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Encyclopedia > Timeline of Canadian history
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This is a brief timeline of the history of Canada. Canada is a nation of 33 million inhabitants, occupying almost all of the northern half of the North American continent, and being the second largest country in the world. ...


See also: Timeline of Ontario history, Timeline of Quebec history, Canadian incumbents by year Ontario came into being as a province of Canada in 1867. ... This article presents a detailed timeline of Quebec history both as part of the British Empire and the Dominion of Canada. ... Leaders by year State leaders Religious leaders Intl organization leaders Colonial governors Canadian incumbents British incumbents German rulers US state governors Canadian incumbents in any given year. ...


Contents


First Peoples

30,000 BP


18,000 BP Satellite photo of the Bering Strait Nautical chart of the Bering Strait The Bering Strait is a sea strait between Cape Dezhnev, the eastmost point of the Asian continent and Cape Prince of Wales, the westernmost point of the American continent, approximately 85 km (58 mi) in width, with a...


15,000 BP State nickname: Badger State State motto: Forward Other U.S. States Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Governor Jim Doyle (D) Senators Herb Kohl (D) Russ Feingold (D) Official languages None Area 169,790 km² (23rd)  - Land 140,787 km²  - Water 28,006 km² (17%) Population (2000)  - Population 5,453,896...

  • Wisconsin ice sheet retreats; exposes ice-free corridor


13,000 BP

  • Descendants of Old World hunters migrate south


9,000 BP The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus: Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia) and the surrounding islands. ...

  • Mammoths become extinct; hunters adjust hunting practices; more mobile, less numerous


5,000 BP This article is about the extinct mammal. ...

  • Paleo-Eskimos (Denbigh) cross Bering Strait; move east along Arctic coast


3,000 BP

  • Dorset, descendants of Denbigh, develop more suitable Arctic technology


1,000 BP

  • Thule migrate across Arctic; reach Labrador

This article is about the region in Canada. ...

Viking Exploration


968 Jump to: navigation, search The name Viking is a borrowed word from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, the British Isles, and other parts of Europe from the late 8th century to the 11th century. ...


1000 Bjarni Herjólfsson was a Norse explorer, believed to be the first European to view mainland North America. ...

A statue of Leif Ericson in front of the Hallgrímskirkja in Reykjavik Leif Ericson (old Icelandic: Leifr Eiríksson) was an explorer, the son of Eric the Red (Eiríkr rauði), a Norwegian outlaw, who was the son of another Norwegian outlaw, Þorvaldr Ásvaldsson. ... Viking colonisation site at LAnse-aux-Meadows LAnse aux Meadows (from the French LAnse-aux-Méduses (Jellyfish Cove)) is a site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where the remains of a Viking village were discovered in 1960 by...

Early European Exploration and Settlement


1497


1534 Giovanni Caboto (c. ... Newfoundland (French: Terre-Neuve; Irish: Talamh an Éisc; Latin: Terra Nova) Newfoundland (originally, Terra Nova) was very likely named by the english John Cabot in 1497, which would make it the oldest European name in North America. ... This article needs cleanup. ...  Map from Fisheries and Oceans Canada (Pêches et Oceans Canada) showing location of the Grand Banks The Grand Banks are a group of underwater plateaus southeast of Newfoundland on the North American continental shelf. ...


1605 Jacques Cartier Jacques Cartier (December 31, 1491 – September 1, 1557), baptized Jakez Karter, was a French explorer who is popularly thought of as one of the major discoverers of Canada, or more specifically, the interior eastern region that would become the first european-inhabited area of that country. ... The Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee, also known as the League of Peace and Power) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ... The Gaspé Peninsula or just the Gaspé (la Gaspésie in French) is a North American peninsula on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River, in Quebec. ... The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, is iron disulfide, FeS2. ...


1608 This article is about the former capital city of Jamaica. ...


1609 Jump to: navigation, search Samuel de Champlain by Théophile Hamel (1870) Samuel de Champlain (c. ... Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (Gift of God shall make prosper) Area: 547. ...

  • Huron chiefs meet with Champlain
    • For trade and military alliance


1608 - 1763 This article is about the First Nations people, the Wyandot, also known as the Huron. ...


