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Encyclopedia > Timurid Dynasty
Timurid Dynasty at its Greatest Extent
Timurid Dynasty at its Greatest Extent

The Timurids, self-designated Gurkānī [1][2][3](Persian: گوركانى), were a Persianate Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty of originally Turko-Mongol[4][5][6][7] descent whose empire included the whole of Central Asia, Iran, modern Afghanistan and Pakistan, as well as large parts of Mesopotamia and Caucasus. It was founded by the legendary conqueror Timur (Tamerlane) in the 14th century. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Farsi redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Turko-Persian Tradition. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Altaic peoples are the peoples who speak Altaic languages. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ...


In the 16th century, Timurid prince Babur, the ruler of Ferghana, invaded India and founded the Mughal Empire - the Timurids of India - who ruled most of the Indian subcontinent for several centuries until its conquest by the British. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... Fergana is a city in the Fergana Valley, capital of the Fargona Viloyati of Uzbekistan. ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy...

Contents

History

Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c.1375
Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c.1375

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Origins

Main articles: Barlas, Turco-Mongol, Turko-Persian Tradition, and Persianate society

The origin of the Timurid dynasty goes back to the Mongolian nomadic confederation known as Barlas, who were remnants of the original Mongol army of Genghis Khan.[5][8][9] After the Mongol conquest of Central Asia, the Barlas settled in Turkistan (which then became also known as Moghulistan - "Land of Mongols") and intermingled to a considerable degree with the local Turkic and Turkic-speaking population, so that at the time of Timur's reign the Barlas had become thoroughly Turkicized in terms of language and habits. Additionally, by adopting Islam, the Central Asian Turks and Mongols also adopted the Persian literary and high culture[10] which has dominated Central Asia since the early days of Islamic influence. Persian literature was instrumental in the assimilation of the Timurid elite to the Perso-Islamic courtly culture[11]. Timur was also steeped in Persian culture[12] and in most of the territories which he incorporated, Persian was the primary language of administration and literary culture. Thus the language of the settled "diwan" was Persian, and its scribes had to be thoroughly adept in Persian culture, whatever their ethnic origin.[13]. The Barlas (also Berlas, Birlas) were a Mongolian, later Turkicized[1][2] nomadic confederation in Central Asia and the chief tribe of the Timurid emperors who ruled much of Central Asia, Iran, and Hindustan in the Middle Ages. ... The Turco-Mongols were the aristocratic, nomadic, mostly Turkic-speaking horsemen of Turkic and Mongolian descent in Central Asia who served as rulers and conquerors in Central and Western Asian societies during the Middle Ages. ... The composite Turko-Persian tradition was a variant of Islamic culture. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Turko-Persian Tradition. ... The Barlas (also Berlas, Birlas) were a Mongolian, later Turkicized[1][2] nomadic confederation in Central Asia and the chief tribe of the Timurid emperors who ruled much of Central Asia, Iran, and Hindustan in the Middle Ages. ... This article is about the person. ... Türkistan (also spelled Turkistan or Turkestan) is a region in Central Asia, largely inhabited by Turkic people. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Turko-Persian Tradition. ... This article should be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


Founding the dynasty

Main article: Timur

Timur conquered large parts of Transoxiana (in modern day Central Asia) and Khorasan (parts of modern day Iran, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan) from 1363 onwards with various alliances (Samarkand in 1366, and Balkh in 1369), and was recognized as ruler over them in 1370. Acting officially in the name of the Mongolian Chagatai ulus, he subjugated Transoxania and Khwarazm in the years that followed and began a campaign westwards in 1380. By 1389 he had removed the Kartids from Herat and advanced into mainland Persia from 1382 (capture of Isfahan in 1387, removal of the Muzaffarids from Shiraz in 1393, and expulsion of the Jalayirids from Baghdad). In 1394/95 he triumphed over the Golden Horde and enforced his sovereignty in the Caucasus, in 1398 subjugated Multan and Dipalpur in modern day Pakistan and in modern day India left Delhi in such ruin that it is said for two months "not a bird moved wing in the city"[14]. In 1400/01 conquered Aleppo, Damascus and eastern Anatolia, in 1401 destroyed Baghdad and in 1402 triumphed over the Ottomans at Ankara. In addition, he transformed Samarqand into the Center of the World. An estimated 17 million people may have died from his conquests.[15] For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... Friday Mosque in Herat, Afghanistan, a city which was known in the past as the Pearl of Khorasan. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1358 1359 1360 1361 1362 - 1363 - 1364 1365 1366 1367 1368 See also: 1363 state leaders Events Magnus II, King of Sweden, is deposed by Albert of Mecklenburg. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Events Births Anne of Bohemia, Queen consort of Richard II of England. ... Today Balkh (Persian: بلخ) is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ... Events King Charles V of France renounces the treaty of Brétigny and war is declared between France and England. ... Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Jagatai), a son of Genghis Khan (1206–1227), controlled the part of the Mongol Empire which extended from the Ili... Transoxiana (sometimes also spelled Transoxania) is the now-largely obsolete name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan and southwest Kazakhstan. ... Khiva (alternative names include Khorasam, Khoresm, Khwarezm, Khwarizm, Khwarazm, Chiwa and Chorezm) is a city in present day Uzbekistan, in the Province of Khorezm. ... September 8 - Battle of Kulikovo - Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow resist a large invasion by the Blue Horde, Lithuania and Ryazan, stopping their advance at Kulikovo. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... Persia redirects here. ... Year 1382 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... Events June 2 - John Holland, a maternal half-brother of Richard II of England, is created Earl of Huntingdon. ... The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. ... Eram Garden, Shiraz most popular garden. ... Events Ottoman Turks occupy Veliko Turnovo in north-central Bulgaria. ... edit The Jalayirids (آل جلایر) were a Mongol descendant dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia [1] after the breakup of the Mongol Khanate of Persia (or Ilkhanate) in the 1330s. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... // Events Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, travels with King Richard II of England to Ireland. ... Events September 25 - Bayazid I defeats Sigismund of Hungary and John of Nevers at the Battle of Nicopolis. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3] — later Turkicized[4] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Events Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland destroyed. ... Multan shown on a 1669 world map   (Urdu: ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... The Lollards, a religious sect taught by John Wycliffe, were persecuted for their beliefs. ... Location of the governorate of Aleppo within Syria Aleppo (Arabic: [ḥalab], ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ...


