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Encyclopedia > Timeline of scientific discoveries

The timeline below shows the date of publication of major scientific theories and discoveries. In many cases, the discovery spanned several years. Pictoral chronology of intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency Chronology is the science of locating events in time. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ...

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Science is a body of empirical and theoretical knowledge, produced by a global community of researchers, making use of specific techniques for the observation and explanation of real phenomena, this techne summed up under the banner of scientific method. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1020x1508, 359 KB) Book cover Frontispiece of : Tabulae Rudolphinae : quibus astronomicae . ... The sociology and philosophy of science, as well as the entire field of science studies, have in the 20th century been preoccupied with the question of large-scale patterns and trends in the development of science, and asking questions about how science works both in a philosophical and practical sense. ... The historiography of science is the historical study of the history of science (which often overlaps the history of technology, the history of medicine, and the history of mathematics). ... A pseudoscience is any body of knowledge purported to be scientific or supported by science but which fails to comply with the scientific method. ... In prehistoric times, advice and knowledge was passed from generation to generation in an oral tradition. ... The Ptolemaic system of celestial motion, from Harmonia Macrocosmica, 1661. ... The history of science in the Middle Ages refers to the discoveries in the field of natural philosophy throughout the Middle Ages - the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history. ... Leonardo da Vincis Vitruvian Man, an example of the blend of art and science during the Renaissance. ... // The event which most historians of science call the scientific revolution can be dated roughly as having begun in 1543, the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus published his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) and Andreas Vesalius published his De humani corporis fabrica (On the... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe before the development of modern science. ... Astronomy is probably the oldest of the natural sciences, dating back to antiquity, with its origins in the religious practices of pre-history: vestiges of these are still found in astrology, a discipline long interwoven with astronomy, and not completely different from it until about 1750‑1800 in the Western... The history of biology dates as far back as the rise of various civilization as classic philosophers did their own ways of biology as a system of understanding life. ... Portrait of Monsieur Lavoisier and his Wife, by Jacques-Louis David The history of chemistry may be said to begin with the distinction of chemistry from alchemy by Robert Boyle in his work The Skeptical Chymist, which was written after a long and tearfilled talk with his father, and alchymist... ÛEcology is generally spoken of as a new science, having only become prominent in the second half of the 20th Century. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The growth of physics has brought not only fundamental changes in ideas about the material world, mathematics and philosophy, but also, through technology, a transformation of society. ... For more, see: Social science#History In ancient philosophy, there was no difference between the liberal arts of mathematics and the study of history, poetry or politics—only with the development of mathematical proof did there gradually arise a perceived difference between scientific disciplines and others, the humanities or liberal... The term economics was coined around 1870 and popularized by Alfred Marshall, as a substitute for the earlier term political economy which has been used through the 18th-19th centuries, with Adam Smith, David Ricardo and Karl Marx as its main thinkers and which today is frequently referred to as... Efforts to describe and explain the human language faculty have been undertaken throughout recorded history. ... Antecedents of political science While the study of politics is first found in the Western tradition in Ancient Greece, political science is a late arrival in terms of social sciences. ... The history of psychology as a scholarly study of the mind and behavior dates, in Europe, back to the Late Middle Ages. ... Sociology is a relatively new academic discipline among other social sciences including economics, political science, anthropology, and psychology. ... The wheel was invented circa 4000 BC, and has become one of the worlds most famous, and most useful technologies. ... Agronomy today is very different from what it was before about 1950. ... The history of computer science began long before the modern discipline of computer science that emerged in the 20th century. ... The History of materials science is rooted in the history of the Earth and the culture of the peoples of the Earth. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Alternative meanings: Timeline is a 1999 science fiction novel by Michael Crichton Timeline is a 2003 film based on the novel. ...

