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Encyclopedia > Tirana
Tirana
Tiranë

Seal
Nickname: Tirona
Tirana (Albania)
Tirana
Coordinates: 41°19′48″N 19°49′12″E / 41.33, 19.82
Country Albania
Founded 1614
Elevation 295 ft (90 m)
Population (2005 est)[1]
 - City 585,756
 - Metro 700,000

Tirana (Albanian: Tiranë or Tirana) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Albania. It was founded in 1614 by Sulejman Pasha and became Albania's capital city in 1920. Image File history File links Wappen_Tirana. ... // A nickname is a name of a person or thing other than its proper name. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1700 × 1700 pixel, file size: 499 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tirana Berat Burrel, Albania Bajram Curri... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Basic Definition In geography, the elevation of a geographic location is its height above mean sea level (or some other fixed point). ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The metre (American English:meter) is a measure of length. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... Look up city, City in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sulejman Pasha was a feudal lord and general of the Ottoman Empire. ...


Tirana is located at (41.33°N, 19.82°E) in the eponymous district and county. Its average altitude is 90 meters (295.3 ft) above sea level. It lies on the Ishm River, about 20 miles (32 km) inland. The District of Tiranë (Albanian: Rrethi i Tiranës) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... The County of Tiranë (Albanian: Qarku i Tiranës) is one of the 12 counties of Albania. ...

Contents

Population

In 1703, Tirana had 4,000 inhabitants and by 1820 there were 12,000. The city’s population rose to 30,000 according to the 1930 census and 60,000 in 1945, despite the intervening years of foreign occupation and war. During the 1950s, Tirana experienced rapid industrial growth, raising the population to 137,000 by 1960.


After the end of communist rule, Tirana experienced its fastest population growth in the early 1990s when people from rural areas moved to the capital to find a better life. In 1990, Tirana had 300,000 inhabitants, but since then, the large-scale influx from other parts of the country has increased the population to well over 700,000.


In 2005, its population was officially estimated at 585.756[1], although other estimates put the figure as high as 1,000,000.[citation needed]


Name

A view of downtown Tirana from revolving cafe on top of Skytower
A view of downtown Tirana from revolving cafe on top of Skytower

There are a number of theories concerning the origin of the name: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ...

  • from the word "Theranda", used by Greek and Latin sources to refer to the area, after the local term "te ranat", meaning fallen material, in reference to the composition of the terrain from hard earth carried down by water from the nearby mountains.
  • from "Tirkan", the name used by the sixth century Byzantine historian Procopius to refer to a castle, first built in the first century BC, on Mount Dajti, the ruins of which still stand.
  • from "tyros", the old Greek word for dairy, reflecting the fact that local shepherds gathered here to trade dairy products.
  • from "Tiras" whom the ancient Thracians worshipped. They named many places in the Thracian area after this god.
  • an often-repeated explanation, though ultimately fallacious, is that Tirana was so named by Sulejman Pasha after the Persian capital Tehran, to mark his conquest of Persia in the 17th century. This seems to be contradicted by the use of Tirana’s name in its current form (il borgo di Tirana) appearing in a Venetian document of 1572.[2]
  • When Sulejman Pasha was at the location of what would become Tirana, he came across an elderly woman and asked her what she was doing. She replied, "Po tir an" (spinning silk).
  • from regional dialect of central Albania, the first version for Tiranë origin name is true, but not referring to fallen material, but to peoples. If we analyze the demographic movements of the population of the surrounding are, we will observe that the first inhabitants of the town (village at that time) are from the mountains around. In regional dialect always the displaced peoples from the mountains to the plain are called “Të rânë”, (â is pronounced like nasal o in French). That means peoples who have come down from the mountains. Still now the pronunciation “Tiranë” in regional dialect is “Tiro’në” (nasal "o").
  • there is another theory for the origin of name that is "tri ane". It means the three ways because the most important commercial ways, the ones that come from Shkoder, Berat and Durres, of the time passed through the modern center of Tirana. That's why Sulejman Pasha built a moschea, a popular Turkish bathroom and a kind of hotel "han" for the caravans to rest.

Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Procopius of Caesarea (in Greek Προκόπιος, c. ... Pierrefonds Castle, France. ... Sulejman Pasha was a feudal lord and general of the Ottoman Empire. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Shkodër (Albanian: Shkodër or Shkodra, Serbian Skadar, Latin Scutari, German Skutari) is a city located in North West Albania, in the District of Shkodër and it is the capital of the County of Shkodër. ... Berat (Albanian: Berat or Berati, Greek: ) is a town located in south-central Albania at . ... Durrës (Photo by Marc Morell) Durrës (Albanian: Durrës or Durrësi) is the most ancient city of Albania and one of the most economically important as the biggest port city. ...

History

The area now occupied by the city of Tirana has been populated since Neolithic times, as evidenced by various remains discovered there. A castle, possibly called Tirkan, was built by Emperor Justinian in 520 AD and restored by Ahmed Pasha Toptani in the 18th century. The area had no especial importance in Illyrian and Classical times. There were medieval settlements in the area at Preza, Ndroq, Lalmi and Petrela Castle. In 1418, Marin Barleti, an Albanian Catholic priest and scholar, the first to write a history of Albania, referred to "Plenum Tyrenae," a small village. There are references to "Tirana e Madhe" and "Tirana e Vogël" (Greater and Lesser Tirana). An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... (Latin: Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus, Greek: Ιουστινιανός;) commonly known as Justinian I, or (among Eastern Orthodox Christians) as Saint Justinian the Great; c. ... Look up AD, ad-, and ad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Location of Illyria Illyria (Albanian Iliria Land of the Free; Ancient Greek ; Latin Illyria [1] (see also Illyricum) was in Classical antiquity a region in the western part of todays Balkan Peninsula, founded by the tribes and clans of Illyrians, an ancient people who spoke the Illyrian languages. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Main article: History of Albania Petrela is a town 15 km south of Tirana, in the central Albania. ... A page from Historia de vita et gestis Scanderbegi Epirotarum principis Marin Barleti (Latin: Marinus Barletius, Italian: Marino Barlezio; ca 1450, Shkodër - 1512 or 1513, probably Rome) was a humanist of Albanian descent, the first and greatest Albanian historian, and a Catholic priest. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The records of the first land registrations under the Ottomans in 1431-32 show that Tirana consisted of 60 inhabited areas, with nearly 1,000 houses and 7,300 inhabitants. The 1583 registration records that Tirana had 110 inhabited areas, with 2,900 houses and 20,000 inhabitants. Look up Ottoman, ottoman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Süleiman Pasha Mulleti (or Sulejman Pasha), a local ruler, established the Ottoman town in 1614 with a mosque, a commercial centre and a hammam (Turkish sauna). The town was located along caravan routes and grew rapidly in importance until the early 19th century. During this period, the mosque in the centre of Tirana, the Et'hem Bey Mosque designed by Molla Bey of Petrela, began to be constructed. It employed the best artisans in the country and was completed in 1821 by Molla's son, who was also Sulejman Pasha’s grand-nephew. After 1816, Tirana languished under the control of the Toptani family of Kruja. The rule of Esat Toptani was so harmful to the city that little or no industrial development occurred until the 20th century. Sulejman Pasha was a feudal lord and general of the Ottoman Empire. ... A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... A hammam in Chefchaouen, Morocco The Turkish hammam (also Turkish bath or hamam) is the Middle Eastern variant of a steam bath, which can be categorized as a wet relative of the sauna. ... A camel train is a series of camels carrying goods or passengers in a group as part of a regular or semi-regular service between two points. ... A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... The Ethem Bey mosque is located in the center of the Albanian capital Tirana. ... Main article: History of Albania Petrela is a town 15 km south of Tirana, in the central Albania. ... Categories: Albania geography stubs | Cities in Albania ...