After the end of the Timurid Empire in 1506, the Mughal Empire was later established in India by Babur in 1526, who was a descendant of Timur through his father and possibly a descendant of Genghis Khan through his mother. The dynasty he established is commonly known as the Mughal Dynasty. By the 17th century, the Mughal Empire ruled most of India, but later declined during the 18th century. The Timurid Dynasty came to an end in 1857 after the Mughal Empire was dissolved by the British Empire and Bahadur Shah II was exiled to Burma. Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c. ... 1506 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ... This article is about the person. ... The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Bahadur Shah Zafar in 1858, just after his show trial in Delhi and before his departure for exile in Rangoon. ...


Due to the fact that the Persian cities were desolated by previous wars, the seat of Persian culture was now in Samarkand and Herat. These cities became the center of the Timurid renaissance[6].


Culture

Although the Timurids hailed from the Barlas tribe which was of Mongol origin, they had embraced Persian culture[16] and Persian art (distinguished by extensive adaptations from the Chinese[6]), and also Chagatay Literature[6], converted to Islam and resided in Turkestan and Khorasan. Thus, the Timurid era had a dual character,[6] which reflected both the Turco-Mongol origins and the Persian culture as well the Persian language. The Persian language was also the state language (also known as Diwan language) [17][10] of the dynasty. The Barlas (also Berlas, Birlas) were a Mongolian, later Turkicized[1][2] nomadic confederation in Central Asia and the chief tribe of the Timurid emperors who ruled much of Central Asia, Iran, and Hindustan in the Middle Ages. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Friday Mosque in Herat, Afghanistan, a city which was known in the past as the Pearl of Khorasan. ...


Literature

Timurid Literature in Persian Language

Illustration from Jāmī's "Rose Garden of the Pious", dated 1553. The image blends Persian poetry and Persian miniature into one, as is the norm for many works of the Timurid era.
Illustration from Jāmī's "Rose Garden of the Pious", dated 1553. The image blends Persian poetry and Persian miniature into one, as is the norm for many works of the Timurid era.

Persian literature, especially Persian poetry occupied a central place in the process of assimilation of the Timurid elite to the Perso-Islamic courtly culture.[18] The Timurid sultans, especially Šāhrukh Mīrzā and his son Mohammad Taragai Oloğ Beg, patronized Persian culture.[10] Among the most important literary works of the Timurid era is the Persian biography of Timur, known as "Zafarnāma" (Persian: ظفرنامه), written by Sharaf ud-Dīn Alī Yazdī, which itself is based on an older "Zafarnāma" by Nizām al-Dīn Shāmī, the official biographer of Timur during his lifetime. The most famous poet of the Timurid era was Nūr ud-Dīn Jāmī, the last great medieval Sufi mystic of Persia and one of the greatest in Persian poetry. The most famous painter of the Timurid court, as well as the most famous of the Persian miniature painters in general, was Ustād Kamāl ud-Dīin Behzād. In addition, the Timurid sultan Ulugh Beg is known as a great astronomer. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (469x640, 523 KB)Image of this 16th century manuscript is by Zereshk. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (469x640, 523 KB)Image of this 16th century manuscript is by Zereshk. ... Illustration from Jamis Rose Garden of the Pious, dated 1553. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... Safavid era Miniature painting kept at Shah Abbas Hotel in Isfahan. ... Shah Rukh Mirza (also known as Shahrukh or Shah Rokh) (August 30, 1377 - March 12, 1447), was the ruler of the eastern portion of the empire established by Timur (Tamerlane), governing most of Persia and Transoxiana between 1405 and 1447. ... Ulugh Beg, here depicted on a Soviet stamp, was one of Islams greatest astronomers during the Middle Ages. ... For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ... Farsi redirects here. ... Illustration from Jamis Rose Garden of the Pious, dated 1553. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Persian literature is literature written in Persian, or by Persians in other languages. ... Safavid era Miniature painting kept at Shah Abbas Hotel in Isfahan. ... The construction of fort Khavarnaq, c. ... Ulugh Beg, here depicted on a Soviet stamp, was one of Islams greatest astronomers during the Middle Ages. ... Galileo is often referred to as the Father of Modern Astronomy. ...


BaySanghur Shahnameh

Baysanghur commissioned a new edition of the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi and wrote an introduction to it. According to T. Lenz[19]: Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ... Tomb of Ferdowsi in Tus Hakīm Abol-Qāsem Ferdowsī Tūsī (Persian: ), more commonly transliterated as Ferdowsi, (935–1020) was a highly revered Persian poet. ...