BC

be // Overview Events 1700 – 1500 BC -- Hurrian conquests. ... The Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa[1] recovered from the library at Nineveh, is a 7th century cuneiform tablet that bears ancient records of the rise times of Venus, its first and last visibility on the horizon before or after sunrise and sunset[2]. Several dates for the original observations have... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC - 360s BC - 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC Years: 369 BC 368 BC 367 BC 366 BC 365 BC 364 BC 363 BC 362 BC... Eudoxus of Cnidus (Greek Εύδοξος) (410 or 408 BC – 355 or 347 BC) was a Greek astronomer, mathematician, physician, scholar and friend of Plato. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC Years: 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356 BC 355 BC 354 BC 353 BC 352 BC... Heraclides Ponticus (387 - 312 BCE), also known as Heraklides, was a Greek philosopher who lived and died at Heraclea, now Eregli, Turkey. ... The Earths rotation is the rotation of the solid earth around its own axis, which is called Earths axis or rotation axis. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 3rd century BC started on January 1, 300 BC and ended on December 31, 201 BC. // Events The Pyramid of the Moon, one of several monuments built in Teotihuacán Teotihuacán, Mexico begun The first two Punic Wars between Carthage... Eratosthenes (Greek ; 276 BC - 194 BC) was a Greek mathematician, geographer and astronomer. ... Adjectives: Terrestrial, Terran, Telluric, Tellurian, Earthly Atmosphere Surface pressure: 101. ... The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ...


13th century

(12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... // The world in 1220 Middle Ages in Europe Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Events Mongols first invade Abbasid caliphate - Bukhara and Samarkand taken End of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, destroyed by Genghis Khans Mongolian cavalry Dominican Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope... Events Anglo-Norman invasion of Connacht St. ... Robert Grosseteste (c. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... Statue of Roger Bacon in the Oxford University Museum Roger Bacon (c. ...

14th century

This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Events January 25 - Edward III becomes King of England. ... William of Ockham William of Ockham (also Occam or any of several other spellings) (c. ... William of Ockham Occams razor (also spelled Ockhams razor) is a principle attributed to the 14th-century English logician and Franciscan friar William of Ockham. ...

16th century

(15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ... Nicolaus Copernicus (in Latin; Polish Mikołaj Kopernik, German Nikolaus Kopernikus - February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was a Polish astronomer, mathematician and economist who developed a heliocentric (Sun-centered) theory of the solar system in a form detailed enough to make it scientifically useful. ... Heliocentric Solar System Heliocentrism (lower panel) in comparsion to the geocentric model (upper panel) In astronomy, heliocentrism is the belief that the Sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System. ... // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ... Andreas Vesalius (portrait from the Fabrica). ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... Michael Servetus. ...

