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Encyclopedia > Timur
Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan
Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan

Tīmūr bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور - Tēmōr, "iron") (1336 – February 1405), known in the West as Tamerlane, was a 14th century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent,[1][2][3][4] conqueror of much of western and central Asia, and founder of the Timurid Empire and Timurid dynasty (1370–1405) in Central Asia, which survived until 1857. He is more commonly known by variations of his pejorative Persian name Timur-e-Lang (Persian: تیمور لنگ) which translates to Timur the Lame, as he was lame after sustaining an injury to the leg in battle.[citation needed] This title of contempt was used by his Persian enemies.[5] After his marriage into Genghis Khan's family, he took the name Timūr Gurkānī (Persian: تيمور گوركانى), Gurkān being the Persianized form of the original Mongolian word kürügän, "son-in-law".[6][7] Alternative spellings of his name are: Temur, Taimur, Timur Lenk, Timur-i Leng, Temur-e Lang, Amir Timur, Aqsaq Timur, as well as the Latinized Tamerlane and Tamburlaine. As many as 17 million people may have died from his conquests.[8] Timor (pronounced tee-mor) is an island at the south of the Malay Archipelago, divided between the independent state of East Timor, and Indonesia. ... An anonymous portrait, often believed to show Christopher Marlowe. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 361 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (468 × 777 pixel, file size: 43 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 361 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (468 × 777 pixel, file size: 43 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Shahrisabz or Shahr-e Sabz (from the Persian meaning green city), also known as Kesh, is a city in Uzbekistan approximately 50 mi. ... The Chagatai language is an extinct Turkic language which was once widely spoken in Central Asia. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Events End of the Kemmu restoration and beginning of the Muromachi period in Japan. ... Events May 29 - Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmoreland, meets Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Earl of Norfolk Thomas Mowbray in Shipton Moor, tricks them to send their rebellious army home and then imprisons them June 8 - Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk, executed in... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... A warlord is a person with power who has de facto military control of a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. ... The Turco-Mongols were the aristocratic, nomadic, mostly Turkic-speaking horsemen of Turkic and Mongolian descent who served as rulers and conquerors in Central and West Asias Turko-Persian societies during the Middle Ages. ... Timurid Dynasty at its Greatest Extent The Timurids (Chaghatay/Persian: - TÄ«mÅ«rÄ«yān), self-designated GurkānÄ« (Persian: ), were a Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty whose empire included the whole of Central Asia, Iran and modern Afghanistan, as well as large parts of Mesopotamia and Caucasus. ... Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Farsi redirects here. ... This article is about the person. ... Farsi redirects here. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


Mongol in origin and Turkic in language and identity,[1][9][10] Timur was also steeped in Persian culture.[11] He aspired to restore the Mongol Empire, yet his heaviest blow was against the Mongol Golden Horde, which never recovered from his campaign against Tokhtamysh. He thought of himself as a ghazi, but his biggest wars were against Muslim states.[12] For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Turko-Persian Tradition. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire, also known as the Mongolian Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history and for sometime was the most feared in Eurasia. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire upon its breakup in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... Tokhtamysh (d. ... Ghazw (plural ghazawāt) (Arabic: غزو) is an Arabic word meaning an armed incursion for the purposes of conquest, plunder, or the capture of slaves and is cognate with the terms ghāziya and maghāzī. In pre-Islamic times it signified the plundering raids organized by nomadic Bedouin warriors against... Islam in the world. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


He died during a campaign against the Ming Dynasty, yet records indicate that for part of his life he was a surreptitious Ming vassal, and even his son Shah Rukh visited China in 1420.[13] He was a patron of the arts, but also raped, pillaged and massacred, and destroyed great centers of learning during his conquests. He wielded absolute power, yet never called himself more than an emir, and eventually ruled in the name of tamed Chingizid Khans, who were little more than political prisoners. Despite wanting to restore the Mongol Empire, Timur was more at home in a city than on a steppe as evidenced by his funding of construction in Samarkand. Timur is historically considered to be a contradictory and controversial figure, as was the case even during his lifetime. For other uses, see Ming. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Events May 21 - Treaty of Troyes. ... Below is a list of incidents that are commonly labeled as massacres by reliable sources. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... Medieval culture was full of rulers who boasted having a highest and mightiest ancestry. ... Khan (sometimes spelled as xan, han) is a title meaning ruler in Mongolian and Turkish. ... A political prisoner is someone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image are deemed by a government to either challenge or threaten the authority of the state. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ...


He ruled over an empire that, in modern times, extends from southeastern Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Kuwait and Iran, through Central Asia encompassing part of Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, North-Western India, and even approaching Kashgar in China. Northern Iraq remained predominantly Assyrian Christian until the destructions of Timur.[14][15][16] When Timur conquered Persia, Iraq and Syria, the civilian population was decimated. In the city of Isfahan (Persia) he ordered the building of a pyramid of 70,000 human skulls, from those that his army had beheaded,[17] and a pyramid of some 20,000 skulls was erected outside the Aleppo.[18] Timur herded thousands of citizens of Damascus into the Cathedral Mosque before setting it aflame,[19] and had 70,000 people beheaded in Tikrit, and another 90,000 more in Baghdad.[20][21] Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Location of Kashgar Kashgars Sunday market Kashgar (also spelled Cascar[1]) (Uyghur: /; Chinese: ; pinyin: , ), is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Languages Assyrian, Chaldean, Turoyo Religions Christianity Related ethnic groups other Semitic peoples Assyrians are an ethnic group whose origins lie in what is today Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria, but who have migrated to the Caucasus, North America and Western Europe during the past century. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... Location of the governorate of Aleppo within Syria Aleppo (Arabic: [ḥalab], ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Looking north along the Tigris towards Saddams Presidential palace in April 2003 Tikrit (تكريت, Tikrīt also transliterated as Takrit or Tekrit) is a town in Iraq, located 140 km northwest of Baghdad on the Tigris river (at 34. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...