It can be viewed as a specific reaction in the wake of Timur's death in 807/1405 to the new cultural demands facing Shahhrokh and his sons, a Turkic military elite no longer deriving their power and influence solely from a charis­matic steppe leader with a carefully cultivated linkage to Mongol aristocracy. Now centered in Khorasan, the ruling house regarded the increased assimilation and patronage of Persian culture as an integral component of efforts to secure the legitimacy and authority of the dynasty within the context of the Islamic Iranian monarchical tradition, and the Baysanghur Shahnameh, as much a precious object as it is a manuscript to be read, powerfully symbolizes the Timurid conception of their own place in that tradition. A valuable documen­tary source for Timurid decorative arts that have all but disappeared for the period, the manuscript still awaits a comprehensive monographic study

National Literature in Chagatay Language

The early Timurids played a very important role in the history of Turkic literature. Based on the established Persian literary tradition, a national Turkic literature was developed, written in the Chagatay language, the native tongue of the Timurid family. Chagatay poets such as Mīr Alī Sher Nawā'ī, Sultan Husayn Bāyqarā, and Zāher ud-Dīn Bābur encouraged other Turkic-speaking poets to write in their own vernacular in addition to Arabic and Persian. The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... The Chagatai language is an extinct Turkic language spoken in Central Asia. ... now. ... Husayn Bayqarah (1438 - May 4, 1506), was a Timurid ruler of Herat from 1469 to his death, with a brief interruption in 1470. ... Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ...


The Bāburnāma, the autobiography of Bābur, as well as Mīr Alī Sher Nawā'ī's Chagatay poetry are among the best-known Turkic literary works and have fascinated and influenced many others world wide. The Baburnama was highly Persianized in its sentence structure, morphology or word formation and vocabulary[20]. Bāburnāma (Chaghatay/Persian: ‎ ; literally: Book of Babur or Letters of Babur) are the memoirs of Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad Bābur (1483-1530), the founder of the Mughal Empire and the great-great-great-grandson of Timur. ...


Art

During the reign of Timurid rule, the golden age of Persian painting was ushered.[21] During this period as well as the Safavid dynasty, Chinese art and artists had a significant influence on Persian art.[22][23][24] Timurid artists refined the Persian art of the book, which combines paper, calligraphy, illumination, illustration and binding in a brilliant and colourful whole.[25] It was the Mongol ethnicity of the Chaghatayid and Timurid Khans that is the source of the stylistic depiction Persian art during the Middle Ages. These same Mongols intermarried with the Persians and Turks of Central Asia, even adopting their religion and languages. Yet their simple control of the world at that time, particularly in the 13-15th Centuries, reflected itself in the idealised appearance of Persians as Mongols. Though the ethnic make-up gradually blended into the Iranian and Mesopotamian local populations, the Mongol stylism continued well after, and crossed into Asia Minor and even North Africa. The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Jagatai), a son of Genghis Khan (1206–1227), controlled the part of the Mongol Empire which extended from the Ili... This article is about the title. ... Iran is filled with tombs of poets and musicians, such as this one belonging to Rahi Moayeri. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


Architecture

Timurid architecture

"Akhangan" tomb, where Gowharšād's sister Gowhartāj is buried. The architecture is a fine example of the Timurid era in Persia.
"Gūr-e Amīr" complex with its azure dome.
"Gūr-e Amīr" complex with its azure dome.

In the realm of architecture, the Timurids drew on and developed many Seljuq traditions. Turquoise and blue tiles forming intricate linear and geometric patterns decorated the facades of buildings. Sometimes the interior was decorated similarly, with painting and stucco relief further enriching the effect.[4] Timurid architecture is the pinnacle of Islamic art in Central Asia. Spectacular and stately edifices erected by Timur and his successors in Samarkand and Herat helped to disseminate the influence of the Ilkhanid school of art in India, thus giving rise to the celebrated Mughal (or Mongol) school of architecture. Timurid architecture started with the sanctuary of Ahmed Yasawi in present-day Kazakhstan and culminated in Timur's mausoleum Gur-e Amir in Samarkand. Timur’s Gur-I Mir, the 14th century mausoleum of the conqueror is covered with ‘’turquoise Persian tiles’’[26] Nearby, in the center of the ancient town, a Persian style Madrassa (religious school) [27] and a Persian style Mosque[28] by Ulugh Beg is observed. The mausoleum of Timurid princes, with their turquoise and blue-tiled domes remain among the most refined and exquisite Persian architecture[29]. Axial symmetry is a characteristic of all major Timurid structures, notably the Shāh-e Zenda in Samarkand, the Musallah complex in Herat, and the mosque of Gowhar Shād in Mashhad. Double domes of various shapes abound, and the outsides are perfused with brilliantly colors. Timurs dominance of the region strengthened the influence of his capital and Persian architecture upon India. [30] Image File history File links Akhangan, Razavi Khorasan. ... Image File history File links Akhangan, Razavi Khorasan. ... Akhangan tomb, where Gohar-Taj is buried. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 156 KB) Summary (author Dmitriy A. Pitirimov, http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 156 KB) Summary (author Dmitriy A. Pitirimov, http://www. ... Timurs mausoleum Gur-e Amir at Samarkand Gur-e Amir is the mausoleum of the Asian conqueror Timur in Samarkand (now in Uzbekistan). ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that occupied parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... A view of the Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasavi in Turkestan, Kazakhstan. ... Timurs mausoleum Gur-e Amir at Samarkand Gur-e Amir is the mausoleum of the Asian conqueror Timur in Samarkand (now in Uzbekistan). ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... In quantum field theory, chiral symmetry is a possible symmetry of the Lagrangian under which the left-handed and right-handed parts of Dirac fields transform independently. ... Shah-i-Zinda (شاه زنده in Persian meaning The Living King) is the mausoleums of the Timurid cemetery in the Registan quarter in Samarkand (todays Uzbekistan). ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Akhangan tomb, where Gohar-Taj is buried. ... Mashhad (Persian: , literally the place of martyrdom) is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shiah world. ... For other uses, see Dome (disambiguation). ...


Mughal architecture

Main article: Mughal architecture

After the foundation of the Mughal Empire, the Timurids successfully expanded the Persian cultural influence from Khorasan to India, where the Persian language, literature, architecture, and art dominated the Indian subcontinent until the British conquest.[16]. The Mughals, Persianized Turks who invaded from Central Asia and claimed descent from both Timur and Genghis - strengthened the Persianate culture of Muslim India[31]. Mughal architecture is the distinctive style of Islamic, Persian and Indian architecture, developed by the Mughal Empire in India in the 16th century. ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... Friday Mosque in Herat, Afghanistan, a city which was known in the past as the Pearl of Khorasan. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... The Baháí House of Worship by Fariborz Sahba, also known as the Lotus Temple. ... Iran is filled with tombs of poets and musicians, such as this one belonging to Rahi Moayeri. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy...



