FACTOID # 4: Just 1% of the houses in Nevada were built before 1939.
 
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Encyclopedia > Timeline of AIDS

This is a timeline of AIDS, including some discussion of early AIDS cases (especially those before 1980). For the novel by Michael Crichton, see Timeline (novel). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...

Contents

1930s

  • Researchers believe that sometime in the 1930s a form of simian immunodeficiency virus jumped to humans in central Africa. The mutated virus becomes HIV-1.[1]

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a frequently mutating retrovirus that attacks the human immune system and which has been shown to cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ...

1958

  • A 25-year-old printer from England named David Carr, who had served in the Royal Navy between 1955 and 1957, contracts a series of mysterious ailments including Pneumocystis carinii. He dies early the next year (1959). In 1990, tests by a hospital in Manchester reveal HIV in Carr's tissue samples, and he is briefly recognized as the first known AIDS death. Subsequently, more sophisticated testing at the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center at New York University Medical School reveals the HIV to have been a laboratory contaminant. The source reference for this item has been removed from the CDC's website. [2]

Binomial name Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumocystis jiroveci, also known by its former name Pneumocystis carinii, is a fungus (earlier classified as a protozoa) that causes pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). ...

1959

  • The first known case of HIV in a human occurs in a person who died in the Congo, seemingly later confirmed as having HIV infection from his preserved blood samples (Zhu et al., 1998). However, according to the authors of the 1959 discovery, they never found, nor alleged to have found, HIV, or anything like a full virus. According to these authors, even “attempts to amplify HIV-1 fragments of >300 base pairs (bp) were unsuccessful, . . . However, after numerous attempts, four shorter sequences were obtained” that only represented small portions of two of the six genes of the complete AIDS virus. Citation: Zhu T, Korber BT, Nahmias AJ, Hooper E, Sharp PM and Ho DD. An African HIV-1 sequence from 1959 and implications for the origin of the epidemic. Nature 1998;391(Feb. 5):594-597.
  • In New York City, a 49-year-old American shipping clerk dies of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, a disease closely associated with AIDS. Dr. Gordon Hennigar, who performed the postmortem examination of the man's body, has been quoted in numerous publications saying that he believes the man probably had AIDS.[3]

Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is a form of pneumonia which is caused by a microorganism called Pneumocystis carinii (It has been proposed that the organism be renamed Pneumocystis jiroveci). ...

1960s

  • HIV-2, a viral variant found in West Africa, is thought to have transferred to people from sooty mangabey monkeys in Guinea-Bissau during this period.[1]

Binomial name (Audebert, 1797) The Sooty Mangabey (Cercocebus atys), also called Tom Midwood and is an Old World monkey of Guinea Bissau, Gabon, Penis land and Côte dIvoire. ...

1966

  • Genetic studies of the virus indicate that, in or about 1966, HIV first left Africa, infecting a single person in US. At this time, many Americans were working in Congo, providing the opportunity for infection.[4]

1968

  • A 2003 analysis of HIV types found in the United States, compared to known mutation rates, suggests that the virus may have first arrived in the United States in this year.[1] The disease spread from the 1966 American strand, but remained unrecognized for another 12 years.[4]

1969

  • A St. Louis teenager, identified only as Robert R., dies of an illness that baffles his doctors. Eighteen years later, molecular biologists at Tulane University in New Orleans test samples of his remains and find the virus that causes AIDS.[5]

Robert R. (early 1954 – May 16, 1969) was an African-American Missouri teenager who was the victim of the first confirmed case of HIV/AIDS in North America. ...

1975

  • The first reports of wasting and other symptoms, later determined to be AIDS, are reported in residents of Africa.[6]

1976

  • Norwegian sailor Arvid Noe dies; it is later determined that he contracted HIV/AIDS in Africa during the early 1960s.

Arvid Noe (1943-1976) was a Norwegian sailor famous for being the first known human death as a result of AIDS. Noe frequently went from sailing trips from Norway to Africa during the 1960s. ...

