiado" in the Bulletin hispanique, vi. 38-43
  • A Morel-Fatio, Etudes sur l'Espagne; troisieme serie, pp. 25-72 (Paris, 1904)

This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain. Marcelino Menéndez y Pelayo (November 3, 1856 - May 2, 1912) was a Spanish scholar and critic. ... Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Tirso De Molina - LoveToKnow 1911 (934 words)
TIRSO DE MOLINA, the pseudonym of Gabriel Tellez (1571-1648), Spanish dramatist.
On the 29th of September 1645 Tirso de Molina became superior of the monastery at Soria, and died there on the 12th of March 1648.
Tirso de Molina has neither Lope de Vega's inventive resource, nor his infinite seduction; he has neither Calderon's idealistic visions, nor his golden music; hut he exceeds Lope in massive intellectual power and in artistic self-restraint, and he exceeds Calderon in humour, in creative faculty, and in dramatic intuition.
Tirso de Molina (389 words)
Tirso de Molina continuó a producir trabajos aun cuando unos de sus compañeros clérigos se opusieron a la supuesta inmoralidad contenida en muchos de sus trabajos literarios.
Se piensa que Tirso de Molina produjo más de cuatrocientas obras en su vida pero hoy se conocen solamente 68.
Tirso también emplea mucha ironía en sus obras.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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