The Mughal period marked a striking revival of Islamic architecture in northern India. Under the patronage of the Mughal emperors, Indian, Persian, and various provincial styles were fused to produce works of unusual quality and refinement.[32] The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... The Baháí House of Worship by Fariborz Sahba, also known as the Lotus Temple. ...


The Mughal emperor Akbar constructed the royal city of Fatehpur Sikri, located 26 miles west of Agra, in the late 1500s. The most famous example of Mughal architecture is the Taj Mahal, the "teardrop on eternity," completed in 1648 by the emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal who died while giving birth to their 14th child. The extensive use of precious and semiprecious stones as inlay and the vast quantity of white marble required nearly bankrupted the empire. The Taj Mahal is completely symmetric other than the sarcophagus of Shah Jahan which is placed off center in the crypt room below the main floor. This symmetry extended to the building of an entire mirror mosque in red sandstone to complement the Mecca-facing mosque place to the west of the main structure. Another structure built that showed great depth of Mughal influence was the Shalimar Gardens. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... View across Fatehpur Sikri Fatehpur Sikri (Hindi: ) was the political capital of Indias Mughal Empire under Akbars reign, from 1571 until 1585, when it was abandoned, ostensibly due to lack of water. ... For other uses, see Agra (disambiguation). ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Taj Mahal (disambiguation). ... Shabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ... Artistic depiction of Mumtaz Mahal Mumtāz Mahal (Persian: ممتاز محل, meaning beloved ornament of the palace; pronunciation //) is the common nickname of Arjumand Banu Begum, who was born in April of 1593 in Agra, India. ... The Etruscan Sarcophagus of the Spouses, at the National Etruscan Museum. ... Shabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ... The Shalimar Gardens (Urdu: شالیمار باغ), sometimes written Shalamar Gardens, were built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in Lahore, modern day Pakistan. ...


Rulers of the Timurid Empire

History of Greater Iran
Empires of Persia · Kings of Persia
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Image File history File linksMetadata Farvahar_background. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Greater Iran (in Persian: Irān-e Bozorg, or Irān-zamÄ«n; the Encyclopedia Iranica uses the term Iranian Cultural Continent[1]) is a term for the Iranian plateau in addition to... Persia redirects here. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... BCE redirects here. ... Zayandeh River Civilization (تمدن زاینده رود) is a hypothetical pre-historic culture that is supposed to have flourished around the Zayandeh River in Iran in the 5th millennium BC.[1] During the 2006 excavations, the Iranian archaeologists uncovered some artifacts that they linked to those from Sialk and Marvdasht. ... The 5500 year old skeletons and other unearthed artifacts here are preserved and off access to visitors. ... Bowl depicting scorpions. ... Silver cup from Marvdasht, Fars, with Linear-Elamite inscription on it. ... The Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (or BMAC, also known as the Oxus civilization) the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age culture of Central Asia, dated to ca. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... Mede nobility. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (123–88 BC) Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Parthia, 247 BC]] History  - Established 247 BC  - Disestablished 220 AD Parthian votive relief. ... BCE redirects here. ... BCE redirects here. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ... The Kushano-Hephthalites (565 - 670 CE) were the successors of Kushans and Hephthalites. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... The Tahirid dynasty ruled the northeastern Persian region of Khorasan between AD 821-873. ... The Alavids (سلسله علویان طبرستان in Persian) were a Shia emirate based in Tabaristan of Iran. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between 861-1003. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... The tomb of Ghaboos ebne Voshmgir, built in 1007AD, rises 160 ft from its base. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Ghurids (or Ghorids; self-designation: ShansabānÄ«) (Persian: ) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty in Khorasan, most likely of Eastern Persians (Tajiks)[1][2] origin. ... This article is about political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ... The Kartid Dynasty (Karts, also known as Kurts) was a dynasty that ruled over a large part of Khurasan during the 13th and 14th centuries. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. ... The Chupanids, also known as the Chobanids, (سلسله امرای چوپانی, Amir Chupani), were descendants of a Mongol family that came to prominence in 14th century Persia. ... edit The Jalayirids (آل جلایر) were a Mongol descendant dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia [1] after the breakup of the Mongol Khanate of Persia (or Ilkhanate) in the 1330s. ... Flag of the Kara Koyunlu For the district in Turkey, see Karakoyunlu. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ) were an Iranian[1] Shia dynasty of mixed Azerbaijani[2] and Kurdish[3] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Hotaki dynasty (1709-1738) was founded by Mirwais Khan Hotak, an Afghan of ethnic Tatar[1] [2]and chief of the Ghilzai clan of Kandahar province in modern-day Afghanistan. ... Afsharid Dynasty (1723-1735) Bronze statue of Nader Shah, by Master Sadighi. ... In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ... The Durrani Empire was a larger state that included modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, parts of eastern Iran and western India. ... // It was not until 1826 that the energetic Dost Mohammad was able to exert sufficient control over his brothers to take over the throne in Kabul, where he proclaimed himself amir. ... Reign of King Amanullah, 1919-1929 Amanullah Khan reigned in Afghanistan from 1919, achieving full independence from the British Empire shortly afterwards. ... // Reign of Mohammed Nadir Shah, 1929-1933 Mohammed Nadir Shah quickly abolished most of Amanullah Khans reforms, but despite his efforts to rebuild an army that had just been engaged in suppressing a rebellion, the forces remained weak while the religious and tribal leaders grew strong. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan was the communist governance in Afghanistan between 1978 and 1992. ... After the Soviets withdrew completely from Afghanistan in February 1989, fighting between the communist backed government and mujahideen continued. ... This is a timeline of the history of Afghanistan. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Motto: None Anthem: AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... The name Bahrain comes from Arabic Bahárayn, literally meaning two seas, which is thought to be an inaccurate folk etymology for the much older, non-Semitic term, Bahran; according to some scholars Bahran originates from Varahrdn, the later form of the old Avestan Verethragna - a Zoroastrian divinity that is... The name Bahrain comes from Arabic Bahárayn, literally meaning two seas, which is thought to be an inaccurate folk etymology for the much older, non-Semitic term, Bahran; according to some scholars Bahran originates from Varahrdn, the later form of the old Avestan Verethragna - a Zoroastrian divinity that is... Anthem بحريننا Bahrainona Our Bahrain Capital (and largest city) Manama Official languages Arabic Government Constitutional Monarchy  -  King Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah  -  Prime Minister Khalifah ibn Sulman Al Khalifah Independence from UK   -  Date 15 August 1971  Area  -  Total 665 km² (189th) 253 sq mi   -  Water (%) 0 Population  -  2007 estimate 708,573... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... edit The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: - or دودمان قاجار) was a ruling Persian dynasty[1] of Turkic descent[2], that ruled Iran (Persia) from 1781 to 1925. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... The Interim Government of Iran (1979-1980) was the first government established in Iran after the Islamic Revolution. ... The eight-year Iran-Iraq war resulted in USD$350 billion in damage for Iran alone. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... This article includes an overview from prehistory to the present in the region of the current state of Iraq in Mesopotamia. ... This article includes an overview from prehistory to the present in the region of the current state of Iraq in Mesopotamia. ... The Republic of Iraq is a Middle Eastern country in southwestern Asia encompassing the ancient region of Mesopotamia at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. ... The Emirate of Bukhara (1747-1920) was a state in Central Asia, with its capital in Bukhara and was a Russian protectorate from 1868. ... Flag Capital Bukhara Language(s) Tajik, Uzbek, Bukhori Religion Sunni Islam, Sufism (Naqshbandi), Judaism Government Socialist republic President Faizullah Khojaev Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy overthrown 1920-09-02  - Established October 8, 1920  - Joined the Uzbek SSR February 17, 1925 The Bukharan Peoples Soviet Republic (Russian: Бухарская Народная Советская Республика) was the name... State motto: Uzbek: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tashkent Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ... Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... Events May 29 - Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmoreland, meets Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Earl of Norfolk Thomas Mowbray in Shipton Moor, tricks them to send their rebellious army home and then imprisons them June 8 - Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk, executed in... For other uses, see Hijra. ... Soyurghatmïsh Khan (d. ... Sultan Mahmud Khan (d. ... Pir Muhammad (c. ... Events May 29 - Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmoreland, meets Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Earl of Norfolk Thomas Mowbray in Shipton Moor, tricks them to send their rebellious army home and then imprisons them June 8 - Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk, executed in... Year 1407 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...

