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50 indiumtinantimony
Ge

Sn

Pb
General
Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50
Chemical series poor metals
Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p
Appearance silvery lustrous gray
Standard atomic weight 118.710(7) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 18, 4
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) (white) 7.265 g·cm−3
Density (near r.t.) (gray) 5.769 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 6.99 g·cm−3
Melting point 505.08 K
(231.93 °C, 449.47 °F)
Boiling point 2875 K
(2602 °C, 4716 °F)
Heat of fusion (white) 7.03 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization (white) 296.1 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) (white)
27.112 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P(Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T(K) 1497 1657 1855 2107 2438 2893
Atomic properties
Crystal structure tetragonal
Oxidation states 4, 2
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 1.96 (scale Pauling)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 708.6 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1411.8 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2943.0 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 145 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 145 pm
Covalent radius 141 pm
Van der Waals radius 217 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering no data
Electrical resistivity (0 °C) 115 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 66.8 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 22.0 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (r.t.) (rolled) 2730 m·s−1
Young's modulus 50 GPa
Shear modulus 18 GPa
Bulk modulus 58 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.36
Mohs hardness 1.5
Brinell hardness 51 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-31-5
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of tin
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
112Sn 0.97% Sn is stable with 62 neutrons
114Sn 0.66% Sn is stable with 64 neutrons
115Sn 0.34% Sn is stable with 65 neutrons
116Sn 14.54% Sn is stable with 66 neutrons
117Sn 7.68% Sn is stable with 67 neutrons
118Sn 24.22% Sn is stable with 68 neutrons
119Sn 8.59% Sn is stable with 69 neutrons
120Sn 32.58% Sn is stable with 70 neutrons
122Sn 4.63% Sn is stable with 72 neutrons
124Sn 5.79% Sn is stable with 74 neutrons
126Sn syn ~1 E5 y Beta- 0.380 126Sb
References
The alchemical symbol for tin
The alchemical symbol for tin
Tin ore
Tin ore

Tin is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Sn (Latin: stannum) and atomic number 50. This silvery, malleable poor metal that is not easily oxidized in air and resists corrosion is found in many alloys and is used to coat other metals to prevent corrosion. Tin is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, where it occurs as an oxide. It can be alloyed with copper to make bronze. The word tin has several senses: For the metallic chemical element, see Tin. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 114. ... General Name, Symbol, Number antimony, Sb, 51 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous grey Standard atomic weight 121. ... General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 72. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Tin User:Femto/elements e5 Categories: Images with unknown source ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... A table of chemical elements ordered by atomic number and color coded according to type of element. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The carbon group is group 14 (IUPAC style) in the periodic table. ... A period 5 element is one of the chemical elements in the fifth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... The p-block of the periodic table of elements consists of the last six groups. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Tin sample. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here masses between 60. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... The standard enthalpy change of vaporization, ΔvHo, also (less correctly) known as the heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance into a gas. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... The oxidation number of an element in a molecule or complex is the charge that it would have if all the ligands (basically, atoms that donate electrons) were removed along with the electron pairs that were shared with the central atom[1]. It means that the oxidation number is the... In chemistry, an amphoteric substance is one that can react with either an acid or base (more generally, the word describes something made of, or acting like, two components). ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... The van der Waals radius of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere which can be used to model the atom for many purposes. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... Electrical resistivity (also known as specific electrical resistance) is a measure of how strongly a material opposes the flow of electric current. ... In physics, thermal conductivity, k, is the intensive property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct heat. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... Sound is a vibration that travels through an elastic medium as a wave. ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... In materials science, shear modulus, G, or sometimes S or μ, sometimes referred to as the modulus of rigidity, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain:[1] where = shear stress; force acts on area ; = shear strain; length changes by amount . ... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... Figure 1: Rectangular specimen subject to compression, with Poissons ratio circa 0. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Brinell scale characterises the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Tin (Sn) Standard atomic mass: 118. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... A year (from Old English gēr) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number antimony, Sb, 51 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous grey Standard atomic weight 121. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... Alchemical symbol for tin. ... Alchemical symbol for tin. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Tin ore. ... Tin ore. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... “The Periodic Table” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Cassiterite is a tin oxide mineral, SnO2. ... An oxide is a chemical compound containing an oxygen atom and other elements. ... An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ...