Timur's legacy is a mixed one. While Central Asia blossomed under his reign, other places such as Baghdad, Damascus, Delhi and other Arab, Persian, Indian and Turkic cities were sacked and destroyed, and millions of people were slaughtered. Thus, while Timur still retains a positive image in Central Asia, he is vilified by many in Arab, Persian and Indian societies. At the same time, many Western Asians still name their children after him, while Persian literature calls him "Teymour, Conqueror of the World" (Persian: تیمور جهانگير). Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Murder (disambiguation). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... Farsi redirects here. ...

Contents

Early life

Timur was born in Transoxiana, near Kesh (an area now better known as Shahr-e Sabz, 'the green city,'), situated some 50 miles south of Samarkand in modern Uzbekistan. His father Taraghay was the head of the Barlas, a nomadic tribe in the steppes of Central Asia. They were remnants of the originally Mongol invaders of Genghis Khan of whom many had embraced Turkic or Iranian languages and customs. Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... Shahrisabz or Shahr-e Sabz (from the Persian meaning green city), also known as Kesh, is a city in Uzbekistan approximately 50 mi. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... The Barlas (also Berlas, Birlas) were a Mongolian nomadic confederation in Central Asia and the chief tribe of the Timurid emperors who ruled much of Central Asia, Iran, and Hindustan in the Middle Ages. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... This article is about the person. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ...


The spurious genealogy on his tombstone taking his descent back to Ali, as well as the presence of Shiites in his army, led some observers and scholars to call him a Shiite. However, his official religious counselor was the Hanafite scholar Abd al Jabbar Khwarazmi. There is evidence that he had converted to extremist Shia Nusayri sect under the influence of Sayyed Barakah, a Nusayri leader from his mentor, Balkh. He also constructed one of his finest buildings at the tomb of Ahmed Yesevi, an influential Turkic Sufi saint who was doing most to spread Sunni Islam among the nomads. For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... Hanafi is one of the four schools (madhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Religions Islam Scriptures Quran, Kitab al Majmu[2] Languages Arabic, Turkish The Alawites are a Middle Eastern sect of Shiite Islam[3][4] prominent in Syria. ... Religions Islam Scriptures Quran, Kitab al Majmu[2] Languages Arabic, Turkish The Alawites are a Middle Eastern sect of Shiite Islam[3][4] prominent in Syria. ... Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasavi. ... For other uses, see Saint (disambiguation). ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


In his memoirs Timur gave the following information about his ancestry:

My father told me that we were descendants from Abu-al-Atrak (father of the Turks) the son of Japhet. His fifth son, Aljeh Khan, had twin sons, Tatar and Mogul, who placed their feet on the paths of infidelity. Tumene Khan had a son Kabul, whose son, Munga Bahadur, was the father of Temugin, called Zengis Khan. Zengis Khan abandoned the duty of a conqueror by slaughtering the people, and plundering the dominions of God, and he put many thousands of Moslems to death. He bestowed Mawur-ulnaher on his son Zagatai, and appointed my ancestor, Karachar Nevian, to be his minister. "Karacher appointed the plain of Kesh for the residence of the tribe of Berlas (his own tribe), and he subdued the countries of Kashgar, Badakshan, and Andecan. He was succeeded by his son Ayettekuz as Sepah Salar (general). Then followed my grandfather, the Ameer Burkul, who retired from office, and contented himself with the government of his own tribe of Berlas. He possessed an incalculable number of sheep and goats, cattle and servants. On his death my father succeeded, but he also preferred seclusion, and the society of learned men."[22] Genghis Khan (Mongolian: Чингис Хаан, Jenghis Khan, Jinghis Khan, Chinghiz Khan, Jinghiz Khan, Chinggis Khan, Changaiz Khan, original name Temüjin, Temuchin, Mongolian: Тэмүүжин) (c. ... Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings ÇaÄŸatay in Turkic Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Chaghtai) was the second son of Genghis Khan. ... Shahrisabz or Shahr-e Sabz (from the Persian meaning green city), also known as Kesh, is a city in Uzbekistan approximately 50 mi. ...

Military leader

Map of the Timurid Empire
Map of the Timurid Empire

In about 1360 Timur gained prominence as a military leader. He took part in campaigns in Transoxania with the khan of Chagatai, a fellow descendant of Genghis Khan. His career for the next 10 or 11 years may be thus briefly summarized from the Memoirs. Allying himself both in cause and by family connection with Kurgan, the dethroner and destroyer of Volga Bulgaria, he was to invade Khorasan at the head of a thousand horsemen. This was the second military expedition which he led, and its success led to further operations, among them the subjection of Khwarizm and Urganj. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c. ... Transoxiana (sometimes also spelled Transoxania) is the now-largely obsolete name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan and southwest Kazakhstan. ... Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings Çağatay in Turkic Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Chaghtai) was the second son of Genghis Khan. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Jagatai), a son of Genghis Khan (1206–1227), controlled the part of the Mongol Empire which extended from the Ili... Sarmatian Kurgan 4th c. ... The Little Minaret in Bolghar For other uses, see Bulgaria (disambiguation). ... Friday Mosque in Herat, Afghanistan, a city which was known in the past as the Pearl of Khorasan. ... Khwarezmia (also with various alternate spellings, including Chorasmia and Khorezm) was a state located on what was then the coast of the Aral Sea, including modern Karakalpakstan across the Ust-Urt plateau and perhaps extending to as far west as the eastern shores of the North Caspian Sea. ... Urgench (Uzbek: Urganch / Урганч) is city (1989 pop. ...