Rulers of Herat

Herat is conquered by the Uzbeks under Muhammad Shaybani Shah Rukh Mirza (also known as Shahrukh or Shah Rokh) (August 30, 1377 - March 12, 1447), was the ruler of the eastern portion of the empire established by Timur (Tamerlane), governing most of Persia and Transoxiana between 1405 and 1447. ... Events May 29 - Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmoreland, meets Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Earl of Norfolk Thomas Mowbray in Shipton Moor, tricks them to send their rebellious army home and then imprisons them June 8 - Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk, executed in... Events March 6 - Nicholas V becomes Pope. ... Babur Ibn-Baysunkur (also known as Abul-Qasim Babur), (1422-1457) was a Timurid ruler in Khurasan (1449-1457). ... Events March 6 - Nicholas V becomes Pope. ... Events University of Freiburg founded. ... Shah Mahmud (born c. ... Events University of Freiburg founded. ... Ibrahim (d. ... Events University of Freiburg founded. ... Events September 23 - Battle of Blore Heath. ... Abu Said ( Herat, 1424 - 1469), was a Timurid Empire ruler in today parts of Persia and Afghanistan and member of the Timurid dynasty. ... Events September 23 - Battle of Blore Heath. ... Events July 26 - Battle of Edgecote Moor October 17 - Prince Ferdinand of Aragon wed princess Isabella of Castile. ... Yadigar Muhammad (d. ... Events May 15 - Charles VIII of Sweden who had served three terms as King of Sweden dies. ... Husayn Bayqarah (1438 - May 4, 1506), was a Timurid ruler of Herat from 1469 to his death, with a brief interruption in 1470. ... Events May 15 - Charles VIII of Sweden who had served three terms as King of Sweden dies. ... 1506 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Badi al-Zaman (d. ... 1506 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1507 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... 1506 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1507 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Portrait of Muhammad Shaybani Abu I-Fath Muhammad Shaybani Khan (c. ...


Rulers of Samarkand

Abu Sa'id's sons divided his territories upon his death, into Samarkand, Badakhshan and Farghana Khalil was the Sultan of Samarqand from 807 to 812. ... Events May 29 - Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmoreland, meets Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Earl of Norfolk Thomas Mowbray in Shipton Moor, tricks them to send their rebellious army home and then imprisons them June 8 - Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk, executed in... Events January 1 - The Welsh surrender Harlech Castle to the English. ... Ulugh Beg, here depicted on a Soviet stamp, was one of Islams greatest astronomers during the Middle Ages. ... Events January 1 - The Welsh surrender Harlech Castle to the English. ... Events January 6 - Constantine XI is crowned Byzantine Emperor. ... Abd al-Latif (d. ... Events January 6 - Constantine XI is crowned Byzantine Emperor. ... // March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen. ... ‘Abdullah (also ‘Abdullah Mirza) (d. ... // March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen. ... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... Abu Said ( Herat, 1424 - 1469), was a Timurid Empire ruler in today parts of Persia and Afghanistan and member of the Timurid dynasty. ... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... Events July 26 - Battle of Edgecote Moor October 17 - Prince Ferdinand of Aragon wed princess Isabella of Castile. ...