Contents

Notable characteristics

Tin is a malleable, ductile, highly crystalline, silvery-white metal; when a bar of tin is bent, a strange crackling sound known as the "tin cry" can be heard due to the breaking of the crystals. This metal resists corrosion from distilled, sea and soft tap water, but can be attacked by strong acids, alkalis, and by acid salts. Tin acts as a catalyst when oxygen is in solution and helps accelerate chemical attack. Tin forms the dioxide SnO2 when it is heated in the presence of air. SnO2, in turn, is feebly acidic and forms stannate (SnO3-2) salts with basic oxides. Tin can be highly polished and is used as a protective coat for other metals in order to prevent corrosion or other chemical action. This metal combines directly with chlorine and oxygen and displaces hydrogen from dilute acids. Tin is malleable at ordinary temperatures but is brittle when it is heated. For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Distillation is a means of separating liquids through differences in their boiling points. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Domestic water system. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qalyالقلوي, القالي ) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkali earth metal element. ... Acid salts are a class of chemical compounds that are formed when a dibasic or tribasic acid has been neutralized to some degree. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A basic oxide is an oxide that either reacts with water to have a proton transferred to it reacts with an acid to form a salt. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ...


Allotropes

Tin's chemical properties fall between those of metals and non-metals, just as the semiconductors silicon and germanium do. Tin has two allotropes at normal pressure and temperature: gray tin and white tin. Not to be confused with Silicone. ... General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 72. ... Allotropy (Gr. ...


Below 13.2 °C, it exists as gray or alpha tin, which has a cubic crystal structure similar to silicon and germanium. Gray tin has no metallic properties at all, is a dull-gray powdery material, and has few uses, other than a few specialized semiconductor applications. Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 72. ... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity is in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator, and can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ...


When warmed above 13.2 °C tin changes into white or beta tin, which is metallic and has a tetragonal structure. Converting gray tin powder into white tin produces white tin powder. To convert powdery gray tin into solid white tin the temperature must be raised above the melting point of tin.


Gray tin can cause undesirable effects in applications where the metallic properties of tin are important, since metallic white tin will slowly convert to gray tin if it is held for a long time below 13.2 °Celsius. The metallic surface of white tin becomes covered with a gray powder which is easily rubbed off. The gray patches slowly expand until all of the tin in the object is converted from the metal to the powder, at which point it loses its structural integrity and may fall to pieces. This process is known as tin disease or tin pest. Tin pest was a particular problem in northern Europe in the 18th century as organ pipes made of tin would sometimes completely disintegrate during long cold winters.[citation needed] Some sources also say that during Napoleon's Russian campaign of 1812, the temperatures became so cold that the tin buttons on the soldiers' uniforms disintegrated, contributing to the defeat of the Grande Armée. However, the veracity of this story is debatable, because Napoleon would likely have foreseen this problem, and the transformation to gray tin often takes a reasonably long time.[1] This transformation, however, may be prevented by the addition of antimony or bismuth. Tin pest is an allotropic transformation of the element tin, which causes deterioration of tin objects at low temperatures. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The choir division of the organ at St. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number antimony, Sb, 51 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous grey Standard atomic weight 121. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous reddish white Atomic mass 208. ...


Applications

Tin bonds readily to iron, and has been used for coating lead or zinc and steel to prevent corrosion. Tin-plated steel containers are widely used for food preservation, and this forms a large part of the market for metallic tin. Speakers of British English call them "tins"; Americans call them "cans" or "tin cans". One thus-derived use of the slang term "tinnie" or "tinny" means "can of beer". The tin whistle is so called because it was first mass-produced in tin-plated steel. For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Various preserved foods Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food in such a way as to stop or greatly slow down spoilage to prevent foodborne illness while maintaining nutritional value, density, texture and flavor. ... For other uses, see Canning (disambiguation). ... The slang or colloquial term tinnie has a variety of meanings, generally derived from some association with the metal tin. ... The tin whistle, also called the tinwhistle, whistle, pennywhistle, or Irish whistle, is a simple six-holed woodwind instrument. ...