1642 New France (French: la Nouvelle-France) describes the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534 to the cession of New France to the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1763. ... Jean Talon, comte dOrsainville (1625 baptised 8 January 1626 – November 1694) was a French colonial administrator who was the first and most highly regarded Intendant of New France. ... Jump to: navigation, search City motto: Concordia Salus (Latin: Well-being through harmony) Province Quebec Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area  - % water 500. ... Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (Gift of God shall make prosper) Area: 547. ... This page concerns the Christian martyr. ... The company mainly manages various fur products such as mink,fox hair,rabbit hair and leather garments,scarf,leather cap,gloves,automobile cushion,sofa cushion,carpet,leather mattress,handbag, garment auxiliary materials,shoes inner,motorcycle grip cover,animal craftwork,hair ornaments,etc,also produces handwork articles of wool knitting scarf... Hudson Bay, Canada. ... There are several treaties that have taken place in Paris: Treaty of Paris (1259) - between Henry III of England and Louis IX of France Treaty of Paris (1763) - ended Seven Years War Treaty of Paris (1783) - ended American Revolutionary War Treaty of Paris (1810) - ended war between France and Sweden...

Jump to: navigation, search City motto: Concordia Salus (Latin: Well-being through harmony) Province Quebec Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area  - % water 500. ...

18th Century


1713


1719 The Treaty of Utrecht was series of peace treaties signed in Utrecht in 1713, helped end the War of the Spanish Succession (Queen Annes War) By its provisions, Louis XIVs grandson Philip V of Spain was recognized as King of Spain, but Spains European empire was divided... The national flag of Acadia, adopted in 1884. ... Jump to: navigation, search Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (One defends and the other conquers) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Lieutenant Governor Myra Freeman Premier John Hamm (PC) Area 55,283 km² (12th) • Land 53,338 km² • Water 1,946 km² (3. ... Newfoundland (French: Terre-Neuve; Irish: Talamh an Éisc; Latin: Terra Nova) Newfoundland (originally, Terra Nova) was very likely named by the english John Cabot in 1497, which would make it the oldest European name in North America. ...


1745 Fortress Louisbourg (fr. ...


1749 Fortress Louisbourg (fr. ...

  • Halifax founded
    • To become centre of British power; to counterbalance Louisbourg
    • First serious attempt by Britain to settle the Maritimes


1756 Halifax can refer to any of several things: Halifax, West Yorkshire Halifax Regional Municipality, Nova Scotia Halifax (UK Parliament constituency) Earl of Halifax, The Edward Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax Halifax bank Halifax, Nova Scotia Halifax County, Nova Scotia Halifax (electoral district) (Canada) Halifax class frigate HMCS Halifax (FFH 330... Fortress Louisbourg (fr. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Maritime Provinces, or simply the Maritimes, constitute a region of Canada on the Atlantic coast, consisting of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. ...


1759 The Seven Years War (1754 and 1756–1763) pitted Great Britain, Prussia and Hanover against France, Austria, Russia, Sweden, and Saxony. ... Beginning in 1963, a terrorist group that became known as the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) launched a decade of bombings, robberies and attacks on government offices and at least two murders by FLQ gunfire and three violent deaths by bombings. ... Jump to: navigation, search State nickname: Pelican State Other U.S. States Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans, officially (currently Baton Rouge due to the evacuation of New Orleans) Governor Kathleen Blanco (D) Senators Mary Landrieu (D) David Vitter (R) Official languages None; English and French de facto Area...


1760 The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, fought September 13, 1759, was a decisive battle of the North American theatre of the Seven Years War (a theatre known in the United States as the French and Indian War). ... The Death of General Wolfe by Benjamin West. ... Portrait of Montcalm Montcalm trying to stop Native Americans from attacking British soldiers and civilians as they leave Fort William Henry. ...

  • Defeat of France / British capture Montreal
    • British begin 100 year rule
    • Seigneurial system retained until 1854


1763 Jump to: navigation, search City motto: Concordia Salus (Latin: Well-being through harmony) Province Quebec Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area  - % water 500. ...