Samarkand is conquered by the Uzbeks under Muhammad Shaybani Sultan Ahmad ibn Abu Sa’id was the Timurid ruler of Samarkand from 1469 till 1494. ... Events July 26 - Battle of Edgecote Moor October 17 - Prince Ferdinand of Aragon wed princess Isabella of Castile. ... 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1495 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1495 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1497 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1495 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1495 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Portrait of Muhammad Shaybani Abu I-Fath Muhammad Shaybani Khan (c. ...


Other rulers

  • Qaidu bin Pir Muhammad bin Jahāngīr 808-811 AH
  • Abu Bakr bin Mīrān Shāh 1405 - 1407 (807-809 AH)
  • Pir Muhammad bin Umar Sheikh 807-812 AH
  • Rustam 812-817 AH
  • Sikandar 812-17 AH
  • Alaudaullah 851 AH
  • Abu Bakr bin Muhammad 851 AH
  • Sultān Muhammad 850-55 AH
  • Muhammad bin Hussayn 903-906 AH
  • Abul A'la Fereydūn Hussayn 911-912 AH
  • Muhammad Mohsin Khān 911-912 AH
  • Muhammad Zamān Khān 920-923 AH
  • Shāhrukh II bin Abu Sa’id 896-897 AH
  • Ulugh Beg Kābulī 873-907 AH
  • Sultān Uways 1508 - 1522 (913-927 AH)

Miran Shah (1366-1408) was a son of Timur, and a Timurid governor during his fathers lifetime. ... Events May 29 - Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmoreland, meets Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Earl of Norfolk Thomas Mowbray in Shipton Moor, tricks them to send their rebellious army home and then imprisons them June 8 - Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk, executed in... Year 1407 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... 1508 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ...

Rulers of Mughal Empire

A photo of Bahadur Shah II in 1858, possibly the only picture ever taken of a Timurid king.

Image File history File links BahadurShah_Zafar. ... Image File history File links BahadurShah_Zafar. ... Bahadur Shah Zafar in 1858, just after his show trial in Delhi and before his departure for exile in Rangoon. ... Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... Nasiruddin Humayun (March 6, 1508 – February 22, 1556), second Mughal Emperor, ruled in India from 1530–1540 and 1555–1556. ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... Kamran Mirza, sometimes known simply as Kamran, (born 1509, Kabul; died 1557, Makkah) was the second son of Babur, the founder of the Mughal dynasty. ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... Events Spain is effectively bankrupt. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... n ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... Rajput constitute one of the major Hindu Kshatriya groups from India. ... Jodhabai (d. ... Shabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ... Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... Manmati Bai (b. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title: Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... Muazzam Bahadur Shah (Persian: Bahādur Shāh; his name Bahādur means brave)(October 14, 1643 – February 1712), also known as Shah Alam I was the Mughal emperor of India from 1707 to 1712. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... Jahandar Shah (1661-1713) was Mughal Emperor for a brief period in 1712-1713 AD. Jahandar Shah was born on May 9, 1661, a son of the future emperor Bahadur Shah I. Upon the death of their father, he and his brother Azim-ush-shan both declared themselves emperor and... Events March 12 - New Jersey becomes a colony of England. ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... Year 1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Furrukhsiyar (or Farrukhsiyar, 1683–1719) was the mughal emperor of India from 1713. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... Year 1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events January 23 - The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire April 25 - Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe June 10 - Battle of Glen Shiel Prussia conducts Europes first systematic census Miners in Falun, Sweden find an apparently petrified body of Fet-Mats Israelsson in an unused... Rafi-ul Darajat, son of Rafiu-Shan (Azimu-sh-Shans brother) was the tenth mughal emperor and succeeded Furrukhsiyar in 1719, proclaimed Badshah by the Sayyid brothers. ... // Events January 23 - The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire April 25 - Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe June 10 - Battle of Glen Shiel Prussia conducts Europes first systematic census Miners in Falun, Sweden find an apparently petrified body of Fet-Mats Israelsson in an unused... Rafi ud Daulat also known as Shah Jahan II was Mughal emperor for a brief period in 1719 AD. He succeeded his short-lived brother Rafi Ul-Darjat in that year, being proclaimed Badshah by the Sayyid brothers. ... Rafi ud Daulat was the 11th Mughal emperor who succeeded his short-lived brother Rafi ud Darajat in 1719, proclaimed Badshah again, by the Sayyid brothers. ... A variety of rulers A 2 metre carpenters rule Retractable flexible rule A ruler or rule is an instrument used in geometry, technical drawing and engineering/building to measure distances and/or to rule straight lines. ... // Events January 23 - The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire April 25 - Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe June 10 - Battle of Glen Shiel Prussia conducts Europes first systematic census Miners in Falun, Sweden find an apparently petrified body of Fet-Mats Israelsson in an unused... Nikusiyar Mohammed was the 12th Mughal Emperor. ... // Events January 23 - The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire April 25 - Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe June 10 - Battle of Glen Shiel Prussia conducts Europes first systematic census Miners in Falun, Sweden find an apparently petrified body of Fet-Mats Israelsson in an unused... Ayman al-Zawahiri (in Arabic, ايمن الظواهري) (born June 19, 1951) is a prominent member of the al-Qaeda group and formerly the head of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad paramilitary organization. ... // Events January 6 - The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings February 11 - Sweden and Prussia sign the (2nd Treaty of Stockholm) declaring peace. ... Muhammad Shah (1702 – 1748) was a Mughal emperor of India between 1719 and 1748. ... Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... // Events January 23 - The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire April 25 - Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe June 10 - Battle of Glen Shiel Prussia conducts Europes first systematic census Miners in Falun, Sweden find an apparently petrified body of Fet-Mats Israelsson in an unused... // Events January 6 - The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings February 11 - Sweden and Prussia sign the (2nd Treaty of Stockholm) declaring peace. ... // Events January 6 - The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings February 11 - Sweden and Prussia sign the (2nd Treaty of Stockholm) declaring peace. ... Year 1748 (MDCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ahmed Shah Bahadur was born in 1725 to Mohammed Shah. ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... Year 1748 (MDCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Alamgir II (عالمگير Û²) (1759 - 1699) was the Mughal emperor of India between 1754 and 1759. ... Events January 26 - Treaty of Karlowitz signed March 30 - the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Shah Jahan III was Mughal Emperor briefly. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Shah Alam II (1728–1806) was a Mughal emperor of India. ... Events Astronomical aberration discovered by the astronomer James Bradley Swedish academy of sciences founded at Uppsala The founding of the University of Havana (Universidad de la Habana), Cubas most well-established university. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... a potrait of Akbar II at Smithsonian Institute Akbar Shah II (1760 - 1837), also known as Mirza Akbar, was the second-to-last of the Mughal emperors of India. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Bahadur Shah Zafar in 1858, just after his show trial in Delhi and before his departure for exile in Rangoon. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...

