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Encyclopedia > Tin whistle
Tin whistle
Pennywhistle
Tin whistle
Classification
Playing range

Two octaves Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... A woodwind instrument is a musical instrument in which sound is produced by blowing through a mouthpiece against an edge or by a vibrating reed, and in which the pitch is varied by opening or closing holes in the body of the instrument. ... A wind instrument is a musical instrument that contains some type of resonator (usually a tube), in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set at the end of the resonator. ... An aerophone is any musical instrument which produces sound primarily by causing a body of air to vibrate, without the use of strings or membranes, and without the vibration of the instrument itself adding considerably to the sound. ... The playing range of a musical instrument is the region of pitch in which it can play, i. ...

Related instruments

The tin whistle, also called the tinwhistle, whistle, pennywhistle, or Irish whistle, is a simple six-holed woodwind instrument. The Irish words for the instrument are feadóg ('whistle' or 'flute') or feadóg stáin ('tin whistle'); feadóga stáin is the plural. It can be described as an end blown fipple flute, putting it in the same category as the flageolet, recorder, Native American flute, and many other woodwind instruments found in traditional music. A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... The Irish flute is a sex toy name for a wooden flute used in the playing of Irish traditional music. ... Pipe describes a number of musical instruments, historically referring to perforated wind instruments. ... A woodwind instrument is a musical instrument in which sound is produced by blowing through a mouthpiece against an edge or by a vibrating reed, and in which the pitch is varied by opening or closing holes in the body of the instrument. ... An Instrument is a tool, intended for a purpose other than mechanical work, in particular a refined one. ... A Flageolet is a woodwind musical instrument and a member of the fipple flute family. ... Various recorders The recorder is a woodwind musical instrument of the family known as fipple flutes or internal duct flutes — whistle-like instruments which include the tin whistle and ocarina. ... Native American flute crafted by Chief Arthur Two-Crows, 1987 The Native American flute has achieved some measure of fame for its distinctive sound, used in a variety of New Age and world music recordings. ... A woodwind instrument is a musical instrument in which sound is produced by blowing through a mouthpiece against an edge or by a vibrating reed, and in which the pitch is varied by opening or closing holes in the body of the instrument. ... Folk music can have a number of different meanings, including: Traditional music: The original meaning of the term folk music was synonymous with the term Traditional music, also often including World Music and Roots music; the term Traditional music was given its more specific meaning to distinguish it from the...

Contents

History

L.E. McCullough notes that the oldest surviving whistles date from the 12th century, but that, "Players of the feadan are also mentioned in the description of the King of Ireland's court found in the Brehon Laws dating from the 3rd century A.D."[1] The Tusculum whistle is a 14cm whistle with six finger holes, made of brass or bronze, found with pottery dating to the 14th and 15th centuries; it's currently in the collection of the Museum of Scotland.[2] The Brehon Laws were statutes that governed everyday life and politics in Ireland until the Norman invasion of 1171 (the word Brehon is an Anglicisation of breitheamh (earlier brithem), the Irish word for a judge). ... This article is about the unit of length. ... The Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, is a museum dedicated to the history, people and culture of Scotland. ...


The term "penny whistle" was coined on the streets of Dublin in the late 1500's because of the whistles' prevalence among the beggars and vagabonds in Ireland. The word "tin-whistle" was also coined as early as 1825.[3] but neither word seems to have been common until the 20th century.[4] The first record of tin-plate whistles dates back to 1825 in Britain.[5]


The first factory-made "tinwhistles" were produced by Robert Clarke (? - 1882) in Manchester and later New Moston, England. Up to 1900, they were also marketed as "Clarke London Flageolets" or "Clarke Flageolets".[6] The whistle's fingering system is similar to that of the six hole, simple system, "Irish flute" ("simple" in comparison to Boehm system flutes). The six hole, diatonic system is also used on baroque flutes and other folk flutes, and was of course well known before Robert Clarke began producing his tin whistles circa 1843. Clarke's first whistle, the Meg, was pitched in high A and was later made in other keys suitable for Victorian parlor music. The company showed the whistles in The Great Exhibition of 1851.[7] This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Ğ: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... A close-up of the first bar of Applicatio in C major, BWV 994, from Klavierbüchlein für Wilhelm Friedemann Bach that shows the fingering guide on the score. ... The Irish flute is a sex toy name for a wooden flute used in the playing of Irish traditional music. ... The Boehm System is a system of fingerings, created by inventor and flautist Theobald Boehm in the 1830s which was originally used on the flute and then on a variety of woodwind instruments, including the clarinet, bass clarinet and saxophone. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750[1] (see Dates of classical music eras for a discussion of the problems inherent in defining the beginning and end points). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Great Exhibition in Hyde Park 1851. ...


