FACTOID # 3: South Carolina has the highest rate of violent crimes and aggravated assaults per capita among US states.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Tindouf Province
Map of Algeria showing Tindouf province

Tindouf, also written Tinduf, (Arabic: ''تندوف) is wilaya in the west of Algeria, population 30,000 (not including approximately 160,000 Sahrawi refugees). Its capital town is Tindouf. It houses army and airforce bases for the Algerian military, and is strategically important due to its proximity to the Moroccan border. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Arabic (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Map of the provinces of Algeria in alphabetical order. ... Sahrawi (also Saharawi, Arabic SaHrāwÄ«) is a term used for the indigenous people of Western Sahara, but there are also Sahrawi communities in other countries. ... Tindouf, also written Tinduf, (Arabic: تندوف) is a city and wilaya in the west of Algeria, population 30,000. ... The armed forces of Algeria is comprised of the Peoples National Army (ANP), Algerian National Navy (MRA), Air Force (QJJ), and Territorial Air Defense Force. ...

Contents


Sahrawi refugee camps

In the region there are four large refugee camps for Sahrawi refugees from Western Sahara: El Aaiun, Awserd, Smara, and Dakhla (not to be confused with the occupied cities after which they are named), with a total population of approximately 165,000. There are also some smaller camps, such as the "February 27", serving as a boarding school for women. The headquarters of Polisario, with the government in exile of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), are headquartered in Rabouni, a camp dedicated to administration. The refugee camps are part of the Sahrawi republic's system of government. Algeria does not intervene in their organization, treating the area as effectively under Sahrawi self-rule. Refugee camp for Rwandans located in what is now the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo following the Rwandan Genocide A refugee camp is a camp built up by governments or NGOs (such as the ICRC) to receive refugees. ... Sahrawi (also Saharawi, Arabic SaHrāwī) is a term used for the indigenous people of Western Sahara, but there are also Sahrawi communities in other countries. ... The Polisario, Polisario Front, or Frente Polisario, from the Spanish abbreviation of Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro (Peoples Liberation Front of Saguia el-Hamra and Rio de Oro) is an army and political movement in the Western Sahara, comprising... A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a countrys legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country. ... The Saharawi (or Sahrawi) Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) is the long-form English translation of the government of Western Sahara (Arabic: الجمهورية العربية الصحراوية الدمقرطية, Spanish: República Arabe Saharaui Democrática). ...


Conditions of life


The Tindouf area is located on the hammada, a vast desert plain of the Sahara Desert. Summer temperatures in this part of the hammada, historically known as "The Devil's Garden", are often above 50°C and frequent sand storms disrupt normal life. There is little or no vegetation, and firewood has to be gathered by car tens of kilometers away. Only a few of the camps have access to water, and the drinking sources are neither clean nor sufficient for the entire refugee population. Basic life cannot be sustained in this environment, and the camps are completely dependent on foreign aid. Food, drinking water and materials for tents and clothing are brought in by car by international aid agencies such as the UNHCR, ECHO and WFP, and the Algerian Red Crescent. However, there are radios, television, and several hundreds of satellite dishes have popped up in recent years. Social services such as schooling and basic hospital care are organized by the refugees themselves. The Sahara is the worlds second largest desert (second to Antarctica), over 9,000,000 km² (3,500,000 mi²), located in northern Africa and is 2. ... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... Look up echo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Echo may refer to: ECHO RULEZ THE KNOWN CB WORLD.. Echo (mythology), a nymph from Greek mythology. ... The World Food Programme (WFP) is an agency of the United Nations which distributes food commodities to support development projects, to long-term refugees and displaced persons and as emergency food assistance in situations of natural and man-made disasters. ... The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is the worlds largest group of humanitarian non-governmental organizations, often known simply as the Red Cross, after its original symbol. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


The refugee population is plagued by the lack of vegetables, nutritious food and medicines. Accoding to the United Nations and the World Food Program, 40% of the children suffer from lack of iron, and 10% of the children below five years of age suffer from acute lack of nutrition. 32% are suffering from chronic lack of nutrition. 47% of the women suffer from lack of iron. Despite these figures, the health conditions are better than expected in most refugee camps, especially considering the harsh climate and the many years of exile. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization that describes itself as a global association of governments facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. ... The World Food Programme (WFP) is an agency of the United Nations which distributes food commodities to support development projects, to long-term refugees and displaced persons and as emergency food assistance in situations of natural and man-made disasters. ...


