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Encyclopedia > Timpani
A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band.
A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band.

Timpani (also known colloquially as kettle drums) are musical instruments in the percussion family. A type of drum, they consist of a skin called a head stretched over a large bowl commonly made of copper. They are played by striking the head with a specialized drum stick called a timpani stick or timpani mallet. Unlike most drums, they produce a definite pitch when struck. Timpani evolved from military drums to become a staple of the classical orchestra by the last third of the 18th century. Today, they are used in many types of musical ensembles including concert, marching, and even rock bands. Timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ... Timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ... Emblem of the U.S. Air Forces in Europe. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... “Percussion” redirects here. ... Bass drum made from wood, rope, and cowskin A drum is a musical instrument in the percussion group that can be large, technically classified as a membranophone. ... A drumhead is a membrane stretched over one or both of the open ends of a drum. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... A pair of drum sticks. ... In music a sound or note of definite pitch is one of which it is possible or relatively easy to discern the pitch or frequency of the fundamental, as opposed to sounds of indefinite pitch. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... For the song titled Orchestra, see The Servant (band). ... A musical ensemble is a group of two or more musicians who perform instrumental or vocal music. ... A concert band, also called wind band, symphonic band, symphonic winds, wind orchestra, wind symphony, or wind ensemble, is a performing ensemble consisting of several members of the woodwind instrument family, brass instrument family and percussion instrument family. ... An American college marching band on the field (University of Texas) A marching band is a group of instrumental musicians who generally perform outdoors, and who incorporate movement â€“ usually some type of marching â€“ with their musical performance. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In music, a band is a group of musicians, or musical ensemble, usually popular or folk, playing parts of a musical arrangement. ...


Timpani is an Italian plural, the singular of which is timpano. However, this is rarely used in informal English speech as a timpano is typically referred to as a drum, a timpani, or simply a timp. A musician who plays the timpani is known as a timpanist. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... “Instrumentalist” redirects here. ...

Contents

Alternative spellings

Alternative spellings with y in place of either or both is – tympani, tympany, or timpany – are occasionally encountered in older English texts. This substitution is taken from the Latin word tympanum, from which the Italian word descends. While the word timpani has been widely adopted in the English language, some English speakers choose to use the word kettledrums. The German word for timpani is Pauken, and the French is timbales. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


Construction

Basic timpano

The basic timpano consists of a drumhead stretched across the opening of a bowl typically made of copper or, in less expensive models, fiberglass and sometimes aluminum. In the Sachs-Hornbostel classification, it is thus considered a membranophone. The drumhead is affixed to a hoop (also called a fleshhoop), which in turn is held onto the bowl by a counterhoop, which is then held by means of a number of tuning screws called tension rods placed regularly around the circumference. The head's tension can be adjusted by loosening or tightening the rods. Most timpani have six to eight tension rods. Bundle of fiberglass Fiberglass (also called fibreglass and glass fibre) is material made from extremely fine fibers of glass. ... Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ... Hornbostel-Sachs (or Sachs-Hornbostel) is a system of musical instrument classification divised by Erich Moritz von Hornbostel and Curt Sachs, and first published in the Zeitschrift für Musik in 1914. ... At various times, and in various different cultures, various schemes of musical instrument classification have been used. ... A membranophone is any musical instrument which produces sound primarily by way of a vibrating stretched membrane. ... A hoop is a circular band with a number of uses: Hoop rolling, an ancient game played with a hoop Hula hoop, a usually plastic hoop designed as a toy Hoop (rhythmic gymnastics), a gymnastic apparatus Hoops are also used in the popular sport basketball to shoot the ball into. ... Look up screw in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The shape of the bowl contributes to the tone quality of the drum. For example, hemispheric bowls produce brighter tones while parabolic bowls produce darker tones. Another factor that affects the timbre of the drum is the quality of the bowl's surface. Copper bowls may have a smooth, machined surface or a rough surface with many small dents hammered into it. A sphere is a symmetrical geometrical object. ... A parabola A graph showing the reflective property, the directrix (light blue), and the lines connecting the focus and directrix to the parabola (blue) In mathematics, the parabola (from the Greek: παραβολή) (IPA pronunciation: ) is a conic section generated by the intersection of a right circular conical surface and a plane...


Timpani come in a variety of sizes from about 84 centimeters (33 inches) in diameter down to piccolo timpani of 30 centimeters (12 inches) or less. A 33-inch drum can produce the C below the bass clef, and speciality piccolo timpani can play up into the treble clef. In Darius Milhaud's 1923 ballet score La création du monde, the timpanist must play the F sharp at the bottom of the treble clef. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... A clef (French for key) is a symbol used in musical notation that assigns notes to lines and spaces on the musical staff. ... A clef (French for key) is a symbol used in musical notation that assigns notes to lines and spaces on the musical staff. ... Darius Milhaud Darius Milhaud (IPA: ) (September 4, 1892 – June 22, 1974) was a French composer and teacher. ... For other uses, see Ballet (disambiguation). ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


Each individual drum typically has a range of a perfect fifth to an octave. The perfect fifth or diapente is one of three musical intervals that span five diatonic scale degrees; the others being the diminished fifth, which is one semitone smaller, and the augmented fifth, which is one semitone larger. ... In music, an octave (sometimes abbreviated 8ve or P8) is the interval between one musical note and another with half or double its frequency. ...

Walter Light pedal and chain timpani set up in three different combinations.
Walter Light pedal and chain timpani set up in three different combinations.

Download high resolution version (1437x302, 121 KB)Used with the permission of John Tafoya, who has agreed to release the image under the GFDL File links The following pages link to this file: Timpani User:Flamurai/Images Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (1437x302, 121 KB)Used with the permission of John Tafoya, who has agreed to release the image under the GFDL File links The following pages link to this file: Timpani User:Flamurai/Images Categories: GFDL images ... Walter J. Light (1927–1979) was a timpanist, percussionist, and drummaker. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...

Machine timpani

Changing the pitch of a timpano by turning each tension rod individually is a laborious process. In the late 19th century, mechanical systems to change the tension of the entire head at once were developed. Any timpani equipped with such a system may be called machine timpani, although this term commonly refers to drums that use a single handle connected to a spider-type tuning mechanism.