In the second half of the 19th century, some flute manufacturers such as Barnett Samuel and Joseph Wallis also sold whistles. These had a cylindrical brass tube. Like many old whistles, they had lead fipple plugs; since lead is poisonous caution should be exercised before playing an old whistle. For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... Lead poisoning is a medical condition, also known as saturnism, plumbism or painters colic, caused by increased blood lead levels. ...


The Generation whistle was introduced in the first half of the 20th century, and also featured a brass tube with a lead fipple plug. The design was updated somewhat over the years, most notably the substitution of a plastic fipple for the lead plug design.


While whistles have most often been produced in higher pitches, the "low" whistle is not unknown historically. The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston has in its collection an example of a 19th century low whistle from the famous Galpin collection.[8] During the 1960s revival of traditional Irish music the low whistle was "recreated" by Bernard Overton at the request of Finbar Furey.[9] Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ...


Contemporary whistles

Contemporary tin whistles in several keys
Contemporary tin whistles in several keys

The most common whistles today are made of brass tubing, or nickel plated brass tubing, with a plastic fipple (mouthpiece). Generation, Feadóg, Oak, Acorn, Soodlum's (now Walton's), and other brands fall in this category. The next most common form is the conical sheet metal whistle with a wooden stop in the wide end to form the fipple, the Clarke's brand being the most prevalent. Other less common variants are the all-metal whistle, the PVC whistle, and the wooden whistle. Tinwhistles: Overton aluminum D by Colin Goldie, Tony Dixon PVC D, Feadog brass D, all cylindrical; Clarke Sweetone D, conical; Generation nickel low Bb and high G; Howard low D. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Tinwhistles: Overton aluminum D by Colin Goldie, Tony Dixon PVC D, Feadog brass D, all cylindrical; Clarke Sweetone D, conical; Generation nickel low Bb and high G; Howard low D. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Brass (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... Electroplating is the process of using Davd lloyd current to coat an electrically conductive object with a relatively thin layer of metal. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A fipple mouthpiece uses a narrow windway and a blade-like edge to channel and vibrate air blown into it. ... Polyvinyl chloride Polyvinyl chloride, (IUPAC Polychloroethene) commonly abbreviated PVC, is a widely used thermoplastic polymer. ...


Whistles are a prevalent starting instrument in Irish traditional music, since they are often cheap (under US$10), relatively easy to start with (no tricky embouchure such as found with the flute), and the fingerings are identical to those on the traditional six holed flute (Irish flute, baroque flute). The tin whistle is the most popular instrument in Irish traditional music today.[5] Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic politically divided between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... The embouchure is the use of facial muscles and the shaping of the lips to the mouthpiece of a wind instrument. ... â™  This article is about the family of musical instruments. ...


In recent years a number of instrument builders have started lines of "high-end," hand-made whistles, which can cost hundreds of dollars US each — expensive in comparison to cheap whistles, but nevertheless cheaper than most other instruments. These companies are typically either a single individual or a very small group of craftsmen who work closely together. It is common for builders of wooden flutes and Uilleann pipes to also build whistles. The instruments are distinguished from the inexpensive whistles in that each whistle is individually manufactured and "voiced" by a skilled person rather than made in a factory. The Irish flute is a sex toy name for a wooden flute used in the playing of Irish traditional music. ... Full set of Uilleann pipes Uilleann pipes (IPA: ) are the characteristic national bagpipe of Ireland. ...