Other uses:

  • Some important tin alloys are: bronze, bell metal, Babbitt metal, die casting alloy, pewter, phosphor bronze, soft solder, and White metal.
  • The most important salt formed is stannous chloride, which has found use as a reducing agent and as a mordant in the calico printing process. Electrically conductive coatings are produced when tin salts are sprayed onto glass. These coatings have been used in panel lighting and in the production of frost-free windshields.
  • Most metal pipes in a pipe organ are made of varying amounts of a tin/lead alloy, with 50%/50% being the most common. The amount of tin in the pipe defines the pipe's tone, since tin is the most tonally resonant of all metals. When a tin/lead alloy cools, the lead cools slightly faster and makes a mottled or spotted effect. This metal alloy is referred to as spotted metal.
  • Window glass is most often made via floating molten glass on top of molten tin (creating float glass) in order to make a flat surface (this is called the "Pilkington process").
  • Tin is also used in solders for joining pipes or electric circuits, in bearing alloys, in glass-making, and in a wide range of tin chemical applications. Although of higher melting point than a lead-tin alloy, the use of pure tin or tin alloyed with other metals in these applications is rapidly supplanting the use of the previously common lead–containing alloys in order to eliminate the problems of toxicity caused by lead.
  • Tin foil was once a common wrapping material for foods and drugs; replaced in the early 20th century by the use of aluminium foil, which is now commonly referred to as tin foil. Hence one use of the slang term "tinnie" or "tinny" for a small retail package of a drug such as cannabis or for a can of beer.

Tin becomes a superconductor below 3.72 K. In fact, tin was one of the first superconductors to be studied; the Meissner effect, one of the characteristic features of superconductors, was first discovered in superconducting tin crystals. The niobium-tin compound Nb3Sn is commercially used as wires for superconducting magnets, due to the material's high critical temperature (18 K) and critical magnetic field (25 T). A superconducting magnet weighing only a couple of kilograms is capable of producing magnetic fields comparable to a conventional electromagnet weighing tons. An alloy is a combination, either in solution or compound, of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resultant material has metallic properties. ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... Bell metal is a hard alloy used for making bells. ... babbitt metal plain bearing shells Babbitt metal, also called white metal, is an alloy used to provide the bearing surface in a plain bearing. ... This article is about the manufacturing process. ... Pewter plate Pewter is a metal alloy, traditionally between 85 and 99 percent tin, with the remainder consisting of 1-15 percent copper, acting as a hardener, with the addition of lead for the lower grades of pewter, which have a bluish tint. ... Phosphor bronze is an alloy of copper with 3. ... A solder is a fusible metal alloy, with a melting point or melting range of 180-190°C (360-370 °F), which is melted to join metallic surfaces, especially in the fields of electronics and plumbing, in a process called soldering. ... The white metals are any of several light-colored alloys used as a base for plated silverware, ornaments or novelties, as well as any of several lead-base or tin-base alloys used for things like bearings, jewellery, miniature figures, fusible plugs, some medals and metal type. ... Tin(II) chloride (stannous chloride) is a white crystalline solid with the formula SnCl2. ... Look up Mordant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the material. ... Panoramic (wrap-around) windshield on a 1959 Edsel Corsair. ... The baroque organ in Roskilde Cathedral, Denmark The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by forcing pressurized air (referred to as wind) through a series of pipes. ... This article is about the material. ... Float glass is made by melting raw materilas consisting of sand, limestone, soda ash, dolomite, iron oxide and salt cake. ... Float glass is made by melting glass and feeding a thin layer onto a tank of molten tin in a nitrogen atmosphere. ... A solder is a fusible metal alloy, with a melting point or melting range of 180-190°C (360-370 °F), which is melted to join metallic surfaces, especially in the fields of electronics and plumbing, in a process called soldering. ... A plumber wrench for working on pipes and fittings A complex arrangement of rigid steel piping, stop valves regulate flow to various parts of the building. ... An electrical network or electrical circuit is an interconnection of analog electrical elements such as resistors, inductors, capacitors, diodes, switches and transistors. ... A bearing is a device to permit constrained relative motion between two parts, typically rotation or linear movement. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The slang or colloquial term tinnie has a variety of meanings, generally derived from some association with the metal tin. ... Cannabis (also known as marijuana[1] or ganja[2] in its herbal form and hashish in its resinous form[3]) is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa L. subsp. ... Superconductivity is a phenomenon occurring in certain materials at low temperatures, characterised by the complete absence of electrical resistance and the damping of the interior magnetic field (the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Diagram of the Meissner effect. ... General Name, Symbol, Number niobium, Nb, 41 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 92. ... Niobium-tin (Nb3Sn) is an alloy of niobium and tin, used industrially as a type II superconductor. ... Superconducting magnets are electromagnets that are built using superconducting coils. ... The critical temperature, Tc, of a material is the temperature above which distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. ... SI unit. ... “Kg” redirects here. ... An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by a flow of electric current. ...