After the murder of Kurgan the disputes which arose among the many claimants to sovereign power were halted by the invasion of the energetic Jagataite Tughlugh Timur of Kashgar, another descendant of Genghis Khan. Timur was dispatched on a mission to the invader's camp, the result of which was his own appointment to the head of his own tribe, the Barlas, in place of its former leader, Hajji Beg. Look up sovereign in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tughlugh Timur (1347-1363) came from obscure origins to lead Mongol nomads of the Chagatai Khanate. ... Location of Kashgar Kashgars Sunday market Kashgar (also spelled Cascar[1]) (Uyghur: /; Chinese: ; pinyin: , ), is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Barlas (also Berlas, Birlas) were a Mongolian nomadic confederation in Central Asia and the chief tribe of the Timurid emperors who ruled much of Central Asia, Iran, and Hindustan in the Middle Ages. ... Hajji Beg Barlas (d. ...


The exigencies of Timur's quasi-sovereign position compelled him to have recourse to his formidable patron, whose reappearance on the banks of the Syr Darya created a consternation not easily allayed. The Barlas were taken from Timur and entrusted to a son of Tughluk, along with the rest of Mawarannahr; but he was defeated in battle by the bold warrior he had replaced at the head of a numerically far inferior force. Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ...


Rise to power

Tughlugh's death facilitated the work of reconquest, and a few years of perseverance and energy sufficed for its accomplishment, as well as for the addition of a vast extent of territory. It was in this period that Timur reduced the Jagatai khans to the position of figureheads, who were deferred to in theory but in reality ignored, while Timur ruled in their name. During this period Timur and his brother-in-law Husayn, at first fellow fugitives and wanderers in joint adventures full of interest and romance, became rivals and antagonists. At the close of 1369 Husayn was assassinated and Timur, having been formally proclaimed sovereign at Balkh, mounted the throne at Samarkand, the capital of his dominions. This event was recorded by Marlowe in his famous work Tamburlaine the Great:[23] The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Jagatai), a son of Genghis Khan (1206–1227), controlled the part of the Mongol Empire which extended from the Ili... Today Balkh (Persian: بلخ) is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ...

Then shall my native city, Samarcanda...

Be famous through the furthest continents,
For there my palace-royal shall be placed,
Whose shining turrets shall dismay the heavens,
And cast the fame of Ilion's tower to hell.

It is notable that Timur never claimed for himself the title of khan, styling himself amir and acting in the name of the Chagatai ruler of Transoxania. Timur was a military genius but sometimes lacking in political sense. He tended not to leave a government apparatus behind in lands he conquered, and was often faced with the need to conquer such lands again after inevitable rebellions. This article is about the title. ... Emir (also sometimes rendered as Amir or Ameer, Arabic commander) is a title of nobility historically used in Islamic nations of the Middle East and North Africa. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Jagatai), a son of Genghis Khan (1206–1227), controlled the part of the Mongol Empire which extended from the Ili...


Period of expansion

Timur spent the next 35 years in various wars and expeditions. He not only consolidated his rule at home by the subjugation of his foes, but sought extension of territory by encroachments upon the lands of foreign potentates. His conquests to the west and northwest led him among the Mongols of the Caspian Sea and to the banks of the Ural and the Volga. Conquests in the south and south-West encompassed almost every province in Persia, including Baghdad, Karbala and Kurdistan. This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... The Ural (Russian: , Kazakh: Жайық, Jayıq or Zhayyq), known as Yaik before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... Persia redirects here. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... // Karbala (Arabic: ; BGN: Al-Karbalā’; also spelled Karbala al-Muqaddasah) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32. ... For other uses, see Kurdistan (disambiguation). ...


One of the most formidable of his opponents was Tokhtamysh who, after having been a refugee at the court, became ruler both of the eastern Kipchak and the Golden Horde and quarreled with him over the possession of Khwarizm and Azerbaijan. Timur supported Tokhtamysh against Russians and Tokhtamysh, with armed support by Timur, invaded Russia and in 1382 captured Moscow. After the death of Abu Sa'id, ruler of the Ilkhanid Dynasty, in 1335, there was a power vacuum in the Persian Empire. In 1383 Timur started the military conquest of Persia. He captured Herat, Khorasan and all eastern Persia by 1385 and massacred almost all inhabitants of Neishapur and other Iranian cities. Tokhtamysh (d. ... Kipchaks (also Kypchaks, Qipchaqs) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. Their language was also known as Kipchak. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire upon its breakup in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... Khiva (alternative names include Khorasam, Khoresm, Khwarezm, Khwarizm, Khwarazm, Chiwa and Chorezm) is the former capital of Khwarezmia, which lies in the present-day Khorezm Province of Uzbekistan. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Abu Said (1316 - 1335; also Abusaid Bahador Khan, Abu Sayed Behauder), was the ninth ruler of the Ilkhanate state in Iran. ... The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Persia redirects here. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... Nishapur (or Neyshâbûr; نیشابور in Persian) is a town in the province of Khorasan in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains, near the regional capital of Mashhad. ...


In the meantime, Tokhtamysh, now khan of the Golden Horde, turned against his patron and invaded Azerbaijan in 1385. It was not until 1395, in the battle of Kur River, that Tokhtamysh's power was finally broken after a titanic struggle between the two monarchs. In this war, Timur first led an army of over 100,000 men north for more than 700 miles into the uninhabited steppe, then west about 1000 miles, advancing in a front more than 10 miles wide. The Timurid army almost starved, and Timur organized a great hunt where the army encircled vast areas of steppe to get food. Tokhtamysh's army finally was cornered against the Volga River in the Orenburg region and destroyed. During this march, Timur's army got far enough north to be in a region of very long summer days, causing complaints by his Muslim soldiers about keeping a long schedule of prayers in such northern regions. Timur led a second campaign against Tokhtamysh via an easier route through the Caucasus. Timur then destroyed Sarai and Astrakhan, and wrecked the Golden Horde's economy based on Silk Road trade. The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire upon its breakup in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... Combatants Tamerlan Empire Golden Horde Commanders Timur Tokhtamysh The Battle of the Terek River was the second major battle of Tokhtamysh-Timur War. ... Timurid can refer to several entities, related to Timur: Timurid Dynasty Timurid Empire Timurid Emirates This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Orenburg (Russian: ) is a city on the Ural River and the administrative center of Orenburg Oblast in the Volga Federal District of Russia. ... The midnight sun at Nordkapp, Norway. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Sarai Batu (Old Sarai, Sarai-al-Maqrus) was a capital city of the Golden Horde. ... For other uses, see Astrakhan (fur). ... The Silk Road extending from Southern Europe through Arabia, Egypt, Persia, India till China. ...