This pedal is on a Dresden timpano. The timpanist must disengage the clutch – seen here on the left of the pedal – to change the pitch of the drum.
This pedal is on a Dresden timpano. The timpanist must disengage the clutch – seen here on the left of the pedal – to change the pitch of the drum.

Used with the permission of John Tafoya, who has agreed to release the image under the GFDL File links The following pages link to this file: Timpani User:Flamurai/Images Categories: GFDL images ...

Pedal timpani

By far the most common type of timpani used today are pedal timpani, which allow the tension of the head to be adjusted using a pedal mechanism. Typically, the pedal is connected to the tension screws via a spider-like system of metal rods.


There are three types of pedal mechanisms in common use today:

  • The ratchet-clutch system uses a ratchet and pawl to hold the pedal in place. The timpanist must first disengage the clutch before using the pedal to tune the drum. When the desired pitch is achieved, the timpanist must then reengage the clutch.
  • In the balanced action system, a spring or hydraulic cylinder is used to balance the tension on the timpani head so that the pedal will stay in position and the head will stay at pitch. The pedal on a balanced action drum is sometimes called a floating pedal since there is no clutch holding it in place.
  • The friction clutch or post and clutch system uses a clutch that moves along a post. Disengaging the clutch frees it from the post, allowing the pedal to move without restraint.

Any pedal drums that are tuned using the spider system can be called Dresden timpani, though the term is most often used for drums whose design is similar to the original pedal timpani built in Dresden (see below). Strictly speaking, a Dresden drum has a pedal that is attached at the player's side. The timpanist can move this pedal with ankle motion. A Berlin-style pedal is attached by means of a long arm to the opposite side of the drum, and the timpanist must use his entire leg to adjust the pitch. A ratchet lever hoist. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Dresden (Sorbian: Drježdźany; etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest, Czech: ) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. ...


The drums most professional timpanists use are Dresden timpani, commonly with a ratchet-clutch or friction clutch pedal. Most school bands and orchestras below the university level use cheaper, more durable timpani. The mechanical parts of these timpani are almost completely contained within the frame and bowl of the drum. They may use any of the pedal mechanisms, though the balanced action system is by far the most common, followed by the friction clutch system. Many professionals also use these drums for gigs and outdoor performances because of their durability. Representation of a university class, 1350s. ...

On chain timpani, a chain links the tension rods so a master handle can be used to turn them all at once.
On chain timpani, a chain links the tension rods so a master handle can be used to turn them all at once.

Used with the permission of John Tafoya, who has agreed to release the image under the GFDL File links The following pages link to this file: Timpani User:Flamurai/Images Categories: GFDL images ... Used with the permission of John Tafoya, who has agreed to release the image under the GFDL File links The following pages link to this file: Timpani User:Flamurai/Images Categories: GFDL images ...

Chain timpani

On chain timpani, the tension rods are connected by a roller chain much like the one found on a bicycle, though some manufacturers have used other materials, including steel cable. In these systems, all the tension screws can then be tightened or loosened by one handle. Though far less common than pedal timpani, chain and cable drums still have practical uses. Occasionally, a player is forced to place a drum behind other items so that he cannot reach it with his foot. Professional players may also use exceptionally large or small chain and cable drums for special low or high notes. Roller chain and sprocket Roller chain or bush roller chain is the type of chain most commonly used for transmission of mechanical power on bicycles, motorcycles, and in industrial and agricultural machinery. ... For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ... 6 or 15cm outside diameter, oil-cooled cables, traversing the Grand Coulee Dam throughout. ...


Other tuning mechanisms

A rare tuning mechanism allows the pitch of the head to be changed by rotating the drum itself. A similar system is used on rototoms. Jenco, a company better known for mallet percussion, made timpani tuned in this fashion. Rototoms are drums which have no shell at all, just a single head and a die cast zinc or aluminum frame. ... The following instruments are collectively known as tuned percussion or keyboard percussion, or sometimes, mallet percussion. ...


In the early 20th century, Hans Schnellar, then timpanist of the Vienna Philhamonic, developed a tuning mechanism in which the bowl is moved via a handle that connects to the base, and the head remains stationary. These drums are referred to as Viennese timpani (Wiener Pauken) or Schnellar timpani. Adams Musical Instruments developed a pedal-operated version of this tuning mechanism in the early 21st century. The Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra (in German: Wiener Philharmoniker) an orchestra in Austria, regularly considered as one of the finest in the world. ... Adams Musical Instruments is a manufacturer of percussion instruments based in the Netherlands. ...


Timpani heads

Like most drumheads, timpani heads can be found made from two materials: animal skin (typically calfskin or goatskin) and plastic (typically PET film). Plastic heads are durable, weather resistant, and relatively inexpensive. Thus, they are more commonly used than natural skin heads. However, many professional players prefer skin heads because they feel the heads produce a warmer, better quality timbre. Timpani heads are sized based on the size of the head, not the size of the timpani bowl. For example, a 23" Timpani may require a 25" timpani head. A drumhead is a membrane stretched over one or both of the open ends of a drum. ... Beyond overall skin structure, refer below to: See-also. ... For the anatomical feature, see calf muscle. ... Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate (boPET) polyester film is used for its high tensile strength, chemical and dimensional stability, transparency, gas and aroma barrier properties and electrical insulation. ... In music, timbre, or sometimes timber, (from Fr. ...


Sticks and mallets

Timpanists use a variety of timpani sticks since each stick produces a different timbre.
Timpanists use a variety of timpani sticks since each stick produces a different timbre.