17th century

(16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German Lutheran mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and a key figure in the 17th century astronomical revolution. ... Johannes Keplers primary contributions to astronomy/astrophysics were his three laws of planetary motion. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... KDFSAJFKASJDKFJASDKLJFDKLASJFLKJASKLFJLAKSJFLKSJALFKJSKLJFto the Sun-centered solar system which Galileo supported. ... Sidereus Nuncius (usually translated into English as Sidereal Messenger, although Starry Messenger and Sidereal Message are also seen) is a short treatise published in Latin by Galileo Galilei in March 1610. ... Events April 5 - In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe. ... John Napier For other people with the same name, see John Napier (disambiguation). ... Logarithms to various bases: is to base e, is to base 10, and is to base 1. ... Events March 1 - writs were issued in February 1628 by Charles I of England that every county in England (not just seaport towns) pay ship tax by this date. ... William Harvey William Harvey the biggest ediot ever (April 1, 1578 – June 3, 1657) was an English medical doctor, who is credited with first correctly describing, in exact detail, the properties of blood being pumped around the body by the heart. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... Events February 3 - Tulipmania collapses in Netherlands by government order February 15 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor December 17 - Shimabara Rebellion erupts in Japan Pierre de Fermat makes a marginal claim to have proof of what would become known as Fermats last theorem. ... René Descartes (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Renatus Cartesius (latinized form), was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... Evangelista Torricelli, portrait by an unknown artist. ... A barometer is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure. ... Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ... Robert Boyle Robert Boyle (January 25, 1627 – December 30, 1691) was an Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ... Boyles law (sometimes referred to as the Boyle Mariotte law), one of the gas laws, states that the product of the pressure and volume of a fixed quantity of ideal gas, when held at a fixed temperature, is a constant. ... An ideal gas or perfect gas is a hypothetical gas consisting of identical particles of zero volume, with no intermolecular forces. ... 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Cover of Cover the first volume of , published in 1665 The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, or Phil. ... // Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ... Nicolaus Steno. ... A fossil Ammonite Fossils are the mineralized remains of animals or plants or other traces such as footprints. ... Stratigraphy, a branch of geology, is basically the study of rock layers and layering (stratification). ... Events January 5 - The Battle of Turckeim June 18 - Battle of Fehrbellin August 10 - King Charles II of England places the foundation stone of the Royal Greenwich Observatory in London - construction begins November 11 - Guru Gobind Singh becomes the Tenth Guru of the Sikhs. ... Gottfried Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (July 1, 1646 in Leipzig - November 14, 1716 in Hannover) was a German philosopher, scientist, mathematician, diplomat, librarian, and lawyer of Sorb descent. ... Sir Isaac Newton, (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, alchemist, and natural philosopher, regarded by many as the greatest figure in the history of science. ... Infinitesimal calculus is an area of mathematics pioneered by Gottfried Leibniz based on the concept of infinitesimals, as opposed to the calculus of Isaac Newton, which is based upon the concept of the limit. ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ... Ole Rømer. ... The speed of light in a vacuum is an important physical constant denoted by the letter c for constant or the Latin word celeritas meaning swiftness. It is the speed of all electromagnetic radiation in a vacuum, not just visible light. ... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ... Sir Isaac Newton, (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, alchemist, and natural philosopher, regarded by many as the greatest figure in the history of science. ... Newtons First and Second laws, in Latin, from the original 1687 edition of the Principia Mathematica. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Gravity. ... Classical physics is physics based on principles developed before the rise of quantum theory, usually including the special theory of relativity and general theory of relativity. ...