Indian Campaign

Informed about civil war in India, Timur began a trek starting in 1398 to invade the reigning Sultan Nasir-u Din Mehmud of the Tughlaq Dynasty in the north Indian city of Delhi.[24][25] He invaded India on the pretext that the Muslim Delhi Sultanate was too tolerant and soft toward its Hindu subjects.[26] Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... The Tughlaq Dynasty of north India started in 1321 CE in Delhi when Ghazi Tughlaq assumed the throne under the title of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ...


Timur crossed the Indus River at Attock on September 24. The capture of towns and villages was often followed by the looting, massacre of their inhabitants and raping of their women, as well as pillaging to support his massive army. Timur wrote many times in his memoirs of his specific disdain for the 'idolatrous' Hindus, although he also waged war against Muslim Indians during his campaign. The Indus River (Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindhu; Sanskrit and Hindi: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδός Indos) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent and has given the country India its... Akbars Fort at Attock Attock (Urdu: اٹک) is a city located in the northern border of the Punjab province of Pakistan, and also a border district on the river Indus. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ...


Timur's invasion did not go unopposed and he did meet some resistance during his march to Delhi, most notably with the Sarv Khap coalition in northern India, and the Governor of Meerut. Although impressed and momentarily stalled by the valour of Ilyaas Awan, Timur was able to continue his relentless approach to Delhi, arriving in 1398 to combat the armies of Sultan Mehmud, already weakened by an internal battle for ascension within the royal family. An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... Khap (Hindi:खाप, IAST: khāpa) and Sarv Khap (सर्व खाप) was a system of social administration and organization in the republics of Northwestern states like Haryana, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh in India since ancient times. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... , Meerut (Hindi: मेरठ, Urdu: میرٹھ) IPA:   is a city and a municipal corporation in Meerut district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Awan is an Arabic word, which means helper or an assistant. ...


The Sultan's army was easily defeated on December 17, 1398. Timur entered Delhi and the city was sacked, destroyed, and left in ruins. Before the battle for Delhi, Timur executed more than 100,000 captives[citation needed], mostly Hindus[citation needed]. December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland destroyed. ...


Timur himself recorded the invasions in his memoirs, collectively known as Tuzk-i-Timuri.[27][1] In them, he vividly described the massacre at Delhi: For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ...

In a short space of time all the people in the [New Delhi] fort were put to the sword, and in the course of one hour the heads of 10,000 infidels were cut off. The sword of Islam was washed in the blood of the infidels, and all the goods and effects, the treasure and the grain which for many a long year had been stored in the fort became the spoil of my soldiers. They set fire to the houses and reduced them to ashes, and they razed the buildings and the fort to the ground....All these infidel Hindus were slain, their women and children, and their property and goods became the spoil of the victors. I proclaimed throughout the camp that every man who had infidel prisoners should put them to death, and whoever neglected to do so should himself be executed and his property given to the informer. When this order became known to the ghazis of Islam, they drew their swords and put their prisoners to death.

One hundred thousand infidels, impious idolaters, were on that day slain. Maulana Nasiruddin Umar, a counselor and man of learning, who, in all his life, had never killed a sparrow, now, in execution of my order, slew with his sword fifteen idolatrous Hindus, who were his captives....on the great day of battle these 100,000 prisoners could not be left with the baggage, and that it would be entirely opposed to the rules of war to set these idolaters and enemies of Islam at liberty...no other course remained but that of making them all food for the sword.[28] Ghazi (March 21, 1912 - April 4, 1939) was king of Iraq from 1933 to 1939. ...

As per Malfuzat-i-Timuri,[29] Timur targeted Hindus. In his own words, "Excepting the quarter of the saiyids, the 'ulama and the other Musalmans [sic], the whole city was sacked". In his descriptions of the Loni massacre he wrote, "..Next day I gave orders that the Musalman prisoners should be separated and saved."


During the ransacking of Delhi, almost all inhabitants not killed were captured and enslaved. Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Slave redirects here. ...


Timur left Delhi in approximately January 1399. In April he had returned to his own capital beyond the Oxus (Amu Darya). Immense quantities of spoils were taken from India. According to Ruy Gonzáles de Clavijo, 90 captured elephants were employed merely to carry precious stones looted from his conquest, so as to erect a mosque at Samarkand — what historians today believe is the enormous Bibi-Khanym Mosque. Ironically, the mosque was constructed too quickly and suffered greatly from disrepair within a few decades of its construction. The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... Ruy Gonzáles de Clavijo (? - April 2, 1412), Spanish traveler and writer. ... For other uses, see Elephant (disambiguation). ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... The cupola of the main chamber is raised up to 40 m. ...


Last campaigns and death

Painting by Stanisław Chlebowski, Sultan Bayezid prisoned by Timur, 1878, depicting the capture of Bayezid by Timur.
Painting by Stanisław Chlebowski, Sultan Bayezid prisoned by Timur, 1878, depicting the capture of Bayezid by Timur.