History

Tin (Old English: tin, Old Latin: plumbum candidum, Old German: tsin, Late Latin: stannum) is one of the earliest metals known and was used as a component of bronze from antiquity. Because of its hardening effect on copper, tin was used in bronze implements as early as 3,500 BC. Tin mining is believed to have started in Cornwall and Devon (esp. Dartmoor) in Classical times, and a thriving tin trade developed with the civilizations of the Mediterranean[2][3]. However the lone metal was not used until about 600 BC. The last Cornish Tin Mine, at South Crofty near Camborne closed in 1998 bringing 4,000 years of mining in Cornwall to an end. Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... For the Old Latin Bible used before the Vulgate, see Vetus Latina. ... Old German could refer to: Old High German Old Low German (also Old Saxon) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Vulgar Latin (in Latin, sermo vulgaris) is a blanket term covering the vernacular dialects of the Latin language spoken mostly in the western provinces of the Roman Empire until those dialects, diverging still further, evolved into the early Romance languages — a distinction usually assigned to about the ninth century. ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... (37th century BC - 36th century BC - 35th century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Civilization of Sumeria Significant persons Inventions, discoveries, introductions Domestication of the chicken Categories: Centuries | 36th century BC | 4th millennium BC ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Part of the seafront of Torquay, south Devon, at high tide Devon is a large county in South West England, bordered by Cornwall to the west, and Dorset and Somerset to the east. ... The Dartmoor tin mining industry is thought to have originated as early as pre-Roman times, and continued right through to the 20th century. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC Events and Trends Fall of the Assyrian Empire and Rise of Babylon 609 BC _ King Josiah... // Introduction Cornwall has a strong heritage of mining history, and the areas around Camborne, Pool and Redruth are synonymous with the industry. ... , Not to be confused with Cambourne in Cambridgeshire. ...


The word "tin" has cognates in many Germanic and Celtic languages. The American Heritage Dictionary speculates that the word was borrowed from a pre-Indo-European language. The later name "stannum" and its Romance derivatures come from the lead-silver alloy of the same name for the finding of the latter in ores; the former "stagnum" was the word for a stale pool or puddle. The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ...


In modern times, the word "tin" is often improperly used as a generic phrase for any silvery metal that comes in sheets. Most everyday materials that are commonly called "tin", such as aluminum foil, beverage cans, corrugated building sheathing and tin cans, are actually made of steel or aluminum, although tin cans (tinned cans) do contain a thin coating of tin to inhibit rust. Likewise, so-called "tin toys" are usually made of steel, and may or may not have a coating of tin to inhibit rust. Aluminium foil (aluminum foil in North American English) is aluminium prepared in thin sheets (on the order of . ... The pull-tab opening mechanism characteristic of post-1970s drinking cans. ... For the American naval slang term, see destroyer. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ... A teddy bear A toy is an object used in play. ...