Tirana on November 20, 1944

On February 8, 1920, Tirana was chosen as the temporary capital of Albania, which had acquired independence in 1912, by the Congress of Lushnja. The city retained that status permanently on December 31, 1925. Since 1925, when they were banned in Turkey, the Bektashis, an order of dervishes who take their name from Haji Bektash, a Sufi saint of the 13th and 14th centuries, made Tirana their primary settlement. The first regulatory plan of the city was compiled in 1923 by Estef Frashëri. Durrësi Street was opened in 1922 and was called Nana Mbretneshë (Mother Queen). Many houses and surrounding properties were demolished to make way for it. The existing parliamentary building was raised in 1924 and first served as a club for officers. It was there, in September 1928, that King Zog I was crowned King. Tirana, Albania This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Tirana, Albania This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bektashi order (Turkish: BektaÅŸi) is a syncretic religious order related to Shia Alevi faith, and is generally considered to be a Shia Sufi sect (Tarika). ... The word Dervish, especially in European languages, refers to members of Sufi Muslim ascetic religious fraternities, known for their extreme poverty and austerity, similar to mendicant friars. ... Hunkar Haci BektaÅŸ Veli was a Turkish mystic, humanist and a philosopher who lived approx from 1209-1271 in Anatolia (Turkey). ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Zog I, Skanderbeg III of Albania (born Ahmet Zogolli, later changed to Ahmet Zogu) (October 8, 1895 – April 9, 1961) was King of Albania from 1928 to 1939. ...


The centre of Tirana was the project of Florestano de Fausto and Armando Brasini, well known architects of the Mussolini period in Italy. The Palace of Brigades, the government ministry buildings, the National Bank and the Municipality are their work. The Dëshmoret e Kombit (National Martyrs) Boulevard was built in 1930 and named "Zogu I Boulevard." In the communist period, the part from Skënderbeg Square up to the train station was named Stalin Boulevard. Tirana was occupied until 1944, first by the Italians, and then by the Germans. The Nazis eventually withdrew and the communists seized power. Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... Look up Martyr in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


Climate

The average temperature varies between 44.0 °F (6.7°C) in January and 87.8°F (31°C) in July. Annual rainfall is 47 inches (1200 mm); the driest months are July and August while the wettest months are November and December.


Districts

The two oldest neighbourhoods are Mujos and Pazari, located between the geographical centre and Elbasani Street on either side of the Lana River. In 2000, the centre of Tirana, from the central campus of Tirana University up to Skënderbeg Square, was declared the place of Cultural Assembly and given special claims to state protection. In the same year, the area began a process of restoration under the name ‘Return to Identity.’ The area to the west of the university, adjacent to Saint Prokopi park, was formally reserved for the occupation of important government and party officials. It remains a desirable residential area. The Lana River is the main river that crosses through the capital of Albania, Tirana. ...


List of Tirana's neighborhoods


Economy

Tirana is Albania's major industrial centre. It has experienced rapid growth and established many new industries since the 1920s. The principal industries include agricultural products and machinery, textiles, pharmaceuticals, and metal products. This article is about the type of fabric. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how substances interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ...


Tirana began to develop in the beginning of the 16th century, when a bazaar was established, and its craftsmen manufactured silk and cotton fabrics, leather, ceramics and iron, silver, and gold artifacts. Sited in a fertile plain, the Tirana area exported 2,600 barrels of olive oil and 14,000 packages of tobacco to Venice by 1769. In 1901, it had 140,000 olive trees, 400 oil mills, and 700 shops. Tirana is currently trying to develop a tourist industry, although this effort has been hampered by the lack of infrastructure and the perception of political instability in the region,. Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in genus Nicotiana. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia, Latin: Venetia) is a city in northern Italy, the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,251 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... Tourists on Oahu, Hawaii Tourism is travel for predominantly recreational or leisure purposes or the provision of services to support this leisure travel. ...