Heads of the Timurid Dynasty

Bahadur Shah Zafar in 1858, just after his show trial in Delhi and before his departure for exile in Rangoon. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about 1862 . ... Shahzada Muhammad Hideyat Afza (1809-21 March 1878),the 23rd head of the Mughal Dynasty, was born in Delhi in the reign of Akbar Shah II, the son of Mirza Muhammad Shujaat Afza Bahadur(c. ... This article is about 1862 . ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shahzada Mirza Khair ud-din Khurshid Jah (born 15 October 1914 - died 3 August 1975) was born in Rang mahal, Delhi the only son of Mirza Muhammad Fayaz ud-din, . he was recognised as head of the Timurid Dynasty the former ruling dynasty of the Mughal Empire in 1931 by... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mirza Ghulam Moinuddin Muhammad, Javaid Jah Bahadur, was born on the 16 May 1946 in Dehli the eldest son of Shahzada Muhammad Khair ud-din Mirza, Khurshid Jah Bahadur (1914-1975). ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References and notes

  1. ^ Zahir ud-Din Mohammad (2002-09-10). in Thackston, Wheeler M.: The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor. Modern Library Classics. ISBN 0375761373. “Note: Gurkānī is the Persianized form of the Mongolian word "kürügän" ("son-in-law"), the title given to the dynasty's founder after his marriage into Genghis Khan's family. 
  2. ^ Note: Gurgān, Gurkhān, or Kurkhān; The meaning of Kurkhan is given in Clements Markham's publication of the reports of the contemporary witness Ruy González de Clavijo as "of the lineage of sovereign princes".
  3. ^ Edward Balfour The Encyclopaedia Asiatica, Comprising Indian Subcontinent, Eastern and Southern Asia, Cosmo Publications 1976, S. 460, S. 488, S. 897
  4. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica, "Timurid Dynasty", Online Academic Edition, 2007. (Quotation:...Turkic dynasty descended from the conqueror Timur (Tamerlane), renowned for its brilliant revival of artistic and intellectual life in Iran and Central Asia....Trading and artistic communities were brought into the capital city of Herat, where a library was founded, and the capital became the centre of a renewed and artistically brilliant Persian culture...)
  5. ^ a b B.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006
  6. ^ a b c d e "Timurids". The Columbia Encyclopedia (Sixth). New York City: Columbia University. Retrieved on 2006-11-08. 
  7. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica article: Consolidation & expansion of the Indo-Timurids, Online Edition, 2007.
  8. ^ "Timur", The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001-05 Columbia University Press, (LINK)
  9. ^ "Consolidation & expansion of the Indo-Timurids", in Encyclopaedia Britannica, (LINK)
  10. ^ a b c B. Spuler, "Central Asia in the Mongol and Timurid periods", published in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2006/7, (LINK): "... Like his father, Olōğ Beg was entirely integrated into the Persian Islamic cultural circles, and during his reign Persian predominated as the language of high culture, a status that it retained in the region of Samarqand until the Russian revolution 1917 [...] Ḥoseyn Bāyqarā encouraged the developement of Persian literature and literary talent in every way possible ..."
  11. ^ David J. Roxburgh. The Persian Album, 1400-1600: From Dispersal to Collection. Yale University Press, 2005. pg 130: "Persian literature, especially poetry, occupied a central in the process of assimilation of Timurid elite to the Perso-Islamicate courtly culture, and so it is not suprising to find Baysanghur commissioned a new edition of Firdawsi's Shanama
  12. ^ Gérard Chaliand, Nomadic Empires: From Mongolia to the Danube translated by A. M. Berrett, Transaction Publishers, 2004. pg 75
  13. ^ Beatrice Forbes Manz. The Rise and Rule of Tamerlane. Cambridge University Press, 1999. pg 109: "...In Temür's government, as in those of most nomad dynasties, it is impossible to find a clear distinction between civil and military affairs, or to identify the Persian bureaucracy solely civil, and the Turko-Mongolian solely with military government. It is infact difficult to define the sphere of either side of the administration and we find Persians and Chaghatays sharing manys tasks. (In discussiong the settled bureaucracy and the people who worked within it I use the word Persian in a cultural rather than ethnological sense. In almost all the territories which Temür incorporated into his realm Persian was the primary language of administration and literary culture. Thus the language of the settled "diwan" was Persian, and its scribes had to be thoroughly adept in Persian culture, whatever their ethnic origin.) Temür's Chaghatay emirs were often involved in civil and provincial administration and even in financial affairs, traditionally the province of Persian bureaucracy...."
  14. ^ Volume III: To the Year A.D. 1398, Chapter: XVIII. Malfúzát-i Tímúrí, or Túzak-i Tímúrí: The Autobiography of Tímúr. Page: 389 (please press next and read all pages in the online copy) (1. Online copy, 2. Online copy) from: Elliot, Sir H. M., Edited by Dowson, John. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; published by London Trubner Company 1867–1877. (Online Copy: The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; by Sir H. M. Elliot; Edited by John Dowson; London Trubner Company 1867–1877 - This online Copy has been posted by: The Packard Humanities Institute; Persian Texts in Translation; Also find other historical books: Author List and Title List)