Tuning

Whistle keys

The whistle is tuned diatonically, which allows it to be used to easily play music in two major keys and their corresponding minor keys and modes. The whistle is identified by its lowest note, which is the tonic of the lowest major key. Note that this method of determining the key of the instrument is different from the method used to determine the key of a chromatic instrument, which is based on the relationship between notes on a score and sounded pitch. Whistles are available in a wide variety of different keys.[10] In music, there are two common meanings for tuning: Tuning practice, the act of tuning an instrument or voice. ... In Music theory, the diatonic major scale (also known as the Guido scale), from the Greek diatonikos or to stretch out, is a fundamental building block of the European-influenced musical tradition. ... In music theory, the key identifies the tonic triad, the chord, major or minor, which represents the final point of rest for a piece, or the focal point of a section. ... In music, a scale is an ordered series of musical intervals, which, along with the key or tonic, define the pitches. ... The tonic is the first note of a musical scale, and in the tonal method of music composition it is extremely important. ... In music theory, the major scale is one of the diatonic scales. ... The chromatic scale is a scale with twelve pitches, each a semitone or half step apart. ...


The most common whistles can easily play notes in the keys of D and G major. Since the D major key is lower these whistles are identified as D whistles. The next most common whistle tuning is a C whistle, which can easily play notes in the keys of C and F major. The C whistle is widely used in American folk music,[citation needed] whereas the D whistle is the most common choice for Irish and Scottish music. Folk music can have a number of different meanings, including: Traditional music: The original meaning of the term folk music was synonymous with the term Traditional music, also often including World Music and Roots music; the term Traditional music was given its more specific meaning to distinguish it from the...


Although the whistle is essentially a diatonic instrument, it is possible to get notes outside the principal major key of the whistle, either by half-holing (partially covering the highest open finger hole) or by cross-fingering (covering some holes while leaving some higher ones open). However, half-holing is somewhat more difficult to do correctly, and whistles are available in many keys, so for alternate keys a whistler will typically use a different whistle instead, reserving half-holing for accidentals. Some whistle designs allow a single fipple, or mouthpiece, to be used on differently keyed bodies. In Music theory, the diatonic major scale (also known as the Guido scale), from the Greek diatonikos or to stretch out, is a fundamental building block of the European-influenced musical tradition. ... An accidental is a musical notation symbol used to raise or lower the pitch of a note from that indicated by the key signature. ...


Low whistles

There are larger whistles, which by virtue of being longer and wider produce tones an octave (or in rare cases two octaves) lower. Whistles in this category are likely to be made of metal or plastic tubing, with a tuning-slide head, and are almost always referred to as low whistles but sometimes called concert whistles. The low whistle operates on identical principles to the standard whistles, but musicians in the tradition may consider it a separate instrument.


The term soprano whistle is sometimes used for the higher-pitched whistles when it is necessary to distinguish them from low whistles.


Tuning adjustment

Whistles may or may not be tuneable. If they are, tuning is done by moving the mouthpiece in or out, either the mouthpiece itself sliding over the whistle body, as in the metal tube/plastic body model, or else with a tuning slide such that the mouthpiece and the upper part of the body form the 'head' of the whistle which fits into the main body. In music, tuning is the process of producing or preparing to produce a certain pitch in relation to another, usually at the unison but often at some other interval. ...


Playing technique

Fingering and range

The notes are selected by opening or closing holes with the fingers. With all the holes closed, the whistle generates its lowest note, the tonic of a major scale. Successively opening holes from the bottom upward produces the rest of the notes of the scale in sequence: with the lowest hole open it generates the second, with the lowest two holes open, it produces the third and so on. With all six holes open, it produces the seventh. The tonic is the first note of a musical scale, and in the tonal method of music composition it is extremely important. ... In music theory, the major scale is one of the diatonic scales. ...


As with a number woodwind instruments, the tin whistle's second and higher octaves are achieved by increasing the air speed into the embouchure hole. This increases the frequency of the air pressure waves created. On a transverse flute this is generally done by narrowing the lip aperture.[11] Since the size and direction of the tin whistle's windway, like that of the recorder and other fipple flutes, is fixed it is necessary to increase the speed of the air stream by overblowing. This can be done by blowing fractionally harder. Overblowing is producing a different note in a wind instrument by forcing air harder. ...