1774 There are several treaties that have taken place in Paris: Treaty of Paris (1259) - between Henry III of England and Louis IX of France Treaty of Paris (1763) - ended Seven Years War Treaty of Paris (1783) - ended American Revolutionary War Treaty of Paris (1810) - ended war between France and Sweden... Guadeloupe, in the Caribbean Sea, is an archipelago with a total area of 1,704 km² located in the Eastern Caribbean. ...


1775 - 1783 The Quebec Act of 1774 was an act by the British Parliament setting out procedures of governance in the area of Quebec. ... Civil law has at least three meanings. ...


1791 Jump to: navigation, search The American Revolution is the series of events, ideas, and changes that resulted in the political separation of thirteen colonies in North America from the British Empire and the creation of the United States of America. ... For the township in Canada, see Loyalist, Ontario In general, a loyalist is an individual who is loyal to the powers that be. ... Jump to: navigation, search Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (One defends and the other conquers) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Lieutenant Governor Myra Freeman Premier John Hamm (PC) Area 55,283 km² (12th) • Land 53,338 km² • Water 1,946 km² (3. ...

The Constitutional Act of 1791 was a British law which changed the government of the province of Quebec to accommodate the many English-speaking settlers, known as the United Empire Loyalists, who had arrived from the United States following the American Revolution. ...

19th Century


1837

  • Rebellions of 1837
    • Louis-Joseph Papineau; French-Canadians revolt
    • "The Ninety-Two Resolutions" were rejected by the British Parliament
    • Armed uprisings broke out


1840 Portrait of Louis-Joseph Papineau. ...

  • Atlantic Canada begins "Golden Age"
  • Potato Famines in Ireland; immigration increases


1848 Men from Francisco de Orellanas expedition building a small brigantine, the San Pedro, to be used in the search for food Shipbuilding is the construction of ships. ...


1853 - 1856 Act of Union can mean: United Kingdom The Act of Union is a name given to several acts passed by the English, Scottish and British Parliaments from 1536 onwards. ... Note: for information about Canadas present-day provinces, see Provinces of Canada. ... John George Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham (12 April 1792 - 28 July 1840), was a British Whig statesman and colonial administrator, Governor-General and high commissioner of British North America. ... Lower Canada was a British colony in North America, at the downstream end of the Saint Lawrence River in the southern portion of the modern-day province of Quebec. ...


1861 - 1865 Jump to: navigation, search The Crimean War lasted from 28 March 1854 until 1856. ...


1866 Jump to: navigation, search The American Civil War (1861–1865) was fought in North America within the United States of America, between twenty-three mostly northern states of the Union and the Confederate States of America, a coalition of eleven southern states that declared their independence and claimed the right...


1867 Atlantic Canada consists of the four Canadian provinces on the Atlantic Ocean: Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. ... Jump to: navigation, search There have been a number of Reciprocity Treaties, including: the Canadian-American Reciprocity Treaty of 1855; the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875 between the United States and the Hawaiian Kingdom (see Early History of Pearl Harbor); the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance of 1947 (also known... While the states marked in red show the core of New England, the regions cultural influence may cover a greater or lesser area than shown. ...


1869 This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Canada is the second largest and the northern-most country in the world, occupying most of the North American land mass. ... Beginning in 1963, a terrorist group that became known as the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) launched a decade of bombings, robberies and attacks on government offices and at least two murders by FLQ gunfire and three violent deaths by bombings. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Area 1,076,395 km² (4th) Land 917,741 km² Water 158,654 km² (14. ... Jump to: navigation, search Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope was restored) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Lieutenant Governor Herménégilde Chiasson Premier Bernard Lord (PC) Area 72 908 km² (8th) • Land 71 450 km² • Water 1 458 km² (2. ... Jump to: navigation, search Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (One defends and the other conquers) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Lieutenant Governor Myra Freeman Premier John Hamm (PC) Area 55,283 km² (12th) • Land 53,338 km² • Water 1,946 km² (3. ...