Timpani are typically struck with a special type of drumstick fittingly called a timpani stick or timpani mallet. Timpani sticks are used in pairs. They have two components: a shaft and a head. The shaft is typically made from wood – usually hickory, cherry, birch, persimmon, or maple – or bamboo, but may also be made from aluminum or graphite. The head of the stick can be constructed from a number of different materials, though felt wrapped around a wood core is the most common. Other core materials include felt and cork, and other wrap materials include leather. Sticks can also have exposed wood heads. These are used as a special effect and in authentic performances of Baroque music. Download high resolution version (2004x1138, 298 KB)Timpani sticks. ... Download high resolution version (2004x1138, 298 KB)Timpani sticks. ... In music, timbre, or sometimes timber, (from Fr. ... A drum stick is an item used to hit percussion instruments to produce sound. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Species See text Comparison of Carya nuts Ripe hickory nuts ready to fall, Andrews, SC Hickory is a tree of the genus Carya, including 17-19 species of deciduous trees with pinnately compound leaves and large nuts. ... “Cherry tree” redirects here. ... Species Many species; see text and classification Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. ... Species See text A Persimmon is any of a number of species of trees of the genus Diospyros, and the edible fruit borne by them. ... Distribution Species See List of Acer species Maples are trees or shrubs in the genus Acer. ... Diversity Around 91 genera and 1,000 species Subtribes Arthrostylidiinae Arundinariinae Bambusinae Chusqueinae Guaduinae Melocanninae Nastinae Racemobambodinae Shibataeinae See the full Taxonomy of the Bambuseae. ... Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ... For other uses, see Graphite (disambiguation). ... A selection of 4 different felt cloths. ... A cork stopper for a wine bottle Champagne corks Varnished cork tiles can be used for flooring, as a substitute for linoleum or tiles. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750[1] (see Dates of classical music eras for a discussion of the problems inherent in defining the beginning and end points). ...


Although it is not commonly written in the music, timpanists will change sticks – often many times within the same piece – to suit the nature of the music. However, choice of stick during performance is entirely subjective and depends on the timpanist's own preference, and occasionally, the wishes of the conductor. Thus, most timpanists own a great number of timpani sticks. The weight of the stick, the size of the head, the materials used for the shaft, core, and wrap, and the method used to wrap the head all contribute to the timbre the stick produces.


In the early 20th century and before, sticks were often made with whalebone shafts, wood cores, and sponge wraps. Composers of that era often specified sponge-headed sticks. Modern timpanists execute such passages with standard felt mallets. Look up Mallet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In the modern ensemble

A standard set of timpani consists of four drums.
A standard set of timpani consists of four drums.

Used with the permission of John Tafoya, who has agreed to release the image under the GFDL File links The following pages link to this file: Timpani Wikipedia:Todays featured article/April 2005 Wikipedia:Todays featured article/April 13, 2005 User:Flamurai/Images Categories: GFDL images ...

A set of timpani

A standard set of timpani consists of four drums: roughly 80 cm (32 in), 75 cm (29 in), 66 cm (26 in), and 61 cm (23 in) in diameter. The range of this set is roughly the D below the bass clef to the top-line bass clef A. A great majority of the orchestral repertoire can be played using these four drums. However, Leonard Bernstein requires the timpanist to execute both a top-line bass clef A flat and the B flat above it on the same drum in the Overture to Candide. Adding a 51 cm (20 in) piccolo timpano to the standard set of four extends the range upwards by a few semitones. This is the instrument which Igor Stravinsky specifies for the production of the B below middle C in The Rite of Spring, and from which Maurice Ravel expects the D above that in L'Enfant et les Sortilèges. Walter Piston points out that "these small drums, even if available, certainly lack the characteristic resonance and sonority of timpani". Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... The Overture to Candide is the overture to Leonard Bernsteins operetta Candide. ... Igor Stravinsky. ... The Rite of Spring, commonly referred to by its original French title, Le Sacre du printemps (Russian: Весна священная, Vesna svjaščennaja) is a ballet with music by the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky, which was first performed in 1913. ... Maurice Ravel. ... Lenfant et les sortilèges: Fantaisie lyrique en deux parties (The Child and the Spells: A Lyric Fantasy in Two Parts) is an opera by Maurice Ravel with a libretto by Colette. ... Walter Hamor Piston Jr. ...


Beyond this extended set of five, any added drums are nonstandard. Many professional orchestras and timpanists own multiple sets of timpani consisting of both pedal and chain drums allowing them to execute music that cannot be performed correctly using a standard set of four or five drums.


Many schools and ensembles that cannot afford to purchase equipment regularly only have a set of three timpani. It consists of 75 cm (29 in), 66 cm (26 in), and 61 cm (23 in) drums. Its range extends down only to the F below the bass clef.


The drums are set up in an arc around the performer. Traditionally, North American and French timpanists set their drums up with the lowest drum on the left and the highest on the right, while German and Austrian players set them up the opposite way. Over time, that distinction has blurred: many German and European players have adopted the North American layout and vice versa. North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...


Timpanists

Balanced action timpani are used in outdoor performances because of their durability.
Balanced action timpani are used in outdoor performances because of their durability.

Throughout their education, timpanists are trained as percussionists, and they learn to play all instruments of the percussion family along with timpani. However, when appointed to a principal timpani chair in a professional orchestra or concert band, a timpanist is not required to play any other instruments. In his book Anatomy of the Orchestra, Norman Del Mar writes that the timpanist is "king of his own province", and that "a good timpanist really does set the standard of the whole orchestra." A member of the percussion section sometimes doubles as assistant timpanist and plays timpani in some repertoire—such as overtures and concertos—as well as any second timpani parts. Used with the permission of John Tafoya, who has agreed to release the image under the GFDL File links The following pages link to this file: Timpani User:Flamurai/Images Categories: GFDL images ... Percussion instruments are played by being struck, shaken, rubbed or scraped. ... -1... Overture (French ouverture, meaning opening) in music is the instrumental introduction to a dramatic, choral or, occasionally, instrumental composition. ... The term concerto (plural concertos or concerti) usually refers to a musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra. ...