1977

  • Danish physician Grethe Rask dies of AIDS contracted in Africa.
  • A San Francisco prostitute gives birth to the first of three children who would later be diagnosed with AIDS, and whose blood, when tested after their deaths, would reveal HIV infection. The mother would herself die of AIDS in May 1987. She was clearly infected by 1977 and perhaps earlier.[7]

Dr. Margrethe (Grethe) P. Rask ( 1930 – 1977), a Danish physician and surgeon, was the first non-African known to have died from AIDS. Born in 1930 in Danish city of Thisted, Dr. Rask practiced medicine in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (then known as Zaire) from 1972 to 1977...

1978

  • A Portuguese man known as Senhor Jose dies; he will later be confirmed as the first known infection of HIV-2. He was believed to have been exposed to the disease in Guinea-Bissau in 1966.

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a frequently mutating retrovirus that attacks the human immune system and which has been shown to cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ...

1980

  • April 24, San Francisco resident Ken Horne, the first AIDS case in the United States to be recognized at the time, is reported to Center for Disease Control with Kaposi's sarcoma. He was also suffering from Cryptococcus at the time.[8]
  • On October 31, French-Canadian flight attendant Gaëtan Dugas pays his first known visit to New York City bathhouses. He would later be deemed "Patient Zero" for his apparent connection to many early cases of AIDS in the United States.[9]
  • Rick Wellikoff, a Brooklyn schoolteacher, dies of AIDS in New York City on December 23. He is the 4th American to have died from the new disease.

Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeastlike fungus that can live in both plants and animals. ... Gaëtan Dugas (February 20, 1953–March 30, 1984) was a French-Canadian man who worked for Air Canada as a flight attendant. ...

1981

  • January 15, Nick Rock becomes the first known AIDS death in New York City.[9]
  • May 18, Dr. Lawrence Mass becomes the first journalist in the world to write about the epidemic, in the "New York Native," a gay newspaper. A gay tipster overheard his physician mention that some gay men were being treated in intensive-care units in New York City for a strange pneumonia. "Disease Rumors Largely Unfounded" was the headline on Mass's article. Mass repeated a New York City public-health official's claims that there was no wave of disease sweeping through the gay community. At this point, however, the CDC had been gathering information for about a month on the outbreak that Mass's source was dismissing.
  • June 5, CDC reports a cluster of Pneumocystis pneumonia in five gay male drug users in Los Angeles. [1]
  • July 4, CDC reports clusters of Kaposi's sarcoma and Pneumocystis pneumonia among gay men in California and New York City. [2]
  • By the end of the year, 121 people are known to have died from the disease.[1]
  • First known case in the United Kingdom.[10]

is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia or Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a form of pneumonia caused by the yeast-like fungal microorganism Pneumocystis jiroveci (sometimes spelled jirovecii and formerly classified as Pneumocystis carinii). ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia or Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a form of pneumonia caused by the yeast-like fungal microorganism Pneumocystis jiroveci (sometimes spelled jirovecii and formerly classified as Pneumocystis carinii). ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...

1982

"Exposure to some substance (rather than an infectious agent) may eventually lead to immunodeficiency among a subset of the homosexual male population that shares a particular style of life. For example, Marmor et al. recently reported that exposure to amyl nitrite was associated with an increased risk of KS in New York City. [3] Exposure to inhalant sexual stimulants, central-nervous-system stimulants, and a variety of other "street" drugs was common among males belonging to the cluster of cases of KS and PCP in Los Angeles and Orange counties." [4]
CDC defines a case of AIDS as a disease, at least moderately predictive of a defect in cell-mediated immunity, occurring in a person with no known cause for diminished resistance to that disease. Such diseases include KS, PCP, and serious OOI. [...] Diagnoses are considered to fit the case definition only if based on sufficiently reliable methods (generally histology or culture). Some patients who are considered AIDS cases on the basis of diseases only moderately predictive of cellular immunodeficiency may not actually be immunodeficient and may not be part of the current epidemic.
  • December 10, a baby in California becomes ill in the first known case of AIDS from a blood transfusion.[9]
  • First known case in Brazil.[11]