Before the end of 1399, Timur started a war with Bayezid I, sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and the Mamluk sultan of Egypt. Bayezid began annexing the territory of Turkmen and Muslim rulers in Anatolia. As Timur claimed sovereignty over the Turkmen rulers, they took refuge behind him. Timur invaded Syria, sacked Aleppo and captured Damascus after defeating the Mamluk army. The city's inhabitants were massacred, except for the artisans, who were deported to Samarkand. This led to Timur's being publicly declared an enemy of Islam. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 490 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 980 pixel, file size: 366 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) العربية | ÄŒesky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | RomânÇŽ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 490 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 980 pixel, file size: 366 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) العربية | ÄŒesky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | RomânÇŽ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File... // Bayezid I (Ottoman: بايزيد الأول, Turkish: Beyazıt, nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman: ییلدیرم), the Thunderbolt; 1354–1403) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. ... // Bayezid I (Ottoman: بايزيد الأول, Turkish: Beyazıt, nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman: ییلدیرم), the Thunderbolt; 1354–1403) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - As-Salih Ayyub Death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of  Egypt  Saudi Arabia  Syria  Palestine  Israel  Lebanon  Jordan  Turkey  Libya A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic: مملوك (singular... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Location of the governorate of Aleppo within Syria Aleppo (Arabic: [ḥalab], ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ...


In 1400 Timur invaded Armenia and Georgia. More than 60,000 people from the Caucasus were captured as slaves, and many districts of Armenia were depopulated.[30] For the term Caucasian referring to all white people, see Caucasian race. ...


He invaded Baghdad in June 1401. After the capture of the city, 20,000 of its citizens were massacred. Timur ordered that every soldier should return with at least two severed human heads to show him (many warriors were so scared they killed prisoners captured earlier in the campaign just to ensure they had heads to present to Timur). After years of insulting letters passed between Timur and Bayezid, Timur invaded Anatolia and defeated Bayezid in the Battle of Ankara on July 20, 1402. Bayezid was captured in battle and subsequently died in captivity, initiating the 12-year Ottoman Interregnum period. Timur's stated motivation for attacking Bayezid and the Ottoman Empire was the restoration of Seljuq authority. Timur saw the Seljuks as the rightful rulers of Anatolia as they had been granted rule by Mongol conquerors, illustrating again Timur's interest with Genghizid legitimacy. Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... For other uses, see Warrior (disambiguation). ... // Combatants Timurid Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Timur Beyazid I Strength 140,000 men 85,000 men [1] Casualties 15,000-25,000 killed and wounded[] 15,000-40,000 killed and wounded[] The Battle of Ankara or Battle of Angora, fought on July 20, 1402, took place at the field... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. ... The Ottoman Interregnum (also known as the Ottoman Triumvirate; Fetret Devri in Turkish) was a period in the beginning of the 15th century when chaos reigned in the Ottoman Empire following the defeat of Sultan Bayezid I in 1402 by the Mongol warlord Tamerlane (Timur the Lame). ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ...


By 1368, the Ming had driven the Mongols out of China. The first Ming Emperor Hongwu demanded, and received, homage from many Central Asian states paid to China as the political heirs to the former House of Kublai. Timur more than once sent to the Ming Government gifts that could have passed as tribute, at first not daring to defy the economic and military might of the Middle Kingdom. Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... izzy lewis loves the weewee in her pooter. ... Kublai Khan or Khubilai Khan (1215 - 1294), Mongol military leader, was Khan (1260-1294) of the Mongol Empire and founder and first Emperor (1279-1294) of the Yuan Dynasty. ... The Middle Kingdom is: a old name for China a period in the History of Ancient Egypt, the Middle Kingdom of Egypt This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Timur wished to restore the Mongol Empire, and eventually planned to conquer China. Mongol khan Enkh sent his grandson Ulzitumur, also known as "Buyanshir." Timur made an alliance with the Mongols and prepared all the way to Bukhara. In December 1404, Timur started military campaigns against the Ming Dynasty, but he was attacked by fever and plague when encamped on the farther side of the Sihon (Syr-Daria) and died at Atrar (Otrar) in mid-February 1405.[2] His scouts explored Mongolia before his death, and the writing they carved on trees in Mongolia's mountains could still be seen even in the 20th century. Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


Of Timur's four sons, two (Jahangir and Umar Shaykh) predeceased him. His third son, Miran Shah, died soon after Timur, leaving the youngest son, Shah Rukh. Although his designated successor was his grandson Pir Muhammad b. Jahangir, Timur was ultimately succeeded in power by his son Shah Rukh. His most illustrious descendant Babur founded the Mughal Empire and ruled over most of North India. Babur's descendants, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb, expanded the Mughal Empire to most of the Indian subcontinent along with parts of modern Afghanistan. Miran Shah (1366-1408) was a son of Timur, and a Timurid governor during his fathers lifetime. ... Shah Rukh Mirza (also known as Shahrukh or Shah Rokh) (August 30, 1377 - March 12, 1447), was the ruler of the eastern portion of the empire established by Timur (Tamerlane), governing most of Persia and Transoxiana between 1405 and 1447. ... Pir Muhammad (c. ... Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy List of Mughal emperors  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21... Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... n ... Shahabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...


Markham, in his introduction to the narrative of Clavijo's embassy, states that his body "was embalmed with musk and rose water, wrapped in linen, laid in an ebony coffin and sent to Samarkand, where it was buried." His tomb, the Gur-e Amir, still stands in Samarkand. Timur had carried his victorious arms on one side from the Irtish and the Volga to the Persian Gulf, and on the other from the Hellespont to the Ganges River. Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Timurs mausoleum Gur-e Amir at Samarkand Gur-e Amir is the mausoleum of the Asian conqueror Timur in Samarkand (now in Uzbekistan). ... Irtysh River (also Ertis) a river in Asia, the chief tributary of the river Ob. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... The Helespont/Dardanelles, a long narrow strait dividing the Balkans (Europe) along the Gallipoli peninsula from Asia Anatolia (Asia Minor). ... This article is about the river. ...


Contributions to the arts

A madrassa in Samarqand commissioned by Ulug Beg, Timur's grandson.
A madrassa in Samarqand commissioned by Ulug Beg, Timur's grandson.