Most pieces of music call for one timpanist playing one set of timpani. However, occasionally composers seeking a thicker texture or a greater palette of pitches ask for multiple players to perform on one or many sets of timpani. Gustav Mahler writes for two timpanists in six of his symphonies. Gustav Holst uses two timpanists to achieve the range of notes needed to echo the main theme in "Jupiter" from The Planets suite. Using two timpanists is relatively common in late Romantic and 20th century works for large orchestras, although the early Romantic composer Hector Berlioz calls for eight pairs of timpani played by ten timpanists in the Grande Messe des morts. “Mahler” redirects here. ... Gustav Holst Gustav Holst (September 21, 1874, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire - May 25, 1934, London) [1] [2] was an English composer and was a music teacher for over 20 years. ... The Planets Op. ... The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from the early 1800s to the first decade of the 20th century, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ... 20th century classical music, the classical music of the 20th century, was extremely diverse, beginning with the late Romantic style of Sergei Rachmaninoff, Impressionism of Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel, and continuing through the Neoclassicism of middle-period Igor Stravinsky, and ranging to such distant sound-worlds as the complete... Portrait of Berlioz by Signol, 1832 Louis Hector Berlioz (December 11, 1803 – March 8, 1869) was a French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie Fantastique (first performed in 1830) and Grande Messe des Morts (Requiem). ... The Requiem (Op. ...

"Jupiter" from The Planets suite (excerpt)
In the beginning of "Jupiter" from Holst's The Planets, the two timpanists echo the main theme.
Problems listening to the file? See media help

Holst - The Planets - Jupiter, The Bringer of Jollity (clip). ... Gustav Holst Gustav Holst (September 21, 1874, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire - May 25, 1934, London) [1] [2] was an English composer and was a music teacher for over 20 years. ... The Planets Op. ...

Timpani concertos

A few concertos have been written for timpani. The 18th century composer Johann Fischer wrote a symphony for eight timpani and orchestra, which requires the solo timpanist to play eight drums simultaneously. In 1983, William Kraft, a well regarded American percussionist and composer, composed his Concerto for Timpani and Orchestra, which won second prize in the Kennedy Center Friedheim Awards. In the year 2000, American composer Philip Glass wrote his Concerto Fantasy for two timpanists and orchestra, which has its two soloists each playing seven timpani. A composer is a person who writes music. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... William (Bill) Kraft (born Kasharevsky, 1923) was the principal timpanist, percussionist and composer-in-residence for the Los Angeles Philharmonic during the tenure of conductors Zubin Mehta and Carlo Maria Giulini. ... Percussion instruments are played by being struck, shaken, rubbed or scraped. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... The Kennedy Center as seen from the Potomac River. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


Performance techniques

Striking the drum

For general playing, a timpanist will beat the head approximately 4 inches in from the edge. Beating at this spot produces the round, resonant sound commonly associated with timpani. A timpani roll is executed by rapidly striking the drum, alternating between left and right sticks, extending the duration of the sound as required and allowing increases or decreases in volume. Anton Bruckner's 7th Symphony requires a continuous roll on a single drum for over two-and-a-half minutes. In general, timpanists do not use multiple stroke rolls like those played on the snare drum. A drum roll is a method a percussionist employs to produce a sustained sound on a drum. ... “Bruckner” redirects here. ... The snare drum or side drum is a tubular drum made of wood or metal with skins, or heads, stretched over the top and bottom openings, and with a set of snares (cords) stretched across the bottom head. ...


The tone quality of the drum can be altered without switching sticks or adjusting the tuning of the drum. For example, by playing closer to the edge of the head, the sound becomes thinner. A more staccato sound can be produced by changing the velocity of the stroke. There are many more variations in technique a timpanist uses during the course of playing to produce subtle timbral differences.


Tuning

Prior to playing the instruments, the timpanist must clear the heads by equalizing the tension at each tuning screw. This is done so every spot on the head is tuned to exactly the same pitch. When the head is clear, the timpano will produce a beautiful, in-tune sound. If the head is not clear, the pitch of the drum will rise or fall after the initial impact, and the drum will produce different pitches at different dynamic levels. In music, dynamics normally refers to the softness or loudness of a sound or note, but also to every aspect of the execution of a given piece, either stylistic (staccato, legato etc. ...

Tuning gauges visually indicate the position of the pedal so the performer can determine the drum's pitch without listening to it.
Tuning gauges visually indicate the position of the pedal so the performer can determine the drum's pitch without listening to it.

In performance, tuning is typically accomplished with a method called interval tuning. Timpanists who are not blessed with absolute pitch obtain a reference pitch from a tuning fork, pitch pipe, or a note played by another instrument in the course of the performance, then use musical intervals to arrive at the desired note. For example, to tune the timpani to G and C, a timpanist may sound an A with a tuning fork, then sing (or think) a minor third above that A to tune the C, and then sing a perfect fourth below the C to tune the G. Timpanists are required to have a well-developed sense of relative pitch, and must develop techniques to tune undetectably and accurately in the middle of a performance. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Absolute pitch (AP), widely referred to as perfect pitch, is the ability of a person to identify or sing a musical note without the benefit of a known reference. ... A tuning fork is a simple metal two-pronged fork with the tines formed from a U-shaped bar of elastic material (usually steel). ... A pitchpipe is a small device which may be described as a musical instrument, although it is not actually used to play music as such. ... In music theory, the term interval describes the difference in pitch between two notes. ... The term relative pitch may denote: the distance of a musical note from a set point of reference, e. ...


Some timpani are equipped with tuning gauges, which provide a visual indication of the drum's pitch. They are physically connected either to the counterhoop, in which case the gauge indicates how far the counterhoop is pushed down, or the pedal, in which case the gauge indicates the position of the pedal. These gauges are accurate when used correctly. However, when the drum is moved, the overall pitch of the head can change, thus the markers on the gauges are not reliable unless they have been adjusted immediately preceding the performance. Gauges are especially useful when performing music that involves fast tuning changes that do not allow the player to listen to the new pitch before playing it. Even when gauges are available, good timpanists will check their intonation by ear before playing.