18th century

(17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ... Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit) (24 May 1686 in Danzig (Gdańsk) – 16 September 1736 in The Hague, Netherlands) was a German physicist and engineer who worked most of his life in the Netherlands. ... A mercury-in-glass thermometer is a thermometer consisting of mercury, in a glass tube. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... Ewald Jürgen Georg von Kleist (June 1700 - December 10, 1748) was the dean of the cathedral at Kammin in Prussia and co-inventor of the Leyden jar. ... Original capacitor The Leyden jar was the original capacitor, invented in 1745 by Pieter van Muschenbroek (1700–1748) and used to conduct many early experiments in electricity. ... Events March 2 - Small earthquake in London, England April 4 - Small earthquake in Warrington, England August 23 - Small earthquake in Spalding, England September 30 - Small earthquake in Northampton, England November 16 – Westminster Bridge officially opened Jonas Hanway is the first Englishman to use an umbrella James Gray reveals her sex... Joseph Black Joseph Black (April 16, 1728 - December 6, 1799) was a Scottish physicist and chemist. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... Double lightning. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... William Withering (March 17, 1741 - October 6, 1799) was a British botanist, physician and the discoverer of digitalis. ... Species About 20 species, including: Digitalis ciliata Digitalis davisiana Digitalis dubia Digitalis ferruginea Digitalis grandiflora Digitalis laevigata Digitalis lanata Digitalis lutea Digitalis obscura Digitalis parviflora Digitalis purpurea Digitalis thapsi Digitalis viridiflora Digitalis is a genus of about 20 species of herbaceous biennials, perennials and shrubs that was traditionally placed in... Edema (BE: oedema, formerly known as dropsy) is swelling of any organ or tissue due to accumulation of excess fluid. ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Jacques Alexandre César Charles, 1820. ... Charless law (sometimes called the Law of Charles and Gay-Lussac) is one of the gas laws; it relates the volume and temperature of an ideal gas held at a constant pressure. ... An ideal gas or perfect gas is a hypothetical gas consisting of identical particles of zero volume, with no intermolecular forces. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 - May 8, 1794) was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ... The law of conservation of mass/matter, also known as Law of Mass Conservation (or the Lomonosov-Lavoisier law), states that the mass of a closed system of substances will remain constant, regardless of the processes acting inside the system. ... Chemistry (from Persian language کیمیا Kimia and Greek χημεία khēmeía[1] meaning alchemy) is the science of matter at the atomic to molecular scale, dealing primarily with collections of atoms, such as gases, molecules, crystals, and metals. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Georges Cuvier Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier (August 23, 1769–May 13, 1832) was a French naturalist and zoologist. ... The Dodo, shown here in illustration, is an often-cited[1] example of modern extinction. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... William Smith. ... A geologic map is a special-purpose map made for the purpose of showing subsurface geological features. ... Stratigraphy, a branch of geology, is basically the study of rock layers and layering (stratification). ...