Organization


The camps are considered very well organized by international refugee experts. They are divided into sub-units electing their own officials to run the camps, and to represent the neighbourhoods in political decision-making. The largest unit is called a "wilaya" (like the Algerian region), and is comprised of one single camp (Wilaya El-Aaiun, for example). Then comes larger sections of the camps called "daira", meaning "circle", in their turn divided into several "hay" or quarter (somtimes called "barrio", a Spanish word). Local committees distribute basic goods, water and food, while "daira" authorities made up by the representatives of the "hays" organize schools, cultural activities and medical services. This results in a form of basic democracy on the level of camp administration, which is considered to have improved the efficiency of aid distribution.


During the war years (1975-1991) Sahrawi women ran most of the camps' administration, with the men fighting at the front. This together with literacy- and professional education classes produced major advances in the role of women in Sahrawi society, although the return of large numbers of Sahrawi men since the cease fire has again hindered this development. Women still run a majority of the camps' administration, and the Sahrawi women's union UNMS is very active in promoting their role. UNMS, English abbreviation NUSW, Union Nacional de Mujeres (The National Union of Sahrawi Women) is the womens organization of the Front Polisario. ...


Six years of schooling are guaranteed and obligatory for all children. After that, many go to Algerian schools, and some pass on to universities in Algeria, Cuba, Spain or other countries that provide scholarships for Sahrawi students. Camp-wide literacy programs and education efforts directed specifically towards women have improved the literacy rates tremendously. Some 90% of the refugees are now considered literate, compared with below 10% in 1975, and the regional average of about 50%.


Both men and women perform military service in the armed forces of the Polisario.


Work and economy


While there are several international organizations (ECHO, Oxfam, UNHCR etc) working in the camps, the Polisario has insisted on using mainly local staff for construction, teaching etc, thereby trying to activate the refugee population, to avoid a sense of stagnation and hopelessness after 30 years in exile. However, jobs remain scarce and those Sahrawis educated at universities abroad can rarely if ever find opportunities to use their skills. Some Sahrawis work in nearby Tindouf city. Oxfam International, founded in 1995, is a confederation of 12 independent, not-for-profit, secular, community-based aid and development organisations who work with local partners in over 100 countries worldwide to reduce poverty, suffering, and injustice. ...


A simple monetary economy developed in the camps during the 1990s, after Spain decided to pay pensions to Sahrawis who had been forcibly drafted as soldiers in the Tropas Nomadas during the colonial time. Money also came from Sahrawis working in Algeria or abroad, and from refugees who pursue a traditional bedouin lifestyle, herding cattle in Algeria, Mauritania and the Polisario-held areas of Western Sahara. The private economy however remains extremely limited, and the camps continue to survive mainly on foreign and Algerian aid. The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive, the last decade of the 20th Century. ... Sahrawi and Saharawi are terms most commonly used for the natives of the Morocco-administered Western Sahara. ... In general, the word colonial means of or relating to a colony. In United States history, the term Colonial is used to refer to the period before US independence. ... Bedouin resting at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic , a generic name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western Desert, Sinai, and Negev...


Family separation and human rights


Since Polisario and Morocco are still at war, visits between the camps and the Moroccan-controlled parts of Western Sahara are impossible. Thousands of families have been separated for up to 30 years, a painful situation for the population in both Western Sahara and the refugee camps.


Recently, the UNHCR managed a family visits exchange program for five-day visits for a limited number of people, going from the camps to the Moroccan-held territories and vice versa. It is not clear if or when the program will be resumed. The United Nations has also established telephone services between the camps and Moroccan-held Western Sahara, and is planning to start a mail service. These activities are aimed at reuniting families that have been separated for 30 years by the Sahrawi-Moroccan war. Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... The United Nations (UN) is an international organization that describes itself as a global association of governments facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. ...