Occasionally, players use the pedals to retune a drum while playing it. Portamento effects can be achieved by changing the pitch of the drum while it can still be heard. This is commonly called a glissando, though this use of the term is not strictly correct. The most effective glissandos are those from low notes to high notes and those performed during rolls. One of the first composers to call for a timpani glissando was Carl Nielsen, who used two sets of timpani, both playing glissandos at the same time, in his Symphony No. 4 ("The Inextinguishable"). Portamento is a musical term currently used to mean pitch bending or sliding, and in 16th century polyphonic writing refers to a type of musical ornamentation. ... Glissando (plural: glissandi) is a musical term that refers to either a continuous sliding from one pitch to another (a true glissando), or an incidental scale played while moving from one melodic note to another (an effective glissando). ... Carl Nielsen Carl August Nielsen (June 9, 1865, Sortelung – October 3, 1931, Copenhagen) was a conductor, violinist, and the most internationally known composer from Denmark. ... The Symphony No. ...

Sonata for two pianos and percussion, first movement (excerpt)
This segment of Bartók's Sonata for two pianos and percussion features pedal glissandos during a timpani roll.
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Pedaling refers to changing the pitch of the drum with the pedal; it is an alternate term for tuning. In general, timpanists reserve this term for passages where the performer must change the pitch of a drum in the midst of playing – for example, playing two consecutive notes of different pitches on the same drum. Early 20th century composers such as Nielsen, Béla Bartók, Samuel Barber, and Richard Strauss took advantage of the freedom pedal timpani afforded, often giving the timpani the bass line. Image File history File links Bartók - Sonata for two pianos and percussion - Assai lento - Allegro molto (clip). ... Béla Bartók in 1927 Béla Viktor János Bartók (March 25, 1881 – September 26, 1945) was a Hungarian composer, pianist and collector of Eastern European and Middle Eastern folk music. ... Béla Bartók in 1927 Béla Viktor János Bartók (March 25, 1881 – September 26, 1945) was a Hungarian composer, pianist and collector of Eastern European and Middle Eastern folk music. ... Samuel Barber, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1944 Samuel Osborne Barber II (March 9, 1910 – January 23, 1981) was an American composer of classical music ranging from orchestral, to opera, choral, and piano music. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ...

This chromatic passage from the Intermezzo interrotto movement of Bartók's Concerto for Orchestra requires the timpanist to use the pedals to play all the pitches. One way of executing this passage is annotated here: The lowest and highest drum stay on F and E-flat, respectively. All pedaling is executed on the middle two drums. Each pedal change is indicated by a colored line: red for the larger and blue for the smaller of the middle drums.
Concerto for Orchestra (excerpt)
In this passage from the Intermezzo interrotto movement of Bartók's Concerto for Orchestra, the timpanist plays a chromatic bass line, which requires using the pedal to change pitches.
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Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1221x286, 9 KB)Created and annotated by flamurai. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1221x286, 9 KB)Created and annotated by flamurai. ... Béla Bartók in 1927 Béla Viktor János Bartók (March 25, 1881 – September 26, 1945) was a Hungarian composer, pianist and collector of Eastern European and Middle Eastern folk music. ... The Concerto for Orchestra Sz. ... Image File history File links Bartók_-_Concerto_for_Orchestra_(clip). ... Béla Bartók in 1927 Béla Viktor János Bartók (March 25, 1881 – September 26, 1945) was a Hungarian composer, pianist and collector of Eastern European and Middle Eastern folk music. ... The Concerto for Orchestra Sz. ...

Muffling

Muffling or damping is an implicit part of playing timpani. Often, timpanists will muffle notes so they only sound for the length indicated by the composer. However, early drums did not resonate nearly as long as modern timpani, so composers often just wrote a note when the timpanist was to hit the drum without worrying about the sustain. Today, timpanists must use their ear and the score of the piece to determine the actual length the note should sound. Sheet music is written representation of music. ...


The typical method of muffling is to place the pads of the fingers against the head while holding onto the timpani stick with the thumb and index finger. Timpanists are required to develop techniques to stop all vibration of the drumhead without making any sound from the contact of their fingers.


Muffling is often referred to as muting, which can also refer to playing the drums with mutes on them (see below).


Extended techniques

  • It is typical for only one timpano to be struck at a time, but occasionally composers will ask for two notes to be struck at once. This is called a double stop, a term borrowed from the string instrument vocabulary. Ludwig van Beethoven uses this effect in the slow movement of his Ninth Symphony.
  • To play more than two simultaneous notes, a timpanist can hold two sticks in one hand much like a marimbist, or more than one timpanist can be employed. Hector Berlioz writes fully voiced chords for eight timpanists, each playing a pair of drums, in Grande Messe des morts.
  • When the timpani are struck directly in the center of the head, the drums have a sound that is almost completely devoid of tone and resonance. George Gershwin uses this effect in An American in Paris.
  • Often, when one drum is struck, another will vibrate quietly. In orchestral playing, timpanists must avoid this effect, called sympathetic resonance, but composers have exploited this effect in solo pieces, such as Elliot Carter's Eight Pieces for Four Timpani.
  • Sometimes composers will specify that timpani be played con sordino (with mute) or coperti (covered), both of which indicate that mutes should be placed on the head. Timpani mutes are typically small pieces of felt or leather. The degree the head is dampened can be altered by placing the mute at different spots on the head. Barber specifies that the timpani be played con sordino in a section of Medea's Meditation and Dance of Vengeance. Additionally, mutes are often placed on unused drums to prevent sympathetic resonance.
  • Composers will sometimes specify that the timpani should be struck with implements other than timpani sticks. It is common in timpani etudes and solos for performers to play with their hands or fingers. Leonard Bernstein calls for maracas on timpani in both the "Jeremiah" Symphony and Symphonic Dances from West Side Story. Edward Elgar attempts to use the timpani to imitate the engine of an ocean liner in his "Enigma" Variations by requesting the timpanist play with snare drum sticks. However, snare drum sticks tend to produce too loud a sound, and since this work's premiere, the passage in question has been performed by striking the timpani with coins.
  • Robert W. Smith's Songs of Sailor and Sea calls for a "whale sound" on the largest timpano. This is achieved by moistening the thumb and rubbing it from the edge to the center of the drumhead.
  • Another technique used primarily in solo work, such as John Beck's Sonata for Timpani, is striking the copper bowls. Timpanists tend to be reluctant to strike the bowls at loud dynamic levels or with hard sticks, since copper can be dented easily.
  • Occasionally a composer will ask for a metal object, commonly an upside-down cymbal, to be placed upon the drumhead and then struck or rolled while executing a glissando on the drum. Joseph Schwantner used this technique in From A Dark Millennium.