Fingering in the second octave is generally the same as in the first octave, though alternate fingerings are sometimes employed in the higher end of the octave to correct tuning.[12] Also, the tonic note of the second octave is usually played with the top hole of the whistle uncovered instead of covering all holes as with the tonic note of the first octave; this makes it harder to accidentally drop into the first octave and is usually more in tune.


Various other notes (relatively flat or sharp with respect to those of the major scale) can be accessed by cross fingering techniques, and all the notes (except the lowest of each octave) can be flattened by half holing. Perhaps the most effective and most used cross fingering is that which produces a flattened form of the seventh note (B flat instead of B on a C whistle, for example, or C natural instead of C sharp on a D whistle). This makes available another major scale (F on a C whistle, G on a D whistle).


The standard range of the whistle is two octaves. For a D whistle, this includes notes from the second D above middle C to the fourth D above middle C. It is possible to make sounds above this range, by blowing with sufficient force, but, in most musical contexts, the result will be loud and out of tune.


Ornamentation

Traditional Irish whistle playing uses a number of ornaments to embellish the music, including cuts, strikes and rolls. Most playing is legato with ornaments to create breaks between notes, rather than tongued. The Irish traditional music concept of the word "ornamentation" differs somewhat from that of European classical music in that ornaments are more commonly changes in how a note is articulated rather than the addition of separately-perceived notes to the piece.[13] In music, ornaments are musical flourishes that are not necessary to the overall melodic (or harmonic) line, but serve to decorate or ornament that line. ... In musical notation legato indicates that musical notes are played smoothly. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ...


Common ornaments and articulations include:

Cuts 
Cuts are very briefly lifting a finger above the note being sounded without interrupting airflow into the whistle. For example, a player playing a low D on a D whistle can cut the note by very briefly lifting the first finger of his or her lower hand. This causes the pitch to briefly shift upward. The cut can be performed either at the very start of the note or after the note has begun to sound; some people call the latter a "double cut" or a "mid-note cut."
Strikes 
Strikes or taps are similar to cuts except that a finger below the sounded note is briefly lowered to the whistle. For example, if a player is playing a low E on a D whistle the player could tap by quickly lowering and raising his or her bottom finger. Both cuts and taps are essentially instantaneous; the listener should not perceive them as separate notes.
Rolls 
A roll is a note with first a cut and then a strike. Alternately, a roll can be considered as a group of notes of identical pitch and duration with different articulations.[13] There are two common types of rolls:
  • The long roll is a group of three slurred notes of equal pitch and duration, the first sounded without a cut or strike, the second sounded with a cut, and the third sounded with a strike.
  • The short roll is a group of two slurred notes of equal pitch and duration, the first sounded with a cut and the second sounded with a strike.
Cranns 
Cranns (or crans) are ornaments borrowed from the Uilleann piping tradition. They are similar to rolls except that only cuts are used, not taps or strikes. On the tin whistle they are generally only used for notes where a roll is impossible, such as the lowest note of the instrument.
Slides 
Slides are similar to portamentos in classical music; a note below or above (usually below) the intended note is fingered, and then the fingering is gradually shifted in order to smoothly raise or lower the pitch to the intended note. The slide is generally a longer duration ornament than, for example, the cut or the tap and the listener should perceive the pitch changing.
Tonguing 
Tonguing is used sparingly as a means of emphasizing certain notes, such as the first note in a tune. Tin whistle players usually do not tongue most notes. To tongue a note a player briefly touches his or her tongue to the front of the roof of their mouth at the start of the note (as if he was articulating a 't'), creating a percussive attack.
Vibrato 
Vibrato can be achieved on most notes by opening and closing one of the open holes, or by variation of breath pressure. Of the two, fingered vibrato is much more common than diaphragmatic (breath) vibrato, except on notes like the lowest note on the whistle where fingered vibrato is much more difficult.