Occurrence

Tin output in 2005
Tin output in 2005

In 2005, China was the largest producer of tin, with at least one-third of the world's share, closely followed by Indonesia and South America, reports the British Geological Survey. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of mined output of tin in 2005 as a percentage of the the top producer (China - 120,000 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of mined output of tin in 2005 as a percentage of the the top producer (China - 120,000 tonnes). ... The British Geological Survey is a publicly-funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research. ...


Tin is produced by reducing the ore with coal in a reverberatory furnace. This metal is a relatively scarce element with an abundance in the Earth's crust of about 2 ppm, compared with 94 ppm for zinc, 63 ppm for copper, and 12 ppm for lead. Most of the world's tin is produced from placer deposits. The only mineral of commercial importance as a source of tin is cassiterite (SnO2), although small quantities of tin are recovered from complex sulfides such as stannite, cylindrite, franckeite, canfieldite, and teallite. Secondary, or scrap, tin is also an important source of the metal. Iron ore (Banded iron formation) Manganese ore Lead ore Gold ore An ore is a volume of rock containing components or minerals in a mode of occurrence which renders it valuable for mining. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... A reverbatory furnace is a metallurgical or process furnace which characteristically isolates the material being processed from contact with the fuel, but not from contact with the combustion gases. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... Parts per million (ppm) is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ... Miners operate a hydraulic sluice in San Francisquito Canyon, Los Angeles County. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Cassiterite is a tin oxide mineral, SnO2. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Formally, sulfide is the dianion, S2−, which exists in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions formed from H2S or alkali metal salts such as Li2S, Na2S, and K2S. Sulfide is exceptionally basic and, with a pKa > 14, it does not exist in appreciable concentrations even in highly alkaline water. ... Stannite is a mineral, a sulphide of copper, iron, and tin. ... Cylindrite is a sulfosalt mineral containing tin, lead, antimony and iron with formula: Pb3Sn4FeSb2S14. ... Franckeite, chemical formula Pb5Sn3Sb2S14, belongs to a family of complex sulfide minerals. ... Canfieldite is a rare silver tin sulfide mineral with formula: Ag8SnS6. ... Teallite is a mineral, a sulphide of tin and lead, chemical formula PbSnS2. ...


Tasmania hosts some deposits of historical importance, most notably Mount Bischoff and Renison Bell. Slogan or Nickname: The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $16,114... Former open cut mine at Mount Bischoff Mount Bischoff is a mountain in Tasmania, Australia near the town of Waratah. ... Renison Bell is an underground tin mine located on the west coast of Tasmania, Australia. ...


see also Category:Tin minerals


Isotopes

Main article: isotopes of tin

Tin is the element with the greatest number of stable isotopes (ten), which is probably related to the fact that 50 is a "magic number" of protons. 28 additional unstable isotopes are known, including the "doubly magic" tin-100 (100Sn) (discovered in 1994)[4]. Tin (Sn) Standard atomic mass: 118. ... In nuclear physics, a magic number is a number of nucleons (either protons or neutrons) such that they are arranged into complete shells within the atomic nucleus. ... In nuclear physics, a magic number is a number of nucleons (either protons or neutrons) such that they are arranged into complete shells within the atomic nucleus. ...


Compounds

For discussion of Stannate compounds (SnO32-) see Stannate. For Stannite (SnO2-) see Stannite. See also Stannous hydroxide (Sn(OH)2), Stannic acid (Stannic Hydroxide - Sn(OH)4), Tin dioxide (Stannic Oxide - SnO2), Tin(II) oxide (Stannous Oxide - SnO), Tin(II) chloride (SnCl2), Tin(IV) chloride (SnCl4) The stannate ion is SnO32- or Sn(OH)62-. A stannate (compound) is a compound containing this ion. ... Stannite is a mineral, a sulphide of copper, iron, and tin. ... Stannous hydroxide, Sn(OH)2, is a hydroxide of tin, with tin in oxidation state +2. ... Stannic acid refers to hydrated tin dioxide, SnO2. ... Tin dioxide, SnO2, also stannic oxide, is an oxide of tin, with tin in oxidation state +4. ... Tin(II) oxide (stannous oxide) is a chemical material in state of powder, it can help in whiting and this is the main job for it, but since the tin is rejected federally, some are stop using it. ... Tin(II) chloride (stannous chloride) is a white crystalline solid with the formula SnCl2. ... Tin(IV) chloride pentahydrate Tin(IV) chloride, also known as tin tetrachloride or stannic chloride is a chemical compound with the formula SnCl4. ...