Education

Tirana University
Tirana University

Tirana hosts the University of Tirana, founded in 1957, and other governmental and social buildings such as the Albanian Institute of Sciences, the Academy of Arts, the Agricultural University, the Military Academy, the Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the People's Assembly, and the High Court. In 2002, the first private university in Albania was opened in Tirana. The University of New York Tirana is an American-accredited university with hundreds of students offering American style education and diplomas in different areas of studies. The language of instruction is English. Since 2003, up to six other private universities have opened in Tirana and have attracted thousands of students. These universities are Universiteti Kristal, Universiteti Marin Barleti, Universiteti Zonja e Keshillit te Mire, Universiteti UFO, Fakulteti Juridik Luarasi, and Fakulteti Juridik Justinian. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 970 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 970 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... University of Tirana (Universiteti i Tiranës) is located in Tirana, Albania. ... History Image:Logo5. ...


Environmental problems

Tirana cleaned up
Tirana cleaned up

Currently, the city suffers from the problems of overpopulation, such as waste management, lack of running water and electricity as well as extremely high levels of pollution from the 300,000 cars moving around the city. The problem is exacerbated by an aging infrastructure. Despite the problems, Tirana has also experienced a very rapid growth in the construction of new buildings, especially in the suburbs, where many of the new neighbourhoods do not yet have street names.(BBC). A view of the Lana banks after having been cleared of illegal constructions. ... A view of the Lana banks after having been cleared of illegal constructions. ... It has been suggested that Pollutant be merged into this article or section. ...

Rush hour in Tirana
Rush hour in Tirana

In recent years, pollution has also become a very big problem for Tirana as the number of cars has increased to several orders of magnitude. These are mostly older, diesel cars that pollute much more than the newer models in circulation elsewhere in Europe. Additionally, the fuel used in Albania contains larger amounts of sulphur and lead than that allowed in European Union countries. These last years, pollution caused from constructions has become a major concern for the inhabitants of Tirana. Moreover, green spaces in densely populated areas are scarce. Another peril to the city comes from untreated solid waste. There is, however, a unique trait to the city that effectively moderates the effect of air pollution: the Saint Prokopi park, a vast forested park in the outskirts of the city, absorbs and purifies much of the polluted air. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 951 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 951 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For the chemical element see: sulfur. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ...


During the late 1980s and early 1990s, Tirana was the focal point of violent demonstrations that ultimately led to the collapse of the communist government.


Transport

National and international transport links have developed over recent years as demand has increased. Until recent years, overland connections through Greece and Montenegro have had various problems with bureaucracy or security. The following section is liable to change and is only indicative. Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006...


Bus

International coach services connect to Greece, via Korçë and then taxis to the border, to Kosovo, and to Republic of Macedonia. Coach and minibus services run, according to demand, to the coast and northern and southern Albania from different locations in Tirana. Local transport within Tirana is by bus or taxi. Korçë (Albanian: Korçë or Korça, Greek: Κορυτσά Koritsá , Italian: Corizza, South Slavic: Корча, Korcha or Корче, Korče, Aromanian: Curceaua, Turkish: Görice) is a major city in south-eastern Albania, located at near the border with Greece. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ...


Rail

See also: Albanian Railways

There are regular passenger services to Durres and Pogradec, via Elbasan. The railway station is north of Skenderbeg Square, in Boulevard Zogu I. There are no international passenger services, although there is a freight-only railway through Shkodër to Montenegro (though this is current disused). HSH train on the Tirana-Durrës line Albanian Railways (in Albanian: Hekurudhë ë Shqipërisë (HSH)) operate system of 1435mm gauge (standard gauge) rail system in Albania. ... Hotel Enkelana (Photo by V. Kulla) Church (Photo by Bernard Cloutier) Pogradec (Albanian: Pogradec or Pogradeci) is one of the southeastern cities of Albania. ... Elbasan (Albanian: Elbasan or Elbasani) is a city in central Albania. ... Ãœsküdar, a district of Istanbul, was also known as Scutari. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006...