Full set of Uilleann pipes Uilleann pipes (IPA: ) are the characteristic national bagpipe of Ireland. ... Portamento is a musical term currently used to mean pitch bending or sliding, and in 16th century polyphonic writing refers to a type of musical ornamentation. ... An ADSR envelope is a parameter used in synthesizers, including those that produce sound by subtractive synthesis, to control the sound produced. ... Vibrato is a musical effect where the pitch or frequency of a note or sound is quickly and repeatedly raised and lowered over a small distance for the duration of that note or sound. ...

Some tricks

Leading Tone 
Leading Tones are the seventh just before the tonic, so named because melodic styling often uses the seventh to lead into the tonic at the end of a phrase. On most tin whistles the leading tone to the lowest tonic can be played by using the little finger of the lower hand to partially cover the very end opening of the whistle, while keeping all other holes covered as usual for the tonic.
Tone 
The tone of the tin whistle is largely determined by its manufacturing. Clarke style rolled metal whistles tend to have an airy "impure" sound, while Generation style cylindrical instruments tend to have clear or "pure" whistle sounds. Inexpensive rolled metal whistles, such as those from Cooperman Fife and Drum (which also produces high-end instruments) may be very airy in sound, and may be difficult to play in the upper register (second octave). Often placing a piece of tape over one edge of the fipple slot (just below the mouthpiece) to narrow the fipple will improve the instrument's tone and playability significantly.
Scales 
While, as mentioned under Fingering, a player will usually play a given instrument only in its tonic key and possibly in the key beginning on the fourth (e.g. G on a D whistle), nearly any key is possible, becoming progressively more difficult to keep in tune as the player moves away from the whistle's tonic, according to the circle of fifths. Thus a D whistle is fairly apt for playing both G and A, and a C instrument can be used fairly easily for F and G.

In music theory, the circle of fifths (or cycle of fifths) is an imaginary geometrical space that depicts relationships among the 12 equal-tempered pitch classes comprising the familiar chromatic scale. ...

Repertoire

A number of music genres commonly feature the tin whistle. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Irish and Scottish music

Traditional music from Ireland and Scotland is by far the most common music to play on the tin whistle, and comprises the vast majority of published scores suitable for whistle players. Musicians who play Irish and Scottish music on the tin whistle perform as members of bands. While the tin whistle is very common in Irish music to the point that it could be called characteristic of the genre and fairly common in Scottish music, it is not a "required" instrument in either one. The Tannahill Weavers Scotland is internationally known for its traditional music, which has remained vibrant throughout the 20th century, when many traditional forms worldwide lost popularity to pop music. ...


As ornamentation and improvisation around a simple melody is characteristic of both genres, many traditional musicians frown upon the use of musical scores, believing that learning "by ear," from recordings or live instruction, is the best way to learn these aspects of whistle performance. Hence, students of the tin whistle may be advised not to use musical scores, and will certainly be expected to spend a substantial amount of time listening to other performers even when scores are used. Scores are never used in live performances and usually discouraged in sessions. Nevertheless, it is a common practice to transcribe traditional tunes, both for the purpose of preserving melodies and as a learning tool. When traditional tunes are scored there are seldom if ever separate scores for individual instruments; hence, tin whistle players use the same score as all other musicians. Irish traditional music sessions are informal gatherings at which people play or sing traditional Irish music. ...


Kwela

Kwela is a genre of music created in South Africa in the 1950s, and characterised by an upbeat, jazzy tin whistle lead. Among all genres of music featuring the tin whistle, kwela is distinctive as the only one which is totally dominated by the instrument; the genre was created around the sound of the whistle. The low cost of the tin whistle made it an attractive instrument in the impoverished, apartheid-era townships; the Hohner tin whistle was especially popular in this genre. The kwela craze accounted for the sale of over a million tin whistles.[14] Kwela is a happy, often pennywhistle based, street music from southern Africa with jazzy underpinnings. ... The South African music scene includes both popular (jive) and folk forms. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Hohner is a company specialising in the manufacture of musical instruments. ...