Timur became widely known as a patron to the arts. Much of the architecture he commissioned still stands in Samarqand, now in present-day Uzbekistan. He was known to bring the most talented artisans from the lands he conquered back to Samarkand. And he is credited with often giving them a wide latitude of artistic freedom to express themselves. Image File history File links Stork nests on the Ulugh Beg Madrasa in Samarkand. ... Image File history File links Stork nests on the Ulugh Beg Madrasa in Samarkand. ... Statue of Mirzo Ulugbek in Riga, Latvia. ... Samarkand (Samarqand or Самарқанд in Uzbek) (population 400,000) is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan, capital of the Samarkand region (Samarqand Wiloyati). ...


According to legend, Omar Aqta, Timur's court calligrapher, transcribed the Qur'an using letters so small that the entire text of the book fit on a signet ring. Omar also is said to have created a Qur'an so large that a wheelbarrow was required to transport it. Folios of what is probably this larger Qur'an have been found, written in gold lettering on huge pages. The stylized signature of Sultan Abdul Hamid I of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Seal as impression A seal is an impression, usually in wax or embossed on the paper itself, or other item attached to a legal instrument used to authenticate it in place of, or in addition to, a signature. ... A common wheelbarrow Older wheelbarrow Wheelbarrows on the Belomorkanal A wheelbarrow is a small one-wheeled, hand-propelled vehicle, designed to be pushed and guided by a single person using two handles to the rear. ... Old book binding and cover Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book from a number of folded or unfolded sheets of paper or other material. ...


Timur was also said to have created Tamerlane Chess, a variant of shatranj (also known as medieval chess) played on a larger board with several additional pieces and an original method of pawn promotion. Tamerlane Chess is a strategic board game related to chess and derived from shatranj. ... Shatranj is an old form of chess, which has been popular in Persia and the Middle East for almost 1000 years[1]. The modern chess has gradually developed from this game. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... This article is about the Western board game. ...


Timur's mandating of Kurash wrestling for his soldiers ensured for it a lasting and legendary legacy. Kurash is now a popular international sport and part of the Asian Games. Kurash is the native ancient type of upright jacket wrestling practiced in Uzbekistan. ... Asian Games Logo The Asian Games, also called the Asiad, is a multi-sport event held every four years among athletes from all over Asia. ...


References

Timur's generally recognized biographers are Ali Yazdi, commonly called Sharaf ud-Din, author of the Persian Zafarnāma (Persian ظفرنامه), translated by Petis de la Croix in 1722 , and from French into English by J. Darby in the following year; and Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Abdallah, al-Dimashiqi, al-Ajami (commonly called Ahmad Ibn Arabshah) translated by the Dutch Orientalist Colitis in 1636. In the work of the former, as Sir William Jones remarks, "the Tatarian conqueror is represented as a liberal, benevolent and illustrious prince", in that of the latter he is "deformed and impious, of a low birth and detestable principles." But the favourable account was written under the personal supervision of Timur's grandson, Ibrahim, while the other was the production of his direst enemy. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Sir William Jones Sir William Jones (September 28, 1746 – April 27, 1794) was an English philologist and student of ancient India, particularly known for his proposition of the existence of a relationship among Indo-European languages. ...


Among less reputed biographies or materials for biography may be mentioned a second Zafarnāma, by Nizam al-Din Shami, stated to be the earliest known history of Timur, and the only one written in his lifetime. Timur's purported autobiography, the Tuzuk-i Temur ("Institutes of Temur") is a later fabrication, although most of the historical facts are accurate.[1]


More recent biographies include Justin Marozzi's Tamerlane: Sword of Islam, Conqueror of the World (Da Capo Press 2006), and Roy Stier's Tamerlane: The Ultimate Warrior (Bookpartners 1998).


Exhumation

Timur's body was exhumed from his tomb in 1941 by the Soviet anthropologist Mikhail M. Gerasimov. He found that Timur's facial characteristics conformed to that of Mongoloid features, which he believed, in some part, supported Timur's notion that he was descended from Genghis Khan. He also confirmed Timur's lameness. Gerasimov was able to reconstruct the likeness of Timur from his skull. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... Tamerlane, as reconstructed by Gerasimov from his skull Mikhail Mikhailovich Gerasimov (September 2, 1907 - July 21, 1970) was a renowned Soviet archaeologist and anthropologist who developed the most popular technique of forensic sculpture based on findings of modern anthropology, archaeology, paleontology, and forensic science. ... For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ...


Famously, a curse has been attached to opening Timur's tomb.[31] In the year of Timur's death, a sign was carved in his tomb warning that whoever would dare disturb the tomb would bring demons of war onto his land. Gerasimov's expedition opened the tomb on June 19, 1941. Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union by Nazi Germany, began three days later. Timur's skeleton and that of Ulugh Beg, his grandson, were reinterred with full Islamic burial rites in 1942. is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Maresal Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Joseph Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Ulugh Beg, here depicted on a Soviet stamp, was one of Islams greatest astronomers during the Middle Ages. ...


Exchanges with the West

Timur had numerous epistolary exchanges with Western, especially French, rulers. The French archives preserve:

  • A July 30th, 1402, letter from Timur to Charles VI, king of France, suggesting him to send traders to the Orient. It is in the Persian language.[32]
  • A May 1403 letter. This is a Latin transcription of a letter from Timur to Charles VI, and another from Amiza Miranchah, his son, to the Christian princes, announcing their victory over Bajaget, in Smyrna.[33]

A copy has been kept of the answer of Charles VI to Timur, dated June 15th, 1403.[34] Charles VI Charles VI the Well-Beloved, later known as the Mad (French: Charles VI le Bien-Aimé, later known as le Fol) (December 3, 1368 – October 21, 1422) was a King of France (1380 – 1422) and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... Miran Shah (1366-1408) (Persian: میران شاہ ) was a son of Timur, and a Timurid governor during his fathers lifetime. ... Smyrna (Greek: Σμύρνη) is an ancient city (today İzmir in Turkey) that was founded at a very early period at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. ...