Air

Tirana International Airport Nënë Tereza, also known as Rinas Airport, is located 25 kilometres north-west of the city, off the road to Durres. Albanian airlines using Rinas include Albanian Airlines and Ada Air. Flights run to Athens, New York, Rimini, Bari, Genova, Rome, Bologna, Munich, Frankfurt, Istanbul, Vienna and Priština, among other places. Tirana International Airport Nënë Tereza (Mother Teresa) (IATA: TIA, ICAO: LATI) is Albanias only international airport. ... Albanian Airlines is an airline based in Tirana, Albania. ... Ada Air is a regional airline based in Tirana, Albania. ... Athens (Ancient Greek: αἱ Ἀθῆναι (plural), evolving into the modern Αθήναι in Greek until recently, and Αθήνα nowadays (IPA ); is both the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ... NY redirects here. ... Rimini is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy and capital city of the Province of Rimini. ... Location within Italy Bari is the capital of the province of Bari and of the Apulia (or Puglia) region, on the Adriatic sea, in Italy. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, BulÃ¥ggna in Emiliano-Romagnolo) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... “Wien” redirects here. ... UNMIK Head Quarters - PriÅ¡tina. ...


Several foreign airlines also serve Rinas Airport: Alitalia (from Rome and Milan), British Airways (from London Gatwick Airport), Austrian Airlines (from Vienna), Adria Airways (Ljubljana), Jat Airways (Belgrade), Malev (Budapest), Olympic Airlines (Athens), Hemus Air (Sofia) and Turkish Airlines (Istanbul). Belle Air is set to have direct flights to the US in late 2007. Lufthansa flights via Munich started on 1 May 2007. Alitalia - Linee Aeree Italiane (ISE: IT0003331888) is the national airline of Italy. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... For the 1930s airline of similar name, see British Airways Ltd. ... Gatwick Airport (IATA: LGW, ICAO: EGKK) is Londons second largest airport and the second busiest airport in the UK after Heathrow. ... Austrian Airlines AG is the flag carrier airline of Austria, with its headquarters in Vienna. ... Adria Airways is an airline based in Ljubljana, Slovenia. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Jat Airways is the national airline of Serbia and the former national carrier of Yugoslavia, based in Belgrade. ... Location of Belgrade within Serbia Coordinates: Country Serbia District City of Belgrade Municipalities 17 Government  - Mayor Nenad Bogdanović (DS) (since 2004)  - Ruling parties DS/DSS/G17+ Area  - City 3,222. ... Malév Hungarian Airlines, (where Malév is an acronym of the Hungarian Magyar Légiközlekedési Vállalat), is the national airline of Hungary, based in Budapest. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Olympic Airlines (Ολυμπιακές Αερογραμμές - OA) is the state-run flag carrier of Greece, employing about 1850 people. ... Athens (Ancient Greek: αἱ Ἀθῆναι (plural), evolving into the modern Αθήναι in Greek until recently, and Αθήνα nowadays (IPA ); is both the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ... Hemus Air is an airline based in Sofia, Bulgaria. ... Position of Sofia in Bulgaria Coordinates: , Country Bulgaria Province Sofia-City Government  - Mayor Boyko Borisov Area  - City 1,349 km²  (520. ... Turkish Airlines (Turkish Türk Hava Yolları) (THY) is the national airline of Turkey based in Istanbul. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...


Sea

Tirana does not have a port of its own. However, the port city of Durres is no more than half an hour away from the capital. Passenger ferries from Durres sail to Trieste (Italy), Koper (Slovenia) and there is a fast catamaran service to Bari (Italy). Trieste (Italian: Trieste; Slovenian, Croatian and Serbian: Trst; German: Triest) is a city and port in northeastern Italy right on the border with Slovenia. ... Area: 311. ... Location within Italy Bari is the capital of the province of Bari and of the Apulia (or Puglia) region, on the Adriatic sea, in Italy. ...


Notable people

  • Mother Theresa - Nun/Missionary/Servant of the Poor.
  • Ismail Kadare - Although born in Gjirokaster, Kadare spent most of his life in Tirana. A world-renowned writer, translated in more than 25 languages, Kadare has authored over 25 books. He has been often mentioned as a serious candidate for the Nobel Prize in literature. In 2005, he was awarded the prestigious Man Booker International award. He now lives in Paris, France.
  • Inva Mula - A famous Albanian opera singer.
  • Sali Berisha -Prime minister of Albania.
  • Edi Rama - Politician, artist, and popular mayor of Tirana.
  • Silva Lila - Journalist/reporter,RTSH 1991-1998. She now lives in US.
  • Kristaq Luniku - A former Albanian Governor.
  • Aurela Gace - A well known Albanian singer.
  • Ermenita Stafa - Journalist/reporter.
  • Masiela Lusha - (born 23 October 1985 Tirana) is an Albanian-born actress and writer currently attending UCLA. She played the daughter in the George Lopez Show.