A double stop, in music terminology, is the act of playing two notes simultaneously on a stringed instrument, for example a violin, a viola, a cello or a guitar. ... A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... Composer Ludwig van Beethoven The Symphony No. ... A modern marimba The marimba is a musical instrument in the percussion family. ... Portrait of Berlioz by Signol, 1832 Louis Hector Berlioz (December 11, 1803 – March 8, 1869) was a French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie Fantastique (first performed in 1830) and Grande Messe des Morts (Requiem). ... Typical fingering for a second inversion C major chord on a guitar. ... The Requiem (Op. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... An American in Paris is a symphonic composition by American composer George Gershwin which debuted in 1928. ... Sympathetic resonance is a harmonic phenomenon wherein a frequency or note will start resonating in sympathy with another, not due to any external agency. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Eight Pieces for Four Timpani is a collection of short pieces by Elliott Carter for solo timpani – four drums played by one musician. ... Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... Maracas Maracas (sometimes called rhumba shakers) are simple percussion instruments (idiophones), usually played in pairs, consisting of a dried calabash or gourd shell (cuia - kOO-ya) or coconut shell filled with seeds or dried beans. ... For The Games song, see Westside Story (song). ... Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet, OM, GCVO (2 June 1857 – 23 February 1934) was an English Romantic composer. ... Variations on an Original Theme for orchestra, Op. ... The snare drum or side drum is a tubular drum made of wood or metal with skins, or heads, stretched over the top and bottom openings, and with a set of snares (cords) stretched across the bottom head. ... Robert W. Smith is an American composer, arranger, and teacher. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Cymbals (band). ... Joseph Schwantner (b. ...

History

In the 15th century, timpani were used with trumpets as ceremonial instruments in the cavalry.
In the 15th century, timpani were used with trumpets as ceremonial instruments in the cavalry.

Painting of trumpeter and timpanist, Munich Obtained from http://home. ... The trumpet is the highest brass instrument in register, above the French horn, trombone, baritone, euphonium, and tuba. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ...

Pre-orchestral history

In 1188, Cambro-Norman chronicler Gerald of Wales wrote, "Ireland uses and delights in two instruments only, the harp namely, and the tympanum."[1] Cambro-Norman is a term used for Norman knights who settled in southern Wales after the Norman conquest of England in 1066. ... Giraldus Cambrensis (c. ...


Arabic nakers, the direct ancestors of most timpani, were brought to 13th century Continental Europe by Crusaders and Saracens. These drums, which were small (with a diameter of about 20–22 cm or 8–8½ in) and mounted to the player's belt, were used primarily for military ceremonies. This form of timpani remained in use until the 16th century. A naker is a small drum, of Arabic origin, and the forebearer of the European timpani (kettledrum). ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ... This article is about historical Crusades . ... In older Western historical literature, the Saracens were the people of the Saracen Empire, another name for the Arab Caliphate under the rule of the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties. ... DIAMETER is a computer networking protocol for AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting). ... Part of the ceremony of the Changing of the Guard in Whitehall, London. ...


In 1457, a Hungarian legation sent by King Ladislaus V carried larger timpani mounted on horseback to the court of King Charles VII in France. This variety of timpani had been used in the Middle East since the 12th century. These drums evolved together with trumpets to be the primary instruments of the cavalry. This practice continues to this day in sections of the British Army, and timpani continued to be paired with trumpets when they entered the classical orchestra. A legation was the term used in diplomacy to denote a diplomatic representative office lower than an embassy. ... Ladislaus Posthumus (22 February 1440 - 23 November 1457), Archduke, king of Hungary as László V (or VI); king of Bohemia as Ladislav I; duke of Austria, the only son of Albert II, Holy Roman Emperor, and of Elizabeth, daughter of the emperor Sigismund, was born at Komarom four months... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The trumpet is the highest brass instrument in register, above the French horn, trombone, baritone, euphonium, and tuba. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... For the song titled Orchestra, see The Servant (band). ...


Over the next two centuries, a number of technical improvements were made to timpani. Originally, the head was nailed directly to the shell of the drum. In the 15th century, heads began to be attached and tensioned by a counterhoop that was tied directly to the shell. In the early 16th century, the bindings were replaced by screws. This allowed timpani to become tunable instruments of definite pitch. Screws come in a variety of shapes and sizes for different purposes. ... In music a sound or note of definite pitch is one of which it is possible or relatively easy to discern the pitch or frequency of the fundamental, as opposed to sounds of indefinite pitch. ...


Timpani in the orchestra

Jean-Baptiste Lully is the first known composer to have scored for timpani, which he included in the orchestra for his 1675 opera Thésée. Other seventeenth-century composers soon followed suit. In music of this time, timpani are almost always tuned with the tonic note of the piece on the high drum and the dominant on the low drum – a perfect fifth apart. Timpani are often treated as transposing instruments in the music of this period: the notes were written as C and G with the actual pitches indicated at the top of the score (for example, Timpani in D–A). Jean-Baptiste de Lully, originally Giovanni Battista di Lulli (November 28, 1632 – March 22, 1687), was an Italian-born French composer, who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France. ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, Italy. ... The tonic is the first note of a musical scale, and in the tonal method of music composition it is extremely important. ... In music, the dominant is the fifth degree of the scale. ... The perfect fifth or diapente is one of three musical intervals that span five diatonic scale degrees; the others being the diminished fifth, which is one semitone smaller, and the augmented fifth, which is one semitone larger. ... A transposing instrument is a musical instrument whose music is written at a pitch different from concert pitch. ...