After death

Timur became a popular figure in Europe for centuries after his death, not in the least because of his victory over the Ottoman Sultan and the humiliations he is said to have subjected his prisoner Bayezid to.


Timur was officially recognised as a national hero of newly independent Uzbekistan. His monument in Tashkent takes the place where Marx's statue once stood[citation needed]. Marx is a common German surname. ...


Fiction

  • There is a popular Irish reel entitled Timour the Tartar.
  • Timur was the subject of two plays (Tamburlaine the Great, Parts I and II) by English playwright Christopher Marlowe.
  • W.H. Auden wrote a poem "T the Great" contrasting the terror inspired by the living Tamburlaine with the fact that he is now remembered only as a crossword anagram: "a nubile tram".
  • Bob Bainborough portrayed Tamerlane in an episode of History Bites.
  • George Frideric Handel made Timur the title character of his Tamerlano (HWV 18), an Italian opera composed in 1724, based on the 1675 play Tamerlan ou la mort de Bajazet by Jacques Pradon.
  • Edgar Allan Poe's first published work was a poem entitled "Tamerlane".
  • Tamerlane features prominently in the short story Lord of Samarcand by Robert E. Howard which features a completely fictional account of his last campaign and death.
  • In Microsoft's Age of Empires II, Tamerlane is a hero available only in the Map Editor.
  • In Creative Assembly's Medieval II: Total War, he would lead his horde into the eastern portions of the map circa 1380-90. Here, his name is "Timur the Lame".
  • The alternate history novel The Years of Rice and Salt by Kim Stanley Robinson portrays a Timur whose last campaign is significantly different from the historical truth.
  • Tamerlane features prominently in the Russian fantasy film Day Watch.
  • In the videogame "Eternal Darkness: Sanity's Requiem", the character of Pious Augustus quotes Tamerlane's line before the sacking of Damascus (when performing a massive killing in order to create the Pillar of Flesh).
  • In the videogame Unreal Tournament (2001), The single player game features an enemy 'Bot by the name of Tamerlane.
Preceded by
-
Timurid dynasty
1370–1405
Succeeded by
Pir Muhammad
Miran Shah
Khalil Sultan

An anonymous portrait, often believed to show Christopher Marlowe. ... This article is about the English dramatist. ... History Bites was a television series on the History Television network that ran from 1998-2003. ... “Handel” redirects here. ... One of Handels greatest operas composed in a year in which two more great operas were composed by him. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Jacques Pradon (Rouen 1632 - Paris 1698) was a french playwright. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... Tamerlane is a long poem by Edgar Allan Poe, first published in the 1827 collection Tamerlane and Other Poems. ... Robert Ervin Howard (January 22, 1906 – June 11, 1936)[1] was a classic American pulp writer of fantasy, horror, historical adventure, boxing, western, and detective fiction. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Age of Empires II: The Age of Kings (or simply Age of Kings) is a real-time strategy computer game set in the middle ages, released in 1999. ... Creative Assembly logo Creative Assembly (officially The Creative Assembly Ltd) is a British video game developer established on 28 August 1987 by Tim Ansell, best known for their Total War strategy games series (Composed of Shogun, Medieval, Rome and Medieval 2: Total War) and some sports games developed for distribution... Alternate history (fiction) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Years of Rice and Salt (2002, ISBN 0553580078) is an alternate history novel written by science fiction author Kim Stanley Robinson, a thought experiment about a world without Christianity. ... For the late American actress, see Kim Stanley. ... Fantasy films are films with fantastic themes, usually involving magic, supernatural events, make-believe creatures, or exotic fantasy worlds. ... This article is about the 2006 film. ... Unreal Tournament, abbreviated UT, (sometimes referred to as UT99, UT Classic, UT1, or UT:GOTY to differentiate from Unreal Tournament 2003, Unreal Tournament 2004, and Unreal Tournament 3) is a popular first-person shooter video game. ... Timurid Dynasty at its Greatest Extent The Timurids (Chaghatay/Persian: - Tīmūrīyān), self-designated Gurkānī (Persian: ), were a Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty whose empire included the whole of Central Asia, Iran and modern Afghanistan, as well as large parts of Mesopotamia and Caucasus. ... Pir Muhammad (c. ... Miran Shah (1366-1408) was a son of Timur, and a Timurid governor during his fathers lifetime. ... Khalil was the Sultan of Samarqand from 807 to 812. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Tokhtamysh-Tamerlane was a war fought in the 1380s and early 1390s between Tokhtamysh, khan of the Golden Horde and the Turkic warrior Timur, in the areas of the Caucasus mountains, Turkistan and southern Russia. ... This is a list of wars and man-made disasters by death toll. ... One of Handels greatest operas composed in a year in which two more great operas were composed by him. ... HANDEL was the code-name for the UKs National Attack Warning System in the Cold War. ... Bajazet (also Tamerlano[1]) is an Italian opera by Antonio Vivaldi in 1735. ... “Vivaldi” redirects here. ... Islam in the world. ... Scholars debate what exactly constitutes an Empire. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the person. ... Sultan Ahmad was a Jalayirid ruler (1382-1410). ... The Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 13th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into the region, beginning during the period of the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, from the 7th century onwards. ...