  15. ^ Selected Death Tolls: Timur Lenk (1369-1405)
  16. ^ a b Lehmann, F. "Zaher ud-Din Babor - Founder of Mughal empire". Encyclopaedia Iranica (Online). New York City: Columbia University Center for Iranian (Persian) Studies. 320-323. Retrieved on 2006-11-07. “"... His origin, milieu, training, and culture were steeped in Persian culture and so Babor was largely responsible for the fostering of this culture by his descendants, the Mughals of India, and for the expansion of Persian cultural infleunce in the Indian subcontinent, with brilliant literary, artistic, and historiographical results ..."” 
  17. ^ Robert Devereux (tr.), "Judgment of Two Languages; Muhakamat Al-Lughatain By Mir 'Ali Shir Nawāi"; Introduction, Translation and Notes: Leiden (E.J. Brill), 1966): Any linguist of today who reads the essay will inevitably conclude that Nawa'i argued his case poorly, for his principal argument is that the Turkic lexicon contained many words for which the Persian had no exact equivalents and that Persian-speakers had therefore to use the Turkic words. This is a weak reed on which to lean, for it is a rare language indeed that contains no loan words. In any case, the beauty of a language and its merits as a literary medium depend less on size of vocabulary and purity of etymology that on the euphony, expressiveness and malleability of those words its lexicon does include. Moreover, even if Nawa'i's thesis were to be accepted as valid, he destroyed his own case by the lavish use, no doubt unknowingly, of non-Turkic words even while ridiculing the Persians for their need to borrow Turkic words. The present writer has not made a word count of Nawa'i's text, but he would estimate conservatively that at least one half the words used by Nawa'i in the essay are Arabic or Persian in origin. To support his claim of the superiority of the Turkic language, Nawa'i also employs the curious argument that most Turks also spoke Persian but only a few Persians ever achieved fluency in Turkic. It is difficult to understand why he was impressed by this phenomenon, since the most obvious explanation is that Turks found it necessary, or at least advisable, to learn Persian - it was, after all, the official state language - while Persians saw no reason to bother learning Turkic which was, in their eyes, merely the uncivilized tongue of uncivilized nomadic tribesmen
  18. ^ David J. Roxburgh. The Persian Album, 1400-1600: From Dispersal to Collection. Yale University Press, 2005. pg 130: "Persian literature, especially poetry, occupied a central in the process of assimilation of Timurid elite to the Perso-Islamicate courtly culture, and so it is not suprising to find Baysanghur commissioned a new edition of Firdawsi's Shanama
  19. ^ "Baysonghori Shahnameh" in Encyclopedia Iranica by T. Lenz
  20. ^ Stephen Frederic DaleThe Garden of the Eight Paradises: Babur and the Culture of Empire. BRILL, 2004. pg 150
  21. ^ New Orient, By Czechoslovak Society for Eastern Studies, Czechoslovak Society for Eastern Studies, 1968. pg 139.
  22. ^ Persian Paintings
  23. ^ MSN Encarta. Islamic Art and Architecture.
  24. ^ Art Arena. Persian art - the Safavids
  25. ^ John Onians, Atlas of World Art, Laurence King Publishing, 2004. pg 132.
  26. ^ John Julius Norwich, Great Architecture of the World, Da Capo Press, 2001. pg 278.
  27. ^ John Julius Norwich, Great Architecture of the World, Da Capo Press, 2001. pg 278.
  28. ^ John Julius Norwich, Great Architecture of the World, Da Capo Press, 2001. pg 278.
  29. ^ Hugh Kennedy, “The Great Arab Conquests: How the Spread of Islam Changed the World We Live In”, Da Capo Press, 2007. pg 237
  30. ^ Banister Fletcher, Dan Cruickshan, "Sir Banister Fletcher's a History of Architecture ",Architectural Press, 1996. pg 606
  31. ^ Robert L. Canfield, Turko-Persia in historical perspective, Cambridge University Press, 1991. pg 20
  32. ^ Mughal architecture Encyclopædia Britannica

Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Persianization or Persianisation is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something non-Persian (or Iranian) is made to become Persian (or Iranian) It is commonly used in connection with Kurds, Arabs, as well as various Turkic peoples. ... This article is about the person. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is the standard encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project in Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian studies, to create an English language encyclopedia about Iran and Persia. ... The History of India as Told by its Own Historians is a book with eight volumes written by H. M. Elliot and John Dowson. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project in Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian studies, to create an English language encyclopedia about Iran and Persia. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Baysonghori Shahnameh in Encyclopedia Iranica
  • Elliot, Sir H. M., Edited by Dowson, John. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; published by London Trubner Company 1867–1877. (Online Copy: The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; by Sir H. M. Elliot; Edited by John Dowson; London Trubner Company 1867–1877 - This online Copy has been posted by: The Packard Humanities Institute; Persian Texts in Translation; Also find other historical books: Author List and Title List)

The History of India as Told by its Own Historians is a book with eight volumes written by H. M. Elliot and John Dowson. ...

External links

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