Mother Teresa was born Agnes Gonxhe Bojaxhiu Mother Teresa of Calcutta (August 27, 1910–September 5, 1997) was an internationally renowned Catholic nun and founder of the Missionaries of Charity whose work among the poor of Calcutta was widely reported. ... Ismail Kadare at a reading in Zurich Ismail Kadare is a world-renowned Albanian writer. ... Gjirokastër (Photo by Marc Morell) Gjirokastër (Albanian: Gjirokastër or Gjirokastra, Greek: Argyrokastron or Girokastron) is a city in southern Albania at 40. ... Nobel Prize medal. ... The Man Booker International Prize is a biennial international literary award given to a living author of any nationality for fiction published in English or generally available in English translation. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Inva Mula (alternate spellings Inva Mula-Çako, Inva Mula-Tchako, Inva Mula Tchako, Inva Mulla Tchako) (born 1963) is an opera singer born in Tirana, Albania. ...   (born October 15, 1944) is the Prime Minister of the Republic of Albania. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Masiela Lusha (October 23, 1985) is an actress who was born in Tirana, Albania. ...

Landmarks

"The Albanians" – a mosaic on the façade of the National Historical Museum
"The Albanians" – a mosaic on the façade of the National Historical Museum
Statue of Skanderbeg in Skanderbeg Square
Statue of Skanderbeg in Skanderbeg Square
  • Skanderbeg Square: the central hub of the city, named after the Albanian hero, Skanderbeg.
  • Et'hem Bey Mosque: at the south east corner of Skanderbeg Square - begun in 1789 by Molla Bey and finished in 1821 by his son, Haxhi Et'hem Bey, great-grandson of Sulejman Pasha.
  • The Clock Tower (the Sahat-Kulla,) next to the Et'hem Bey Mosque, was started by Haxhi Et’hem Bey around 1821-22 and was finished with the help of the richest families of Tirana. Its installation was the work of the Tufina family. In 1928 the Albanian state bought a modern German clock and the tower was raised to a height of 35 metres. The clock was damaged during World War II and it was repaired in July 1946.
  • Government buildings: at the south end of Skenderbeg Square
  • National Museum: north side of Skenderbeg Square
  • The headquarters of the Bektashi Sufi Order can be found in the eastern edge of the city.
  • Roman Catholic Church of Saint Paul: completed in 2001, the largest church in Tirana.
  • Orthodox Church of St Prokop was built in 1780.
  • Roman Catholic Church of Saint Maria was built in 1865, paid for by Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria.
  • The Tabakëve and Terzive bridges (respectively in front of the Parliament building and on Elbasani Street) date from the beginning of the 20th century.
  • The mosque that is also the tomb of Kapllan Hysa (near the monument to Ushtari I Panjohur (‘the unknown soldier’)) was built in 1816.
  • The National Library was established in 1922, with 5000 volumes.
  • The Fortress of Petrela, 12 kilometres from Tirana, dates from the fourth century BC. It took its current form in the 13th century, under the rule of Topiaj, and later became the property of the Kastriotis.
  • The Palace of Culture (Pallati I Kulturës), where the Theatre of Opera and Ballet and the National Library stand, was completed in 1963 on the site of the former Trade of Tirana building, with the first brick being placed by Soviet president Nikita Khruschev in 1959.
  • The monument to Skënderbeu, raised in 1968, is the work of Odhise Paskali in collaboration with Andrea Mana and Janaq Paço. It commemorated the 500th anniversary of the death of the national hero.
  • The monument to Mother Albania, 12 metres high, was inaugurated in the Dëshmoret e Kombit cemetery in 1971.
  • The Academy of Sciences building was completed in April 1972.
  • The Gallery of Figurative Arts was created in 1976 and includes around 3200 works by Albanian and foreign artists.
  • The International Cultural Centre, formerly the Enver Hoxha Museum, was inaugurated in 1988. Popularly referred to as ‘the Pyramid’, it was designed by a group of architects under the direction of the dictator’s daughter, Pranvera Hoxha, and her husband Klement Kolaneci.
  • The National Historical Museum was built in 1981. The ornamental mosaic on its facade is called "The Albanians".
Panoramic view of Tirana as seen from Dajti Mountain
   
