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Encyclopedia > Timeline of nuclear fusion

Timeline of significant events in the study and use of nuclear fusion: The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ...

1954-1958: The ZETA -Zero Energy Toroidal (or Thermonuclear) Assembly device at Harwell
1954-1958: The ZETA -Zero Energy Toroidal (or Thermonuclear) Assembly device at Harwell
  • 1953 - pinch devices in the US and USSR attempted to take the reactions to fusion levels without worrying about stability. Both reported detections of neutrons, which were later explained as non-fusion in nature.
  • 1954 - ZETA stabilized toroidal pinch device started operation at Harwell south of Oxford in England.
  • 1958 - American, British and Soviet scientists began to share previously classified fusion research, as their countries declassified controlled fusion work as part of the Atoms for Peace conference in Geneva (an amazing development considering the Cold War political climate of the time)
  • 1958 - ZETA experiments ended. Several firings produced neutron spikes that the researchers initially attributed to fusion, but later realized were due to other effects. Last few firings showed an odd "quiet period" of long stability in a system that otherwise appeared to prove itself unstable. Research on pinch machines generally died off as ZETA appeared to be the best that could be done.
  • 1965 (approximate) - The 12 beam "4 pi laser" using ruby as the lasing medium is developed at LLNL includes a gas-filled target chamber of about 20 centimeters in diameter.
  • 1967 - Demonstration of Farnsworth-Hirsch Fusor appeared to generate neutrons in a nuclear reaction.
  • 1968 - Results from the T-3 Soviet magnetic confinement device, called a tokamak, which Igor Tamm and Andrei Sakharov had been working on - showed the temperatures in their machine to be over an order of magnitude higher than what was expected by the rest of the community. The Western scientists visited the experiment and verified the high temperatures and confinement, sparking a wave of optimism for the prospects of the tokamak, which is still the dominant magnetic confinement device today, as well as construction of new experiments.
  • 1972 - The first neodymium-doped glass (Nd:glass) laser for ICF research, the "Long Path laser" is completed at LLNL and is capable of delivering ~50 joules to a fusion target.
  • 1974 - Taylor re-visited ZETA results of 1958 and explained that the quiet-period was in fact very interesting. This led to the development of "reversed field pinch", now generalized as "self-organizing plasmas", an ongoing line of research.
  • 1975 - Experiments commence on the single beam LLNL Cyclops laser, testing new optical designs for future ICF lasers.
  • 1976 - Design work on JET, the Joint European Torus, began.
    • The two beam Argus laser is completed at LLNL and experiments involving more advanced laser-target interactions are begun.
  • 1977 - The 20 beam Shiva laser at LLNL is completed and is capable of delivering 10.2 kilojoules of infrared energy on target. At a price of $25 million and a size approaching that of a football field, the Shiva laser is the first of the "megalasers" at LLNL and brings the field of ICF research fully within the realm of "big science".
  • 1978 - The JET project was given the go-ahead by then EC. The chosen site was an ex-RAF airfield south east of Oxford, UK.
Progress in power and energy levels attainable by inertial confinement lasers has increased dramatically since the early 1970's.
Progress in power and energy levels attainable by inertial confinement lasers has increased dramatically since the early 1970's.
  • 1982 - TORE SUPRA construction was started at Cadarache, France. Its superconducting magnets permitted it to generate a strong permanent toroidal magnetic field.
  • 1983 - JET was completed on time and on budget. First plasmas achieved.
    • The NOVETTE laser at LLNL comes on line and is used as a test bed for the next generation of ICF lasers, specifically the NOVA laser.