19th century

Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (February 18, 1745 - March 5, 1827) was an Italian physicist known especially for the development of the electric battery in 1800. ... Four double-A batteries In science and technology, a battery is a device that stores energy and makes it available in an electrical form. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... John Dalton John Dalton (September 6, 1766 – July 27, 1844) was a British chemist and physicist, born at Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth in Cumberland. ... Various atoms and molecules as depicted in John Daltons A New System of Chemical Philosophy (1808). ... Chemistry (from Persian language کیمیا Kimia and Greek χημεία khÄ“meía[1] meaning alchemy) is the science of matter at the atomic to molecular scale, dealing primarily with collections of atoms, such as gases, molecules, crystals, and metals. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Sadi Carnot Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (June 1, 1796 - August 24, 1832) was a French mathematician and engineer who gave the first successful theoretical account of heat engines, the Carnot cycle, and laid the foundations of the second law of thermodynamics. ... The Carnot cycle is a particular thermodynamic cycle, modeled on the Carnot heat engine, studied by Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot in the 1820s and expanded upon by Benoit Paul Émile Clapeyron in the 1830s and 40s. ... Naval Battle of Navarino by Carneray 1827 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Georg Simon Ohm, (March 16, 1789 Erlangen, Germany - July 6, 1854, Munich) a German physicist, was born in Erlangen and educated at the university there. ... For the phase law, see Ohms Phase Law. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... Naval Battle of Navarino by Carneray 1827 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Portrait of Amedeo Avogadro Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro, Count of Quaregna and Cerreto (August 9, 1776–July 9, 1856) was an Italian chemist, most noted for his contributions to the theory of molarity and molecular weight. ... In 1811 Amedeo Avogadro stated the hypothesis which we now call Avogadros law: (See: this site for an English translation of his 1811 paper). ... The gas laws are a set of laws that describe the relationship between thermodynamic temperature (T), pressure (P) and volume (V) of gases. ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Friedrich Wöhler (July 31, 1800 - September 23, 1882) was a German chemist, best-known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several of the elements. ... Urea is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, with the formula CON2H4 or (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Non-proprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... Vitalism is the doctrine that vital forces are active in living organisms, so that life cannot be explained solely by mechanism. ... 1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Anselme Payen ([[January 6], 1795 - May 12, 1871) was a French chemist. ... Diastase (from the Greek word for separate) is a group of enzymes which catalyses the breakdown of starch into glucose. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Matthias Jakob Schleiden (April 5, 1804 - June 23, 1881) was a German botanist and co-founder of the cell theory. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... 1843 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... James Joule - English physicist James Prescott Joule, FRS (December 24, 1818 – October 11, 1889) was an English physicist, born in Sale, near Manchester. ... Conservation of energy states that the total amount of energy in an isolated system remains constant, although it may change forms (for instance, friction turns kinetic energy into thermal energy). ... The first law of thermodynamics, a generalized expression of the law of the conservation of energy, states: // Description Essentially, the First Law of Thermodynamics declares that energy is conserved for a closed system, with heat and work being the forms of energy transfer. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... William Thomas Green Morton (August 9, 1819 - July 15, 1868) was responsible for the first successful public demonstration of ether as an inhalation anesthetic. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... William Thomson, Archbishop of York, has the same name as this man. ... Absolute zero is the lowest possible temperature where nothing could be colder, and no heat energy remains in a substance. ... Fig. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Dr. R.L.K. Virchow common to humans and animals) and anthropology. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... 1859 (MDCCCLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Charles Robert Darwin (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an eminent English naturalist who achieved lasting fame by convincing the scientific community that species develop over time from a common origin. ... Alfred Russel Wallace Alfred Russel Wallace (January 8, 1823 — November 7, 1913) was a British naturalist, geographer, anthropologist and biologist. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, please see Introduction to evolution. ... The Galápagos Islands hold 13 species of finches that are closely related and differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Gregor Johann Mendel (July 20[1], 1822 – January 6, 1884) was an Augustinian abbot who is often called the father of modern genetics for his study of the inheritance of traits in pea plants. ... Mendelian inheritance (or Mendelian genetics or Mendelism) is a set of primary tenets relating to the transmission of hereditary characteristics from parent organisms to their children; it underlies much of genetics. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Portrait of Dimitri Mendeleyev by Ilya Repin Dmitri Mendeleev (Russian: , Dmitriy Ivanovich Mendeleyev  ) (8 February 1834 [O.S. 27 January] in Tobolsk – 2 February 1907 [O.S. 20 January] in Saint Petersburg), was a Russian chemist. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements is a tabular method of displaying the chemical elements, first devised in 1869 by the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was an important mathematician and theoretical physicist. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field; a field encompassing all of space which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Sir William Crookes, OM, FRS (17 June 1832 – 4 April 1919) was an English chemist and physicist. ... The Crookes tube is an evacuated glass cone with 3 node elements (one anode and two cathodes). ... Alternative meanings: There is also an Electric-type Pok mon named Electrode. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 New Haven – April 28, 1903 New Haven) was one of the very first American theoretical physicists and chemists. ... Willard Gibbs - founder of chemical thermodynamics In thermodynamics, chemical thermodynamics is the mathematical study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with a physical change of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics. ... In chemistry, Gibbs phase rule describes the possible number of degrees of freedom (F) in a closed system at equilibrium, in terms of the number of separate phases (P) and the number of chemical components (C) in the system. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Ludwig Boltzmann Ludwig Boltzmann (February 20, 1844 – September 5, Austrian physicist famous for the invention of statistical mechanics. ... For other uses of the term entropy, see Entropy (disambiguation) The thermodynamic entropy S, often simply called the entropy in the context of thermodynamics, is a measure of the amount of energy in a physical system that cannot be used to do work. ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (in English: William Conrad Roentgen) (March 27, 1845 – February 10, 1923) was a German physicist, of the University of Würzburg, who, on November 8, 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as x-rays or Röntgen Rays, an achievement... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Sir Joseph John Thomson, OM , FRS (December 18, 1756 – August 30, 1940) often known as J. J. Thomson, was an English physicist, the discoverer of the electron. ... e- redirects here. ... Alternative meanings: There is also an Electric-type Pok mon named Electrode. ...