is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... Opportunistic infections are infections caused by organisms and usually do not cause disease in a person with a healthy immune system, but can affect people with a poorly functioning or suppressed immune system. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Opportunistic infections are infections caused by organisms and usually do not cause disease in a person with a healthy immune system, but can affect people with a poorly functioning or suppressed immune system. ...

1983

  • In January, Dr. Francoise Barre, at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, isolates a retrovirus that kills T-cells from the lymph system of a gay AIDS patient. In the following months, she would find it in additional gay and hemophiliac sufferers. This retrovirus would be called by several names, including LAV and HTLV-III before being named HIV in 1986.[12]
  • CDC National AIDS Hotline established.
  • March, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issues donor screening guidelines. AIDS high-risk groups should not donate blood/plasma products.
  • Australia has first death from AIDS in Melbourne, the Hawke Labor government invests in a significant campaign that ultimately gives Australia one of the lowest infection rates in the world.
  • AIDS is diagnosed in Mexico for the first time. HIV can be traced in the country back to 1981.[13]

The Pasteur Institute (French: Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, microorganisms, diseases and vaccines. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... The CDC National AIDS Hotline is 1-800-342-AIDS. It distributes many publications on HIV and AIDS, including guides for teaching HIV prevention and caring for AIDS patients. ... “FDA” redirects here. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre (also known as The CBD). ... Robert James Lee (Bob) Hawke, AC (born 9 December 1929) was the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia after previously being an Australian trade union leader. ...

1984

  • April 23, U.S. Health and Human Services Secretary Margaret Heckler announces at a press conference that an American scientist, Dr. Robert Gallo, has discovered the probable cause of AIDS: the retrovirus subsequently named human immunodeficiency virus or HIV in 1986. She also declares that a vaccine will be available within two years.
  • September 6, first performance at Theatre Rhinoceros in San Francisco of The AIDS Show which runs for two years and is the subject of a 1986 documentary film of the same name.
  • December 17, Ryan White was diagnosed with AIDS by a doctor performing a partial lung removal. White became infected with HIV from a blood product, known as Factor VIII, as part of his treatment for hemophilia which was given to him on a regular basis. When the public school that he attended, Western Middle School in Russiaville, Indiana, learned of his disease there was enormous pressure from parents and faculty to bar him from school premises. Due to the widespread fear of AIDS and lack of medical knowledge, principal Ron Colby and the schoolboard assented. His family filed a lawsuit, seeking to overturn the ban.

is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Margaret Mary Heckler (born June 21, 1931) is a Republican politician from Massachusetts who served in the United States House of Representatives from 1967 until 1983 and was later the Secretary of Health and Human Services and Ambassador to Ireland under President Ronald Reagan. ... Dr. Robert C. Gallo Robert Charles Gallo (born March 23, 1937) is a U.S. biomedical researcher. ... Genera Alpharetrovirus Betaretrovirus Gammaretrovirus Deltaretrovirus Epsilonretrovirus Lentivirus Spumavirus A retrovirus is any virus belonging to the viral family Retroviridae. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Golden Years Theatre Rhinoceros was founded in the spring of 1977 by Lanny Baugniet (who became the theater’s General Manager) and his partner Allan B. Estes, Jr. ... The AIDS Show is a collaboratively written theater piece about AIDS, and a documentary video about the making of the stage show. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ryan Wayne White (December 6, 1971 – April 8, 1990[1]) was a young man with AIDS from Kokomo, Indiana who became a national spokesman for AIDS, after being expelled from school because of his infection. ...