Kwela was mostly superseded in South Africa by the mbaqanga genre in the late fifties, and with it the saxophone largely supplanted the tin whistle as the lead instrument for music from the townships. However, kwela master Aaron "Big Voice Jack" Lerole continued to perform into the 1990s and a few kwela bands, such as London's The Positively Testcard continue to record kwela music today. Kwela is a happy, often pennywhistle based, street music from southern Africa with jazzy underpinnings. ... Mbaqanga is a style of South African music that is usually sung by people from rural areas. ... The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored instrument of the woodwind family. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Kwela musical scores are rarely published and many of the recordings of founding kwela artists are out of print and hard to find.


Other music

The tin whistle is used in many other types of music, though not to the extent that it could be called characteristic as with Irish music and kwela. It is not unusual to hear the tin whistle used in bluegrass, praise music, and film soundtracks, and published scores suitable for tin whistle performance are available in all of these genres. The tin whistle also appears in "crossover" genres like world music and folk metal. Bluegrass music is a form of American roots music which has its own roots in Irish, Scottish and English traditional music. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A film soundtrack is the music that is from or inspired by a feature film. ... World music is, most generally, all the music in the world. ... Folk metal is a diverse collection of music, encompassing a wide variety of different styles and approaches. ...


Notation

Tin whistle music collections are generally notated in one of three different formats.


Standard musical notation

It is common to score music for the whistle using standard musical notation. The tin whistle is a transposing instrument and there is no real consensus on how tin whistle music should be written, or on how reading music onto the whistle should be taught. However, when music is scored for a soprano whistle it will be written an octave lower than it sounds, so avoiding use of ledger lines and making it much easier to read. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A transposing instrument is a musical instrument whose music is written at a pitch different from concert pitch. ... Figure 1. ...


The traditional music of Ireland and Scotland constitutes the majority of published scores for the whistle.[15] Since the majority of that music is written in D major, G major, or one of the corresponding musical modes, use of the D major or G major key signatures is a de facto standard. For example, the "C whistle" edition of Bill Ochs's popular The Clarke Tin Whistle Handbook is scored in D and differs from the D edition only in that the accompanying audio CD is played on a C whistle.[16] De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


Reading directly onto the C whistle is popular for the obvious reason that its home key or name key is the all-natural major key (C major). Some musicians are encouraged to learn to read directly onto one whistle, while others are taught to read directly onto another, and learning to read directly onto a second whistle will tend to disturb, seriously, facility gained on the first.[citation needed] C major (often just C or key of C) is a musical major scale based on C, with pitches C, D, E, F, G, A, B and C. Its key signature has no flats/sharps (see below: Diatonic Scales and Keys). ...


The whistle player who wants music to read on to all whistles will need to learn the mechanics of written transposition, taking music with one key signature and rewriting it with another. In music transposition refers to the process of moving a collection of notes (pitches) up or down in pitch by a constant interval. ... This key signature – A major or F# minor – consists of three sharps placed after the clef In musical notation, a key signature is a series of sharp symbols or flat symbols placed on the staff, designating notes that are to be consistently played one semitone higher or lower than the...


Tablature

Tablature notation for the tin whistle is a graphical representation of which tone holes the player should cover. The most common format is a vertical column of six circles, with holes to be covered for a given note shown filled with black, and a plus sign (+) at the top for notes in the second octave. Tablature is most commonly found in tutorial books for beginners. Example of numeric vihuela tablature from the book Orphenica Lyra by Miguel de Fuenllana (1554). ...


Tonic solfa

The tonic solfa is found in Ireland and possibly Wales,[citation needed] especially in schools. Many schools have printed sheets with tunes notated in tonic solfa, although in Ireland more have teaching by rote. With the availability of good standard notation tutor books, teaching is possibly moving in this direction.[original research?] In music, solfege (or solmization) is a pedagogical technique for the teaching of sight-singing in which each note of the score is sung to a special syllable, called a solfege syllable (or sol-fa syllable). The seven syllables normally used for this practice in the West are: Do, Re...


Abc notation

Since the majority of popular tin whistle music is traditional and out of copyright, it is common to share tune collections on the Internet.[17] Abc notation is the most common means of electronic exchange of tunes. It is also designed to be easy to read by people, and many musicians learn to read it directly instead of using a computer program to transform it into a standard musical notation score. abc is a language designed to notate music - tunes and lyrics - in an ascii format. ...