20th century

(19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (April 23, 1858 – October 4, 1947) was a German physicist. ... Black body spectrum In physics, Plancks law of black body radiation predicts the spectral intensity of electromagnetic radiation at all wavelengths from a black body at temperature  : where the following table provides the definition and SI units of measure for each symbol: The wavelength is related to the frequency... Quantum theory is a theory of physics that uses Plancks constant. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Albert Einstein ( ) (March 14, 1879 – April 18, 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who is widely considered one of the greatest physicists of all time. ... Special relativity (SR) or the special theory of relativity is the physical theory published in 1905 by Albert Einstein. ... Three different views of Brownian motion, with 32 steps, 256 steps, and 2048 steps denoted by progressively lighter colors. ... The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons from matter upon the absorption of electromagnetic radiation, such as ultraviolet radiation or x-rays. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Walther Nernst. ... The third law of thermodynamics (hereinafter Third Law) states that as a system approaches the zero absolute temperature (hereinafter ZAT), all processes cease and the entropy of the system approaches a minimum value. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Alfred Wegeners theory of continental drift was widely ridiculed in his day Alfred Lothar Wegener (Berlin, November 1, 1880 – Greenland, November 2 or 3, 1930) was a German interdisciplinary scientist and meteorologist, who became famous for his theory of continental drift. ... Plates in the crust of the earth, according to the plate tectonics theory Continental drift, proposed as a theory by Alfred Wegener in 1912, is the movement of the Earths continents relative to each other. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Max von Laue (October 9, 1879 - April 24, 1960) was a German physicist, who studied under Max Planck. ... X-ray crystallography is a technique in crystallography in which the pattern produced by the diffraction of x-rays through the closely spaced lattice of atoms in a crystal is recorded and then analyzed to reveal the nature of that lattice. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Henry Moseley at work. ... It has been suggested that List of elements by atomic number be merged into this article or section. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Niels (Henrik David) Bohr (October 7, 1885 – November 18, 1962) was a Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics. ... In atomic physics, the Bohr model depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus — similar in structure to the solar system, but with electrostatic forces providing attraction, rather than gravity. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Albert Einstein ( ) (March 14, 1879 – April 18, 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who is widely considered one of the greatest physicists of all time. ... General relativity (GR) or general relativity theory (GRT) is the theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915. ... David Hilbert (January 23, 1862, Königsberg, East Prussia – February 14, 1943, Göttingen, Germany) was a German mathematician, recognized as one of the most influential and universal mathematicians of the 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Amalie Emmy Noether [1] (March 23, 1882 – April 14, 1935) was a German-born mathematician, said by Einstein in eulogy to be [i]n the judgment of the most competent living mathematicians, [...] the most significant creative mathematical genius thus far produced since the higher education of women began. ... Noethers theorem is a central result in theoretical physics that shows that a conservation law can be derived from any continuous symmetry. ... Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is about Austrian-Swiss physicist Wolfgang Pauli. ... The Pauli exclusion principle is a quantum mechanical principle formulated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (August 12, 1887 – January 4, 1961) was an Austrian physicist who achieved fame for his contributions to quantum mechanics, especially the Schrödinger equation, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1933. ... In physics, the Schrödinger equation, proposed by the Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger in 1925, describes the space- and time-dependence of quantum mechanical systems. ... Fig. ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics, and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ... In quantum physics, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is a mathematical limit on the accuracy with which it is possible to measure everything there is to know about a physical system. ... Fig. ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Father Georges-Henri Lemaître (July 17, 1894 – June 20, 1966) was a Belgian Roman Catholic priest, honorary prelate, professor of physics and astronomer. ... According to the Big Bang, the universe emerged from an extremely dense and hot state (bottom). ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, OM, FRS (IPA: [dɪræk]) (August 8, 1902 – October 20, 1984) was a British theoretical physicist and a founder of the field of quantum physics. ... In physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic quantum mechanical wave equation formulated by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928 and provides a description of elementary spin-½ particles, such as electrons, consistent with both the principles of quantum mechanics and the theory of special relativity. ... Fig. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... // Edwin Powell Hubble was born in to an insurance executive in Marshfield, Missouri and moved to Wheaton, Illinois in 1889. ... Hubbles law is the statement in physical cosmology that the redshift in light coming from distant galaxies is proportional to their distance. ... Universe is a word derived from the Old French univers, which in turn comes from the Latin roots unus (one) and versus (a form of vertere, to turn). Based on observations of the observable universe, Physicists attempt to describe the whole of space-time, including all matter and energy and... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Lars Onsager (November 27, 1903 – October 5, 1976) was a Norwegian physical chemist, winner of the 1968 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. ... The laws of thermodynamics, in principle, describe the specifics for the transport of heat and work in thermodynamic processes. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Oswald Theodore Avery (October 21, 1877–1955) was a Canadian-born American physician and medical researcher. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... William Bradford Shockley (February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was a British-born American physicist and inventor. ... John Bardeen (May 23, 1908 – January 30, 1991) was an American physicist and electrical engineer. ... Walter Houser Brattain (February 10, 1902 – October 13, 1987) was a physicist who, along with John Bardeen, invented the transistor. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Claude Shannon Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001), an American electrical engineer and mathematician, has been called the father of information theory, and was the founder of practical digital circuit design theory. ... A bundle of optical fiber. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... George Gey (1899-1970) George Otto Gey (July 6, 1899 – November 8, 1970) was the scientist who propogated the HeLa cell line. ... Dividing HeLa cells as seen by electron microscopy for other meanings, see also the disambiguation page Hela A HeLa cell (also Hela or hela cell) is an immortal cell line used in medical research. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Watson and Crick refers to the duo of James D. Watson and Francis Crick, who, with the work of Rosalind Franklin, discovered the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953, for which they were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize award, along with Maurice Wilkins. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Arno Allan Penzias (born April 26, American physicist. ... Robert Woodrow Wilson Robert Woodrow Wilson (born January 10, 1936) is an American physicist. ... According to the Big Bang, the universe emerged from an extremely dense and hot state (bottom). ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988; surname pronounced ) was an American physicist known for expanding the theory of quantum electrodynamics, the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, and particle theory. ... Quantum electrodynamics (QED) is a relativistic quantum field theory of electromagnetism. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Leonard Hayflick (born in 1928), Ph. ... The Hayflick limit was discovered by Leonard Hayflick in 1965. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... S. Jocelyn Bell Burnell, CBE, FRS FRAS (born Susan Jocelyn Bell, 15 July 1943), Northern Irish astrophysicist and Quaker who discovered the first radio pulsars with her thesis advisor Antony Hewish. ... Antony Hewish (born Fowey, Cornwall, May 11, 1924) is a British radio astronomer who won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1974 (together with fellow radio-astronomer Martin Ryle) for his work on the development of radio aperture synthesis and its role in the discovery of pulsars. ... Composite Optical/X-ray image of the Crab Nebula pulsar, showing surrounding nebular gases stirred by the pulsars magnetic field and radiation. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kary Banks Mullis (b. ... PCR redirects here. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Michel Mayor (born 12 January 1942) is a professor in the Department of Astronomy at the University of Geneva. ... Didier Queloz, born 23 February 1966, is a Geneva-based astronomer with a prolific record in finding extrasolar planets. ... An extrasolar planet, or exoplanet, is a planet beyond the Solar System. ... Hertzsprung-Russell diagram The main sequence of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is the curve where the majority of stars are located in this diagram. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ian Wilmut (born July 7, 1944) is an English embryologist and currently leading the Research Institute for Medical Cell Biology at the University of Edinburgh. ... In genetics and developmental biology, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique for cloning. ... Dolly and her first-born lamb, Bonnie Dolly (February 22, 1997 – February 14, 2003), an ewe, was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult somatic cell. ...

21st century


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