1870 The Métis provisional government The Red River Resistance of 1869 – 1870 is the term most often used to describe the actions of a provisional government established by Métis leader Louis Riel in 1869 at the Red River Settlement in what is now the Canadian province of Manitoba. ... Louis Riel Louis David Riel (October 22, 1844 – November 16, 1885), was a Canadian politician and leader of the Métis people of the Canadian prairies. ... Manitoba Act was an Act of the government of Canada given the Royal Assent on May 12, 1870 creating the Province of Manitoba. ... Metis can refer to a number of things: Metis was a Titaness and the first wife of Zeus. ...


1872 The Hudsons Bay Company (HBC) (TSX: HBC) is the oldest corporation in Canada (and North America) and is one of the oldest in the world still in existence. ...


1873 The Dominion Lands Act was an 1872 Canadian law that aimed to encourage the settlement of Canadas prairie provinces. ... The term township generally means the district or area associated with a town. ...


1876 Motto: Parva Sub Ingenti (The small under the protection of the great) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Charlottetown Largest city Charlottetown Lieutenant Governor J. Léonce Bernard Premier Pat Binns (PC) Area 5,660 km² (13th) Land 5,660 km² Water 0 km² (0%) Population (2004) Population 137,900...


1879 Intercolonial Railway of Canada logo or herald The Intercolonial Railway of Canada (IRC), also referred to as the Intercolonial Railway, was a historic Canadian railway. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Maritime Provinces, or simply the Maritimes, constitute a region of Canada on the Atlantic coast, consisting of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. ...


1885 The National Policy was a Canadian economic program introduced by John A. Macdonalds Conservative Party in 1879 after it returned to power. ... The Right Honourable Sir John Alexander Macdonald, GCB, QC (January 11, 1815 - June 6, 1891) was the first Prime Minister of Canada from July 1, 1867 - November 5, 1873 - and - October 17, 1878 - June 6, 1891. ... A tariff is a tax placed on imported and/or exported goods, sometimes called a customs duty. ...


1896 - 1914 The Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR; AAR reporting marks CP, CPAA, CPI), known as CP Rail between 1968 and 1996, is a Canadian Class I railway operated by Canadian Pacific Railway Limited. ...


1898

  • Quebec boundary extended
    • To the Eastman River

20th Century


1905


1912 Motto: Fortis et Liber (Strong and free) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ralph Klein (PC) Area 661,848 km² (6th) Land 642,317 km² Water 19,531 km² (2. ... Jump to: navigation, search Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (From many peoples, strength) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Lieutenant Governor Lynda M. Haverstock Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Area 651,036 km² (7th) • Land 591,670 km² • Water 59,366 km² (9. ...

  • Quebec boundary extended
    • Territory of Ungava; into Inuit lands


1927 Jump to: navigation, search Inuit woman Inuit (Inuktitut syllabics: ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, singular Inuk or Inuq / ᐃᓄᒃ) is a general term for a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic coasts of Alaska, the eastern islands of the Canadian Arctic, Labrador, and the ice-free coasts of Greenland. ...

  • Boundary between Canada and Newfoundland decided


1949 Hudson Bay, Canada. ...

  • Newfoundland joins confederation


1960

  • Quiet Revolution
    • Rise of Quebec nationalism
    • Expansion of industry
    • Removal of old elite; mostly Clergy
    • State's aggressive role in the province's affairs
  • Election of Jean Lesage
  • Creation of Hydro-Quebec


1965 Jump to: navigation, search Jean Lesage, Daniel Johnson Sr. ... The Honourable Jean Lesage, PC , CC , CD (June 10, 1912–December 12, 1980) was a lawyer and politician in Quebec, Canada. ... Categories: Companies of Canada | Public Utilities | Stub ...


1969 The Canada-United States Automotive Agreement more commonly known as the Auto Pact was an important trade agreement between Canada and the United States. ...


1980 The term bilingualism (from bi meaning two and lingua meaning language) can refer to rather different phenomena. ...


1982 A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...

1995 Jump to: navigation, search The Constitution Act is the name of several laws, notably: Constitutional Act of 1791 Constitution Act, 1867, formerly called the British North America Act of 1867 Constitution (Amendment No. ... The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is the bill of rights which forms part of the Constitution of Canada adopted in 1982. ...

  • Second Quebec referendum on seperation

Books

  • Bone, Robert M. The Regional Geography of Canada, 2004. ISBN 0195419332

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