:Image:Tirana Albania pano 2004-07-14.jpg
Panoramic view of Tirana as seen from Dajti Mountain

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (953x479, 104 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tirana Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (953x479, 104 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tirana Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (819x614, 76 KB) Summary Statue of Gjergj Kastrioti Skenderbeu in Tirana Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (819x614, 76 KB) Summary Statue of Gjergj Kastrioti Skenderbeu in Tirana Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Skanderbeg and the people, sculpture by Janaq Paço and Genc Hajdari in the National Museum, Krujë, Albania. ... The Ethem Bey mosque is located in the center of the Albanian capital Tirana. ... The Bektashi order (Turkish: BektaÅŸi) is a syncretic religious order related to Shia Alevi faith, and is generally considered to be a Shia Sufi sect (Tarika). ... Franz Joseph I (in Hungarian I. Ferenc József, in English Francis Joseph I) (August 18, 1830 – November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria, Apostolic King of Hungary, King of Bohemia from 1848 until 1916 and a German prince (Deutscher Fürst). ... Palace of Culture was the name for major club-houses in the former Soviet Union. ... Nikita Khrushchev in 1962 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: Ники́та Серге́евич Хрущёв) (nih-KEE-tah khroo-SHCHYOFF) (April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union... Mother Albania is a 12 meters high statue located at the [National] Martyrs Cemetery (Deshmoret e Kombit) that represents the country, Albania, as a mother guarding over the eternal slumber of those who gave their lives for her. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The only daughter of Enver and Nexhjime Hoxha, Dictator and First Lady of Albania for forty years, she is an architect who is married to Klement Kolaneci. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4296x864, 1753 KB) This is a panoramic picture that I took of Tirana, Albania on July, 14, 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4296x864, 1753 KB) This is a panoramic picture that I took of Tirana, Albania on July, 14, 2005. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Twin or partner cities

Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Bursa (formerly known as Brusa or Prusa) is the capital of the Bursa Province in northwestern Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro. ... Coordinates Mayor Dr. Miomir MugoÅ¡a (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 1,441 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 136,473 169,132 117,4 pop per km² Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Before 12th Century as Birziminium Area code +382 81 Car... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Bosnia and Herzegovina Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ...

References

  1. ^ a b [1]
  2. ^ ISBN 86-7179-039-8 Mirjana Detelić: Градови у хришћанској и муслиманској епици, Belgrade, 2004

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Tirana History (851 words)
Tirana is on the same parallel as Naples, Madrid and Istanbul and on the same meridian as Budapest and Krakow.
Third, Tirana comes from Teheran, the capital of Iran, in remembrance of the victory by Sulejman Pasha (founder of the city), head of the Turkish army during the campaign in Persia.
The mosque in the centre of Tirana, called Et’hem Bey, began to be built in 1789 by Molla Bey, who came from Petrela and was finished in 1821 by his son, Haxhi Et’hem Bey, great-grandson of Sulejman Pasha.
Tirana - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2317 words)
Tirana (Albanian: Tiranë or Tirana) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Albania.
On 8 February, 1920 Tirana was chosen as the temporary national capital by the Congress of Lushnja and acquired that status permanently on 31 December, 1925.
Tirana is presently (2006) trying to develop a tourist industry, although this effort is hampered by the lack of infrastructure and the perception of political instability in the region, arising from military conflicts during the 1990s in neighbouring Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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