see also category:Tin compounds


Biologic effects

Elemental tin is an essential nutrient, needed in very small amounts. The small amount of tin that is found in canned foods is not harmful to humans.[citations needed] An essential nutrient is a nutrient required for normal body functioning that cannot be synthesized by the body. ...


Certain organic tin compounds, organotin, such as triorganotins (see tributyltin oxide) are toxic and are used as industrial fungicides and bactericides. Organotin compounds or stannanes are chemical compounds based on tin with hydrocarbon substituents. ... Tributyltin oxide Tributyltin oxide (TBTO), or bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide, is an organotin compound chiefly used as a biocide (fungicide and molluscicide), especially a wood preservative. ... A Fungicide is one of three main methods of pest control- chemical control of fungi in this case. ... A bacteriocide or bactericide is a substance that kills bacteria and, preferably, nothing else. ...


In Popular Culture

Invented by Chris Thomas


In many games (especially RPGs, which involve stat building or skills), tin is used in either forging items or being melted into bronze by combining it with copper. Tin can be found put to use in most games where items (especially armor and weapons) can be made by characters, being that copper and bronze were two of the earliest important forms of weapons and armor (especially noted in wars in an Ancient Mesopotamia during early civilization). Tin is also referenced in the web comic "xkcd", when a character is offered a "Snapple", which turns out to be an apple made of tin (making reference to the elemental symbol of tin, Sn). For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mesopotamia (disambiguation). ... xkcd is a webcomic created by Randall Munroe,[1] a former NASA roboticist,[2] and a native of Chesterfield, Virginia (although he currently lives in Somerville, Massachusetts). ...


See also

The International Tin Council was an organisation which acted on behalf of the principal tin producers in Cornwall and Malaysia to buy up surplus tin stocks to maintain the price at a steady level. ... Tinning is the process of making tin-plate, which consists of sheets of iron or steel that have been thinly coated with tin by being dipped in a molten bath of that metal. ... Cassiterides (from the Greek for tin, i. ... Tin pest is an allotropic transformation of the element tin, which causes deterioration of tin objects at low temperatures. ... Metal whiskers are a crystalline metallurgical phenomenon whereby metal grows tiny, filiform hairs. ...

References

  1. ^ Le Coureur, Penny, and Jay Burreson. Napoleon's Buttons: 17 Molecules that Changed History. New York: Penguin Group USA, 2004.
  2. ^ Wake, H. (2006-04-07). Why Claudius invaded Britain (HTML) (English). Etrusia - Roman History. Retrieved on 2007-01-12.
  3. ^ McKeown, James (1999-01). The Romano-British Amphora Trade to 43 A.D: An Overview (HTML) (English). Retrieved on 2007-01-12.
  4. ^ Phil Walker (1994). "Doubly Magic Discovery of Tin-100". PHYSICS WORLD 7 (June). 
  • Los Alamos National Laboratory: Tin
  • nick wood student

  Results from FactBites:
 
ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: Tin (1442 words)
Tin metal, and inorganic and organic tin compounds can be found in the air, water, and soil near places where they are naturally present in the rocks, or where they are mined, manufactured, or used.
Tin is released into the environment by both natural processes and human activities, such as mining, coal and oil combustion, and the production and use of tin compounds.
Inorganic tin binds to soil and to sediments in water.
Tin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1340 words)
Tin is also used in solders for joining pipes or electric circuits, in bearing alloys, in glass-making, and in a wide range of tin chemical applications.
Tin (anglo-Saxon, tin, Latin stannum) is one of the earliest metals known and was used as a component of bronze from antiquity.
Tin is produced by reducing the ore with coal in a reverberatory furnace.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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