Later in the Baroque era, Johann Sebastian Bach wrote a secular cantata titled "Tönet, ihr Pauken! Erschallet, Trompeten!", which translates roughly to "Sound off, ye timpani! Sound, trumpets!" Naturally, the timpani are placed at the forefront: the piece starts with a timpani solo and the chorus and timpani trade the melody back and forth. Bach reworked this movement in part 1 of the Christmas Oratorio. Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750[1] (see Dates of classical music eras for a discussion of the problems inherent in defining the beginning and end points). ... “Bach” redirects here. ... A cantata (Italian, sung) is a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment and generally containing more than one movement. ... Tönet, ihr Pauken! Erschallet, Trompeten! (BWV 214) is a cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach, composed to honor the birthday of the queen of Saxony. ... The Christmas Oratorio (German: Weihnachtsoratorium) BWV 248 is a work by Johann Sebastian Bach celebrating the Christmas season. ...

Although by the early 19th century, timpani were most commonly found in orchestras, ceremonial trumpet and timpani ensembles still existed.
Although by the early 19th century, timpani were most commonly found in orchestras, ceremonial trumpet and timpani ensembles still existed.

Ludwig van Beethoven revolutionized timpani music in the early 19th century. He not only wrote for drums tuned to intervals other than a fourth or fifth, but he gave a prominence to the instrument as an independent voice beyond programmatic use (as in Bach's "Tönet, ihr Pauken!"). For example, his Violin Concerto (1806) opens with four solo timpani strokes, and the scherzo of his Ninth Symphony (1824) sets the timpani against the orchestra in a sort of call and response. City Trumpetteers, 19th century painted hearth in Valencia Source: http://home. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Concerto for Violin and Orchestra in D major was written in 1806. ... A scherzo (plural scherzi) is a name given to a piece of music or a movement from a larger piece such as a symphony. ... Composer Ludwig van Beethoven The Symphony No. ... In music, a call and response is a succession of two distinct phrases usually played by different musicians, where the second phrase is heard as a direct commentary on or response to the first. ...


The next major innovator was Hector Berlioz. He was the first composer to indicate the exact sticks that should be used – felt-covered, wooden, etc. In several of his works, including Symphonie fantastique (1830), he demanded the use of several timpanists at once. Portrait of Berlioz by Signol, 1832 Louis Hector Berlioz (December 11, 1803 – March 8, 1869) was a French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie Fantastique (first performed in 1830) and Grande Messe des Morts (Requiem). ... A selection of 4 different felt cloths. ... Symphonie Fantastique (Fantastic Symphony) Opus 14, is a symphony written by French composer Hector Berlioz in 1830. ...


Until the late 19th century, timpani were hand-tuned; that is, there was a sequence of screws with T-shaped handles, called taps, which altered the tension in the head when turned by players. Thus, tuning was a relatively slow operation, and composers had to allow a reasonable amount of time for players to change notes if they wanted to be sure of a true note. The first pedal timpani originated in Dresden in the 1870s and are called Dresden timpani for this reason. However, since vellum was used for the heads of the drums, automated solutions were difficult to implement since the tension would vary unpredictably across the drum. This could be compensated for by hand-tuning, but not easily by a pedal drum. Mechanisms continued to improve in the early 20th century. Dresden (Sorbian: Drježdźany; etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest, Czech: ) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. ... Vellum (from the Old French Vélin, for calfskin[1]) is a sort of parchment, a material for the pages of a book or codex, characterized by its thin, smooth, durable properties. ...


Despite these problems, composers eagerly exploited the opportunities the new mechanism had to offer. By 1915, Carl Nielsen was demanding glissandos on timpani in his Fourth Symphony – impossible on the old hand-tuned drums. However, it took Béla Bartók to more fully realize the flexibility the new mechanism had to offer. Many of his timpani parts require such a range of notes that it would be unthinkable to attempt them without pedal drums. Carl Nielsen Carl August Nielsen (June 9, 1865, Sortelung – October 3, 1931, Copenhagen) was a conductor, violinist, and the most internationally known composer from Denmark. ... Glissando (plural: glissandi) is a musical term that refers to either a continuous sliding from one pitch to another (a true glissando), or an incidental scale played while moving from one melodic note to another (an effective glissando). ... Béla Bartók in 1927 Béla Viktor János Bartók (March 25, 1881 – September 26, 1945) was a Hungarian composer, pianist and collector of Eastern European and Middle Eastern folk music. ...


Timpani outside the orchestra

This 1976 photograph shows marching timpani grounded with legs extended.
This 1976 photograph shows marching timpani grounded with legs extended.

Later, timpani were adopted into other classical music ensembles such as concert bands. In the 1970s, marching bands and drum and bugle corps, which evolved both from traditional marching bands and concert bands, began to include marching timpani. Each player carried a single drum, which was tuned by a hand crank. Marching timpani were heavy and awkward to play, as the drumhead was almost at the player's chest. Often, during intricate passages, the timpani players would put their drums on the ground by means of extendable legs, and they would be played more like conventional timpani, but with a single player per drum. In the early 1980s, Drum Corps International (DCI), a drum corps governing body, allowed timpani and other percussion instruments to be permanently grounded. This was the beginning of the end for marching timpani: Eventually, standard concert timpani found their way onto the football field as part of the front ensemble, and marching timpani fell out of common usage. Image File history File linksMetadata ML_1976_detail-timpani. ... A concert band, also called wind band, symphonic band, symphonic winds, wind orchestra, wind symphony, or wind ensemble, is a performing ensemble consisting of several members of the woodwind instrument family, brass instrument family and percussion instrument family. ... An American college marching band on the field (University of Texas) A marching band is a group of instrumental musicians who generally perform outdoors, and who incorporate movement â€“ usually some type of marching â€“ with their musical performance. ... The Cavaliers Drum and Bugle Corps, a DCI Division I corps from Rosemont, Illinois. ... Drum Corps International (DCI), formed in 1972, is the non-profit governing body operating the North American drum and bugle corps circuit for junior corps, whose members are between the ages of 14 and 22. ... Percussion instruments are played by being struck, shaken, rubbed or scraped. ... In a marching band or drum corps, the front ensemble or pit is the stationary percussion ensemble typically placed in front of the football field. ...