While the Polisario complains of repression of Sahrawi human rights activists in the Moroccan-held parts of Western Sahara, the government of Morocco counters by stating that the camps are the scenes of massive human rights abuse against the refugee population by the Polisario. This has, however, not been confirmed by human rights and aid organizations that visit the camps. Foreign visiting delegations are extremely frequent and are allowed to move around at will, which undermines the Moroccan description of the camps as "concentration camps". The Independence Intifada (intifada is Arabic for uprising) is a Sahrawi name for the disturbances, demonstrations and riots that broke out in May 2005 in the Moroccan-held parts of Western Sahara. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ...


Polisario has acknowledged isolated reports of mistreatment in the seventies and eighties, but deny the accusations of on-going abuse. Reports of beatings and torture of Moroccan prisoners of war who were formerly held in the camps were backed by some human rights organizations, which seems to have contributed to the release of the last of these POW:s by the summer of 2005. There are complaints of limitations on movement between the camps, but camp authorities maintain that this is simply a question of registering movements for aid allocation purposes. Visiting human rights organizations have concluded that the conditions are troublesome with regard to basic subsistence, but that the human rights situation is satisfactory.[1][2]. Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Moroccan territorial claims

From independence in 1956, the Kingdom of Morocco claimed the Tindouf area and western Algeria as part of Greater Morocco. These claims are based on the perception of pre-colonial Moroccan control of the area, and promises made by parts of the Algerian underground during that country's war for independence. After Algeria's independence in 1963, Morocco's claim to Tindouf was not accepted, and the Moroccan government found no international backing for its position. This led to the 1962 Sand war, fought along the Moroccan-Algerian border in the Tindouf region. 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the early 1940s, the Moroccan nationalist party - Istiqlal - used the concept of Greater Morocco as a propaganda tool to rally support of Moroccan citizens against French colonial rule. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Skirmishes along the Algerian-Moroccan border in 1963 escalated into a full-blown Moroccan attack on the newborn Algerian state, in an attempt to claim the Tindouf area as part of Greater Morocco. While Morocco is considered to have had the upper hand militarily, the war produced no territorial gains...


In a process begun in 1969 and finalized during the OAU summit in Rabat in 1972, Morocco recognized the border with Algeria, in exchange for joint exploitation of the iron ore in Tindouf. However, parts of Moroccan society and some nationalist political parties still refer to the Tindouf area as historically Moroccan territory. Algeria has made no claims on the Moroccan side of the border. 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday For other uses, see Number 1969. ... Flag of the Organisation of African Unity, later also used by the African Union. ... For the Maltese city on Gozo Island which can also be called Rabat, see Victoria, Malta. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year that started on a Tuesday. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ...


See also

  • History of Western Sahara
  • El-Aaiun (city in Western Sahara)
  • Dakhla (city in Western Sahara)
  • Smara (city in Western Sahara)

// Background The Western Sahara area has never formed a state in the modern sense of the word. ... El-Aaiún or Laâyoune (Arabic: العيون, transliterated al-`ayūn), is the unofficial capital of Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony now mostly controlled and occupied by Morocco. ... ... Smara, also Semara, is a Sahrawi city (50,000 in 1999) in the Moroccan-occupied Western Sahara. ...

External links

  • Photo gallery Life in the Tindouf refugee camps
  • Eye witness report from Tindouf By ECHO, the EU:s foreign aid branch
  • Map of the region
  • [http://www.usembassy.it/usunrome/files/Algeria.htm The United States on Algeria
  • Al-Jazeera editorial On the camps and the Sahara conflict
  • US Committee On Refugees and Immigrants PDF file with a chapter on Sahrawis in Algeria


Provinces of Algeria Flag of Algeria
Adrar | Aïn Defla | Aïn Témouchent | Algiers | Annaba | Batna | Béchar | Béjaïa | Biskra | Blida | Bordj Bou Arréridj | Bouira | Boumerdès | Chlef | Constantine | Djelfa | El Bayadh | El Oued | El Tarf | Ghardaïa | Guelma | Illizi | Jijel | Khenchela | Laghouat | Médéa | Mila | Mostaganem | M'Sila | Muaskar | Naama | Oran | Ouargla | Oum el-Bouaghi | Relizane | Saida | Sétif | Sidi Bel Abbes | Skikda | Souk Ahras | Tamanghasset | Tébessa | Tiaret | Tindouf | Tipasa | Tissemsilt | Tizi Ouzou | Tlemcen

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m