Notes and References

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

  1. ^ a b c d B.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006
  2. ^ The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, "Timur", 6th ed., Columbia University Press: "... Timur (timoor') or Tamerlane (tăm'urlān), c.1336–1405, Mongol conqueror, b. Kesh, near Samarkand. ...", (LINK)
  3. ^ "Timur", in Encyclopaedia Britannica: "... [Timur] was a member of the Turkic Barlas clan of Mongols..."
  4. ^ "Baber", in Encyclopaedia Britannica: "... Baber first tried to recover Samarkand, the former capital of the empire founded by his Mongol ancestor Timur Lenk ..."
  5. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, p. 785 LINK: ...The name Timur Lenk signified Timur the Lame, a title of contempt used by his Persian enemies, which became Tamburlaine, or Tamerlane, in Europe...
  6. ^ Zahir ud-Din Mohammad (2002-09-10). in Thackston, Wheeler M.: The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor. Modern Library Classics. ISBN 0375761373. 
  7. ^ Note: Other sources like the reports of the contemporary witness Ruy Gonzáles de Clavijo use a non-Persianized notation for this title of Timur, e.g. Timur Kurkhan, and describe the meaning of Kurkhan as of the lineage of sovereign princes. But this translation is widely rejected by modern scholars.[citation needed]
  8. ^ Timur Lenk (1369-1405)
  9. ^ Bosworth, A. H. Dani, V. Mikhaĭlovich Masson, J. Harmatta, B. A. Litvinovskiĭ: "History of Civilizations of Central Asia", p. 320
  10. ^ G. R. Garthwaite, "The Persians", Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub., 2007; p. 148, ISBN 9781557868602
  11. ^ Gérard Chaliand,Nomadic Empires: From Mongolia to the Danube translated by A. M. Berrett, Transaction Publishers,2004,pg 75 [1]
  12. ^ The Life of Timur
  13. ^ Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Part 2. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd. Page 554.
  14. ^ The annihilation of Iraq[unreliable source?]
  15. ^ Nestorians, or Ancient Church of the East
  16. ^ http://www.nupi.no/cgi-win/Russland/etnisk_b.exe?Assyrian
  17. ^ Timur's history
  18. ^ The Seven Years Campaign
  19. ^ Battle of Damascus
  20. ^ http://www.nupi.no/cgi-win/Russland/etnisk_b.exe?Assyrian
  21. ^ New Book Looks at Old-Style Central Asian Despotism
  22. ^ Clements Markham Narrative of the Embassy of Ruy Gonzalez De Clavijo to the Court of Timour, at Samarcand, A.D.1403-6: Translated, for the First Time, with Notes, a Preface and an Introductory Life of Timour Beg, p. 125, 126
  23. ^ The Timurid Dynasty
  24. ^ Volume III: To the Year A.D. 1398, Chapter: XVIII. Malfúzát-i Tímúrí, or Túzak-i Tímúrí: The Autobiography of Tímúr. Page: 389 (please press next and read all pages in the online copy) (1. Online copy, 2. Online copy) from: Elliot, Sir H. M., Edited by Dowson, John. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; published by London Trubner Company 1867–1877. (Online Copy: The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; by Sir H. M. Elliot; Edited by John Dowson; London Trubner Company 1867–1877 - This online Copy has been posted by: The Packard Humanities Institute; Persian Texts in Translation; Also find other historical books: Author List and Title List)
  25. ^ Timur - conquest of India
  26. ^ The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Timurid Empire)
  27. ^ Volume III: To the Year A.D. 1398, Chapter: XVIII. Malfúzát-i Tímúrí, or Túzak-i Tímúrí: The Autobiography of Tímúr. Page: 389 (please press next and read all pages in the online copy) (1. Online copy, 2. Online copy) from: Elliot, Sir H. M., Edited by Dowson, John. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; published by London Trubner Company 1867–1877. (Online Copy: The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; by Sir H. M. Elliot; Edited by John Dowson; London Trubner Company 1867–1877 - This online Copy has been posted by: The Packard Humanities Institute; Persian Texts in Translation; Also find other historical books: Author List and Title List)
  28. ^ Taimur Lane. Turk-i-Taimuri. 
  29. ^ Volume III: To the Year A.D. 1398, Chapter: XVIII. Malfúzát-i Tímúrí, or Túzak-i Tímúrí: The Autobiography of Tímúr. Page: 389 (1. Online copy, 2. Online copy), Elliot, Sir H. M., Edited by Dowson, John. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; published by London Trubner Company 1867–1877.
  30. ^ The Turco-Mongol Invasions
  31. ^ S. Z. Ahmed. Twilight on the Silk Road. Infinity Publishing, 2002. ISBN 0-7414-1112-1. Page 23.
  32. ^ Document preserved at Musée de l’Histoire de France, code AE III 204. Mentioned Dossier II, 7
  33. ^ Mentioned Dossier II, 7 bis
  34. ^ Mentioned Dossier II, 7 ter

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is the standard encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. ... ... ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ruy Gonzáles de Clavijo (? - April 2, 1412), Spanish traveler and writer. ... Clifford Edmund Bosworth (born December 29, 1928, Sheffield, United Kingdom) is a British historian and orientalist, specializing in Arabic studies. ... The History of India as Told by its Own Historians is a book with eight volumes written by H. M. Elliot and John Dowson. ... The History of India as Told by its Own Historians is a book with eight volumes written by H. M. Elliot and John Dowson. ... The History of India as Told by its Own Historians is a book with eight volumes written by H. M. Elliot and John Dowson. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Timur. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (453 words)
With an army composed of Turks and Turkic-speaking Mongols, remnants of the empire of the Mongols, Timur spent his early military career in subduing his rivals in what is now Turkistan; by 1369 he firmly controlled the entire area from his capital at Samarkand.
Timur abandoned some of his Russian conquests to return to Samarkand and invade (1398) India along the route of the Indus River.
Timur’s reputation is that of a cruel conqueror.
The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Timurid Empire) (1262 words)
Timur's empire began in the Chagatai Khanate, where he was born in 1336.
Timur began his career of conquest in Transoxiana, where he fought the Chagatai Khans for control of Transoxiana.
Timur launched his attack on India in 1398, claiming that the Muslim Delhi Sultanate was too lenient towards its Hindu subjects.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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