As rock and roll bands started seeking to diversify their sound, timpani found their way into the studio. Starting in the 1960s, drummers for high profile rock acts like The Beatles, Led Zeppelin, The Beach Boys, and Queen incorporated timpani into their music. This led to the use of timpani in progressive rock. Emerson, Lake & Palmer recorded a number of rock covers of classical pieces that utilize timpani. Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... For the bands 1969 self-titled debut album, see Led Zeppelin (album). ... First formed in 1961, The Beach Boys are an American rock and roll band that gained popularity for their close vocal harmonies and lyrics reflecting a California youth culture of surfing, girls and cars. ... Queen are an English rock band formed in 1970 in London by guitarist Brian May, singer Freddie Mercury and drummer Roger Taylor, with bassist John Deacon joining the following year. ... For the Swedish political music movement, see progg. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Jazz musicians also experimented with timpani. Sun Ra used it occasionally in his Arkestra (played, for example, by percussionist Jim Herndon on the songs "Reflection in Blue" and "El Viktor," both recorded in 1957). In 1964, Elvin Jones incorporated timpani into his drum kit on John Coltrane's four-part composition A Love Supreme. For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Sun Ra (Born Herman Poole Blount; legal name Le Sonyr Ra;[1] born May 22, 1914 in Birmingham, Alabama, died May 30, 1993 in Birmingham, Alabama) was an innovative jazz composer, bandleader, piano and synthesizer player, poet and philosopher known for his cosmic philosophy, musical compositions and performances. ... Elvin Ray Jones (September 9, 1927 – May 18, 2004) was a jazz drummer. ... “Coltrane” redirects here. ... A Love Supreme is a jazz album recorded by John Coltranes quartet on December 9, 1964 at the Van Gelder studio in Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. ...


Jonathan Haas is one of the few timpanists who markets himself as a soloist. Haas, who began his career as a solo timpanist in 1980, is notable for performing music from many genres including jazz, rock, and classical. In fact, he released an album with a rather unconventional jazz band called Johnny H. and the Prisoners of Swing.


Music samples

Image File history File links John_Williams_Olympic_Fanfare. ... Audio samples: Buglers Dream ( file info) — composed by Leo Arnaud, conducted by John Williams Problems playing the files? See media help. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Beethoven - Symphony No. ... A scherzo (plural scherzi) is a name given to a piece of music or a movement from a larger piece such as a symphony. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... Composer Ludwig van Beethoven The Symphony No. ... Image File history File links Strauss_-_Also_Sprach_Zarathustra_(clip). ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music, in one movement, in which some extra-musical programme provides a narrative or illustrative element. ... Also sprach Zarathustra, op. ...

See also

The following companies manufacture timpani. ... Naqareh The Naqareh is a drum with a rounded back and a hide head. ...

Further reading

  1. ^ Topographia Hibernica, III.XI; tr. O'Meary, p. 94.
  • Adler, Samuel. The Study of Orchestration. W. W. Norton & Company, 3rd edition, 2002. ISBN 0-393-97572-X
  • Del Mar, Norman. Anatomy of the Orchestra. University of California Press, 1984. ISBN 0-520-05062-2
  • Ferrell, Robert G. "Percussion in Medieval and Renaissance Dance Music: Theory and Performance". 1997. Retrieved February 22, 2006.
  • Montagu, Jeremy. Timpany & Percussion. Yale University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-300-09337-3
  • Peters, Mitchell. Fundamental Method for Timpani. Alfred Publishing Co., 1993. ISBN 0-7390-2051-X
  • Thomas, Dwight. Timpani: Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved February 4, 2005.
  • Zoutendijk, Marc. Letters to Flamurai. February 8, 2005.
  • "Biography". About Jonathan Haas. Retrieved February 17, 2005.
  • "Recordings". About Jonathan Haas. Retrieved May 21, 2006.
  • "Credits: Beatles for Sale". All Music Guide. Retrieved February 18, 2005.
  • "Credits: A Love Supreme". All Music Guide. Retrieved February 18, 2005.
  • "Credits: Tubular Bells". All Music Guide. Retrieved February 18, 2005.
  • "Early Timpani in Europe". The Vienna Symphonic Library. Retrieved February 4, 2005.
  • "Timpani ins and outs". Adams Musical Instruments. Retrieved February 4, 2005.
  • "Historical DCI Scores". The Sound Machine Drum Corps Scores Archive. Retrieved February 17, 2005.
  • "Schnellar Timpani". Malletshop.com. Retrieved February 10, 2005.
  • "Timpani General Information". American Drum Manufacturing Co. Retrieved February 6, 2005.
  • "Kettledrum". 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica as retrieved from [1] on February 26, 2006.
  • "William Kraft Biography". Composer John Beal. Retrieved May 21, 2006.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Timpani

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Timpani1. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... The National Symphony Orchestra (NSO), founded in 1931, is a major American symphony orchestra that performs at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington DC, USA. Since 1996, the music director of the orchestra is the American conductor Leonard Slatkin. ... The Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra (Dutch: Koninklijk Concertgebouworkest, KCO) is the best-known and most respected symphonic orchestra in the Netherlands, and is generally considered to be among the worlds finest orchestras. ... The Boston Symphony Orchestra is one of the worlds premiere orchestras. ... The University of Maine, established in 1865, is the flagship university of the University of Maine System. ... Eight Pieces for Four Timpani is a collection of short pieces by Elliott Carter for solo timpani – four drums played by one musician. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Timpani (543 words)
Drums in the same shape as timpani date back to at least the 7th century BC, although the modern instrument is descended from Turkish instruments played by soldiers on horseback around the 13th century.
Timpani are the most common percussion instruments in the orchestra, with most large-scale orchestral pieces since the 19th century using them.
Timpani come in a variety of sizes from around 80 cm (32 in) in diameter down to piccolo timpani of 30 cm (12 in) or less.
Article about "Timpani" in the English Wikipedia on 24-Apr-2004 (3065 words)
Timpani come in a variety of sizes from around 84 cm (33 in) in diameter down to piccolo timpani of 30 cm (12 in) or less.
Timpani are typically struck with a special type of drumstick fittingly called a timpani stick, or timpani mallet.
Interestingly, timpani are often treated as a transposing instrument at this time, the notes being written as C and G with the actual pitches indicated at the top of the score.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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