  • 1984 - The huge 10 beam NOVA laser at LLNL is completed and switches on in December. NOVA would ultimately produce a maximum of 120 kilojoules of infrared laser light during a nanosecond pulse in a 1989 experiment.
  • 1985 - The Japanese tokamak, JT-60 was completed. First plasmas achieved.
  • 1988 - The Conceptual Design Activity for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the successor to TFTR, JET and JT-60, began. Participants were EURATOM, Japan, Soviet Union and United States. It ended in 1990.
  • 1988 - The first plasma was produced in TORE SUPRA in April.
  • 1989 - On March 23, two Utah physicists, Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann, announced that they had achieved cold fusion: fusion reactions which could occur at room temperatures. However, they made their announcements before any peer review of their work was performed, and no subsequent experiments by other researchers revealed any evidence of fusion.
  • 1990 - Decision to construct the NIF "beamlet" laser at LLNL is made.
  • 1991 - The START Tokamak fusion experiment began in Culham. The experiment would eventually achieve a record beta (plasma pressure compared to magnetic field pressure) of 40% using a neutral beam injector. It was the first design that adapted the conventional toroidal fusion experiments into a tighter spherical design.
  • 1992 - The Engineering Design Activity for the ITER began. Participants were EURATOM, Japan, Russia and United States. It ended in 2001.
  • 1993 - The TFTR tokamak at Princeton (PPPL) experimented with 50% deuterium, 50% tritium, eventually producing as much as 10 megawatts of power from a controlled fusion reaction.
  • 1994 - NIF Beamlet laser is complete and begins experiments validating the expected performance of NIF.
  • 1996 - A record was reached at TORE SUPRA: a plasma duration of two minutes with a current of almost 1 million amperes driven non-inductively by 2.3 MW of lower hybrid frequency waves (i.e. 280 MJ of injected and extracted energy). This result was possible due to the actively cooled plasma-facing components installed in the machine. This result opened the way to the active control of steady state plasma discharges and the associated physics.
  • 1997 - The JET tokamak in the UK produced 16 MW of fusion power - the current world record for fusion power. Four megawatts of alpha particle self-heating was achieved.
    • Groundbreaking ceremony held for the National Ignition Facility (NIF).
    • Combining a field-reversed pinch with an imploding magnetic cylinder resulted in the new Magnetized Target Fusion concept in the US. In this system a "normal" lower density plasma device was explosively squeezed using techniques developed for high-speed gun research.
  • 1998 - The JT-60 tokamak in Japan produced a high performance reversed shear plasma with the equivalent fusion amplification factor Qeq of 1.25 - the current world record of Q.
  • 1999 - The United States withdrew from the ITER project.
    • The START Experiment was succeeded by MAST.
  • 2001 - Building construction for the immense 192 beam 500 terawatt NIF project is completed and construction of laser beamlines and target bay diagnostics commences. The NIF is expected to take its first full system shot in 2010.
  • 2002 - Claims and counter-claims were published regarding bubble fusion, in which a table-top apparatus was reported as producing small-scale fusion in a liquid undergoing acoustic cavitation. Like cold fusion, it was later dismissed. However, in 2004, new claims of replication were made.
  • 2003 - The United States rejoined the ITER project, and China and Republic of Korea newly joined while Canada withdrew.
  • 2003 - Cadarache in France selected as the European Candidate Site for ITER.
  • 2004 - The United States dropped its own project, the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE), to focus resources on ITER.
  • 2005 - Following final negotiations between the EU and Japan, ITER chose Cadarache over Rokkasho for the site of the reactor. In concession, Japan was made the host site for a related materials research facility and was granted rights to fill 20% of the project's research posts while providing 10% of the funding.