Well-known performers

In Irish traditional music
See also: List of All-Ireland Champions

In 1973, Paddy Moloney (of The Chieftains) and Sean Potts released Tin Whistles, which helped to popularise the tin whistle in particular and Irish music in general. Mary Bergin's Feadóga Stáin (1979) and Feadóga Stáin 2 (1993) were similarly influential. This page lists some of those who have won the senior championships at the Fleadh Cheoil since its founding in 1951 by Comhaltas Ceoltóirí Éireann. ... Paddy Moloney (born August 1, 1938) is one of the founders of the Irish musical group The Chieftains and has played on every one of their albums. ... The Chieftains are a Grammy-winning Irish musical group founded in 1963, known for performing and popularizing Irish traditional music. ... Sean Potts is an Irish musician. ... Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic politically divided between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... Mary Bergin is an Irish folk musician who is widely acknowledged as one of the great masters of the tin whistle. ...


Other notable players include Carmel Gunning, Micho Russell, Joanie Madden, Brian Finnegan, and Seán Ryan. Many traditional pipers and flute players also play the whistle to a high standard. Carmel Gunning TTCT is an Irish musician, born in Sligo, Ireland. ... Micho Russell (1915 – February 19, 1994) was an Irish musician and author best known for his expert tin whistle performance. ... Cherish The Ladies is an Irish-American group Cherish The Ladies, an all-female group, was formed in 1985 in New York. ... Flook is an Anglo-Irish band playing traditional-style instrumental music, although much is penned by the band themselves. ... Seán Ryan (b. ...

In kwela

Aaron "Big Voice Jack" Lerole and his band recorded a single called "Tom Hark" which sold five million copies worldwide and was used as the theme song for a BBC series. But the most famous star of the kwela era was Spokes Mashiyane.[14] Paul Simon's 1986 album Graceland draws heavily on South African music and includes pennywhistle solos in the traditional style. For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Spokes Mashiyane was regarded as one of the greatest pennywhistle artists that graced the South African Kwela music scene in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Paul Frederic Simon (born October 13, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter and guitarist, half of the folk-singing duo Simon and Garfunkel who continues a successful solo career. ... Graceland is an album released in 1986 by Paul Simon. ...

In popular music

The low whistle rose to public prominence thanks to its use by Davy Spillane in the stage show Riverdance and Tony Hinnigan playing a Phil Hardy Chieftain on the soundtrack to the 1997 film Titanic. Davy Spillane (1959-) is a player of uilleann pipes. ... Riverdance Promotional Poster Riverdance is a theatrical show consisting of traditional Irish step dancing, notable for its rapid leg movements while body and arms are kept largely stationary. ... Anthony Tony Hinnigan is a multi-talented musician from Glasgow. ... In film formats, the soundtrack is the physical area of the film which records the synchronized sound. ... Titanic is a 1997 American romantic drama film directed, written, and co-produced by James Cameron about the sinking of the RMS Titanic. ...


Certain Irish punk bands use the tin whistle as well. Examples include The Cranberries, Dropkick Murphys, Bridget Regan from Flogging Molly or Spider Stacy (of The Pogues). Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Please note, the cranberries are not actual cranberries. ... “DKM” redirects here. ... Bridget Regan (b. ... Flogging Molly is a seven-piece Irish American Irish punk band, that formed in Los Angeles and is currently signed under SideOneDummy Records. ... Peter Spider Stacy (born December 14, 1958 in Eastbourne, England) is a British musician of Irish descent. ... The Pogues are a band of mixed Irish and English background, playing traditional Irish folk with influences from the English punk rock movement. ...


Andrea Corr from Irish pop/rock band The Corrs plays the tin whistle. Leroi Moore from the American/pop band the Dave Matthews Band plays the tin whistle in a few of the songs in the band's repertoire. Andrea Jane Corr MBE (born May 17, 1974) is the lead singer of Irish pop-rock band The Corrs and an actress. ... The Corrs are a multi-platinum, Grammy-nominated Celtic folk-rock and pop rock group from Dundalk, Republic of Ireland. ...