Construction of ITER was originally planned to start at the end of 2005, but will probably be delayed until March 2006. 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Robert Atkinson is the name of several people, including: Robert Chatham Atkinson, U.S. administrator. ... Friedrich Georg Houtermans (January 22, 1903 - March 1, 1966) was a physicist born in Zoppod near Danzig (today Gdansk, Poland). ... Albert Einstein photographed by Oren J. Turner in 1947. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... 1932 (MCMXXXII) is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... Sir Marcus Mark Laurence Elwin Oliphant (October 8, 1901 - July 14, 2000) was an Australian physicist and humanitarian. ... Helium-3 is a non-radioactive and light isotope of helium. ... Tritium (symbol T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Hans Bethe Hans Albrecht Bethe (pronounced Bay-tuh; July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005), was a German-American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics for 1967 for his discovery of stellar nucleosynthesis. ... Hannes Alfvén, 1970 winner for work on astrophysical plasmas List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The word plasma has a Greek root which means to be formed or molded (the word plastic shares this root). ... Royal School of Mines Entrance Imperial College London is a college of the University of London which focuses on science and technology, and is located in South Kensington in London. ... Part of the London skyline viewed from the South Bank London is the most populous city in the European Union, with an estimated population on 1 January 2005 of 7. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Lyman Spitzer Lyman Spitzer, Jr. ... Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory for plasma physics and nuclear fusion science. ... A stellarator is a device used to confine a hot plasma with magnetic fields in order to sustain a controlled nuclear fusion reaction. ... James Tuck was a British physicist who, among other things, helping to develop the notion of explosive lensing for the implosion mechanism for the first atomic bomb at Los Alamos during World War II as the Director of the British delegation to the Manhattan Project, and later did research on... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Edward Teller in 1958 as Director of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: England Travel guide to England from Wikitravel English language English law English (people) List of monarchs of England – Kings of England family tree List of English people Angeln (region in northern Germany, presumably the origin of the Angles for whom England is named) UK... ZETA - Zero Energy Toroidal Assembly fusion device at harwell This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... ZETA - Zero Energy Toroidal Assembly fusion device at harwell This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The mushroom cloud from the Mike shot. ... Operation Ivy was the eighth series of American nuclear tests, coming after Tumbler-Snapper and before Upshot-Knothole. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Properties In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 939. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Zeta can refer to: Zeta (letter), a letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Russian: Союз Советских Социалистических Республик (СССР)  listen; tr. ... Atoms for Peace was the title of a speech delivered by Dwight D. Eisenhower to the UN General Assembly in New York City on December 8, 1953. ... Geneva (French: Genève, German: Genf, Italian: Ginevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland, situated where Lake Geneva (known in French as Lac Léman) flows into the Rhône River. ... For the generic term for a high-tension struggle between countries, see cold war (war). ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link goes to calendar). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... US3386883 - fusor -- June 4, 1968 The Farnsworth-Hirsch Fusor, or simply fusor, is an apparatus designed by Philo T. Farnsworth to create nuclear fusion. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... A split image of the largest tokamak in the world, the JET, showing hot plasma in the right image during a shot. ... Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm (Russian И́горь Евге́ньевич Та́мм, also transcribed sometimes as Igor Evgenevich Tamm) (July 8, 1895 – April 12, 1971) was a Soviet/Russian physicist. ... Andrei Sakharov, 1943 Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (Андре́й Дми́триевич Са́харов, May 21, 1921 – December 14, 1989), was an eminent Soviet-Russian nuclear physicist, dissident and human rights activist. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... Inertial confinement fusion using lasers rapidly progressed in the late 1970s and early 1980s from being able to deliver only a few joules of laser energy to a fusion target to being able to deliver tens of kilojoules to a target. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Split image of JET with right side showing hot plasma during a shot. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... The Shiva laser was an extremely powerful 20 beam infrared neodymium glass (silica glass) laser built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1977 for the study of inertial confinement fusion and long-scale-length laser-plasma interactions. ... In 1977 the completion of the Shiva laser at LLNL ushered in a new field of big science; laser fusion. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... Split image of JET with right side showing hot plasma during a shot. ... The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive of the European Union. ... The Royal Air Force (often abbreviated to RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1174x793, 75 KB)Plot of the parameter space occupied by various LLNL neodymium glass lasers used for inertial confinement fusion research. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1174x793, 75 KB)Plot of the parameter space occupied by various LLNL neodymium glass lasers used for inertial confinement fusion research. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cadarache in Provence-Alpes-Côte-dAzur, France is the site of the future international tokamak ITER. This was decided in a final meeting in Moscow on June 28, 2005. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor (with boiling liquid nitrogen underneath) demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Split image of JET with right side showing hot plasma during a shot. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... JT-60 (JT stands for Japan Torus) is the flagship of Japans magnetic fusion program, run by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Naka Fusion Research Establishment, in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cutaway of the ITER Tokamak Torus incasing. ... The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was an experimental fusion test reactor built at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (in Princeton, New Jersey) circa 1980. ... Split image of JET with right side showing hot plasma during a shot. ... JT-60 (JT stands for Japan Torus) is the flagship of Japans magnetic fusion program, run by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Naka Fusion Research Establishment, in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. ... The European Atomic Energy Community, or EURATOM, is an international organisation composed of the members of the European Union. ... This article is about the year. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Utah is one of the Four Corners states, and is bordered by: Idaho (at 42°N) and Wyoming (at 41°N and 111°W) in the north, by Colorado (at 109°W) in the east, at a single point by New Mexico to the southeast (at the Four Corners Monument... Stanley Pons was a chemist at University of Utah who, while working with Martin Fleischmann of the University of Southampton, announced the discovery of cold fusion on March 23, 1989. ... Martin Fleischmann (1927-) is a chemist at the University of Southampton who, while working with Stanley Pons of University of Utah, announced the discovery of cold fusion on March 23, 1989. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is about the year. ... A construction worker inside NIFs 10 meter target chamber. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Plasma held in the START Tokamak START, or Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak was a nuclear fusion experiment that used magnetic confinement to hold plasma. ... Culham is a village on the north bank of the River Thames near Abingdon in southern Oxfordshire. ... The second letter of the Greek alphabet, Î’ β, also has some cultural meanings; see beta (letter). ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Cutaway of the ITER Tokamak Torus incasing. ... The European Atomic Energy Community, or EURATOM, is an international organisation composed of the members of the European Union. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was an experimental fusion test reactor built at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (in Princeton, New Jersey) circa 1980. ... Princeton University, located in Princeton, New Jersey, is the fifth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States. ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance of one atom in 6500 of hydrogen. ... Tritium (symbol T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... A lower hybrid oscillation is a longitudinal oscillation of ions and electrons in a magnetized plasma. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Split image of JET with right side showing hot plasma during a shot. ... An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha particles or alpha rays (named after the first letter in the greek alphabet) are a form of particle radiation which are highly ionizing and have low penetration. ... A construction worker inside NIFs 10 meter target chamber. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: United States Wikinews has news related to this article: United States United States government CIA World Factbook Entry for United States House. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... JT-60 (JT stands for Japan Torus) is the flagship of Japans magnetic fusion program, run by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Naka Fusion Research Establishment, in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) is a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Cutaway of the ITER Tokamak Torus incasing. ... A Plasma held in the START Tokamak START, or Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak was a nuclear fusion experiment that used magnetic confinement to hold plasma. ... The MAST experiment is a nuclear fusion experiment in operation at Culham since 1999. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... Cutaway of the ITER Tokamak Torus incasing. ... 2002 (MMII) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bubble fusion or sonofusion is the common name for a nuclear fusion reaction hypothesized to occur during sonoluminescence, an extreme form of acoustic cavitation. ... Cadarache in Provence-Alpes-Côte-dAzur, France is the site of the future international tokamak ITER. This was decided in a final meeting in Moscow on June 28, 2005. ... Cutaway of the ITER Tokamak Torus incasing. ... 2003 (MMIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cutaway of the ITER Tokamak Torus incasing. ... 2003 (MMIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cadarache in Provence-Alpes-Côte-dAzur, France is the site of the future international tokamak ITER. This was decided in a final meeting in Moscow on June 28, 2005. ... Cutaway of the ITER Tokamak Torus incasing. ... It has been suggested that Sandia Base be merged into this article or section. ... The Z machine at Sandia National Laboratory. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cutaway of the ITER Tokamak Torus incasing. ... 2005 (MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cutaway of the ITER Tokamak Torus incasing. ... Cadarache in Provence-Alpes-Côte-dAzur, France is the site of the future international tokamak ITER. This was decided in a final meeting in Moscow on June 28, 2005. ...


External link

  • Fusion experiments from the British Science Museum

  Results from FactBites:
 
nuclear fusion: Information from Answers.com (4659 words)
Nuclear fusion of light elements releases the energy that causes stars to shine and hydrogen bombs to explode.
Nuclear fusion of heavy elements (absorbing energy) occurs in the extremely high-energy conditions of supernova explosions.
Building upon the nuclear transmutation experiments of Ernest Rutherford done a few years earlier, fusion of light nuclei (hydrogen isotopes) was first observed by Mark Oliphant in 1932, and the steps of the main cycle of nuclear fusion in stars were subsequently worked out by Hans Bethe throughout the remainder of that decade.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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