Bob Hallett of the Canadian folk rock group Great Big Sea is also a renowned performer of the tin whistle, playing it during both traditional and original material. Robert Bruce Hallett was born in St Johns, Newfoundland and is a founding member of Canadian folk-rock band Great Big Sea. ... Great Big Sea (often shortened to GBS) is a Canadian folk-rock band from Newfoundland and Labrador, best known for performing energetic rock interpretations of traditional Newfoundland folk songs including sea shanties, which draw from the islands 500-year-old Irish, English, and French heritage. ...


Barry Privett of the Virginia based rock band Carbon Leaf performs several songs using the tin whistle. Carbon Leaf is a five-piece pop rock band from Richmond, Virginia. ...

In jazz

Steve Buckley, a British jazz musician is known to have used the penny whistle as a serious instrument. His whistle playing can be heard on recordings with Loose Tubes, Django Bates and his album with Chris Batchelor Life As We Know It. Les Lieber is a celebrated American Jazz Tinwhistle player. Lieber has played with Paul Whiteman's Band and also with the Benny Goodman Sextet. Lieber made a record with Django Reinhart in the AFN Studios in Paris in the post Second World War era and started an event called "Jazz at Noon" every Friday in a New York restaurant playing with a nucleus of advertising men, doctors, lawyers, and business executives who had been or could have been jazz musicians. Steve Buckley is a British jazz musician. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Loose Tubes was a big band based in Britain during the mid-to-late 1980s. ... Django Bates (born October 2, 1960 in Beckenham, Kent, United Kingdom) is a composer, virtuoso multi-instrumentalist and band leader. ... Chris Batchelor is a jazz trumpeter, composer and lecturer at Middlesex University. ...


See also

You may be looking for The Tin Flute, the novel The Tin Flute (1947), Gabrielle Roy’s first novel, is a classic of Canadian fiction. ...


Notes

  1. ^ McCullough
  2. ^ Gatherer
  3. ^ Oxford English Dictionary online edition
  4. ^ The words "tin whistle" and "pennywhistle" in any compound form do not generally appear in early 20th century dictionaries, encyclopedias, or thesauri.
  5. ^ a b Vallely et al., p. 397
  6. ^ Dannatt
  7. ^ Dannatt, Norman. Antique Clarke whistle collection. Retrieved on 10 July 2006.
  8. ^ Duct flute. Leslie Lindsey Mason Collection, Ex. coll. Francis W. Galpin. Retrieved on 16 January 2006.
  9. ^ Hannigan and Ledsam
  10. ^ Wisely
  11. ^ Wolfe
  12. ^ Gross
  13. ^ a b Larsen
  14. ^ a b Schaldach
  15. ^ See, for example, the Open Directory's Tin whistle tune collections or the books published by online stores catering to tin whistle players.
  16. ^ Ochs
  17. ^ Open Directory

The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... A compound is a word composed of more than one free morphemes. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Bríd O'Donohue, Traditional Irish Tin Whistle & Flute music, Co Clare, Ireland (489 words)
Bríd O'Donoghue has long been recognised as one of Ireland's finest whistle players, though she herself is very modest about her musical ability and has never sought the limelight.
She started playing the tin whistle at the age of six at Annagh National School where her school teacher was Tessie Walsh, sister-in-law of Junior Crehan.
Bríd's love of music has been passed on to her five children, they all play tin whistle and piano as well as other instruments.
TIN WHISTLE : Encyclopedia Entry (3636 words)
Whistles are a prevalent starting instrument in Irish traditional music, since they are often cheap (under US$10), relatively easy to start with (no tricky embouchure such as found with the flute), and the fingerings are identical to those on the traditional six holed flute (Irish flute, baroque flute).
The whistle is tuned diatonically, which allows it to be used to easily play music in two major keys and their corresponding minor keys and modes.
Since the size and direction of the tin whistle's windway, like that of the recorder and other fipple flutes, is fixed it is necessary to increase the speed of the air stream by overblowing.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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