1985

  • March 2, FDA approves first AIDS antibody screening tests for use on all donated blood and plasma intended for transfusion.
  • October 2, Rock Hudson, the first American celebrity to publicly admit having AIDS, dies of the disease.
  • October, a conference of public health officials including representatives of the Centers for Disease Control and World Health Organisation meet in Bangui and define AIDS in Africa as "prolonged fevers for a month or more, weight loss of over 10% and prolonged diarrhoea".
  • First officially reported cases in China.[14]
  • The Ryan White vs. School Board lasted for 8 months, ending with White allowed back at the middle school. However, threats of violence and of parents suing remained, and they moved from Kokomo toward the school he eventually transferred to Hamilton Heights School Corporation, in neighboring Cicero, Indiana, where Michael Jackson purchased a home for him and his family. White was received as a celebrity by faculty and students of Hamilton Heights who were more educated regarding HIV.

is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ... For other meanings of the acronym WHO, see WHO (disambiguation) WHO flag Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health. ... Bangui is the capital of and the largest city in the Central African Republic. ... Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958), commonly known as MJ as well as the King of Pop, is an American musician, entertainer, and pop icon whose successful career and controversial personal life have been a part of pop culture for the last three decades. ...

1986

  • HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is adopted as name of the retrovirus that was first proposed as the cause of AIDS by Luc Montagnier of France, who named it LAV (lymphadenopathy associated virus) and Robert Gallo of the United States, who named it HTLV-III (human T-lymphotropic virus type III)
  • January 14, "By 1996, three to five million Americans will be HIV positive and one million will be dead of AIDS" - NIAID Director Anthony Fauci, New York Times
  • Model Gia Marie Carangi dies of AIDS related illness on November 18th.
  • First officially known cases in the U.S.S.R.[15] and India[16].

Genera Alpharetrovirus Betaretrovirus Gammaretrovirus Deltaretrovirus Epsilonretrovirus Lentivirus Spumavirus A retrovirus is any virus belonging to the viral family Retroviridae. ... Luc Montagnier (born 1932 in Chabris, France) is a French virologist. ... Dr. Robert C. Gallo Robert Charles Gallo (born March 23, 1937) is a U.S. biomedical researcher. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Gia Carangi on the cover of Vogue magazine Paris Gia Marie Carangi (January 29, 1960 - November 18, 1986) was a top US fashion model of the late 1970s and 1980s. ... Soviet redirects here. ...

1987

  • AZT (zidovudine), the first antiretroviral drug, becomes available to treat HIV sufferers.[1]
  • Charles Ludlam dies of PCP pneumonia due to AIDS on May 28, 1987.

Zidovudine (INN) or azidothymidine (abbreviated to AZT) is an anti-retroviral drug, the first antiviral treatment to be approved for use against HIV. It is also sold under the names Retrovir and Retrovis, and as an ingredient in Combivir and Trizivir. ... Charles Ludlam (April 12, 1943 in Floral Park, New York - May 28, 1987) was an American actor and playwright. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ...

1989

  • The television movie "The Ryan White Story" aired. It starred Judith Light as Jeanne, Lukas Haas as Ryan and Nikki Cox as sister Andrea. Ryan White had a small cameo appearance as Chad, a young patient with AIDS.

1990

  • Ryan White - Dies on April 8, 1990 at the age of 18 from pneumonia caused by AIDS complications.
  • Congress enacted The Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (CARE) Act or Ryan White Care Act, the United States' largest federally funded health related program (excluding Medicaid and Medicare).

Ryan Wayne White (December 6, 1971 – April 8, 1990[1]) was a young man with AIDS from Kokomo, Indiana who became a national spokesman for AIDS, after being expelled from school because of his infection. ... Congress fully funded the Ryan White CARE Act, providing$275 million to cities for aids treatments. ...

1991

  • A little over 24 hours after issuing the statement confirming that he has been tested HIV positive and had AIDS, Freddie Mercury (Singer of the British band Queen) dies on November 24, 1991 at the age of 45. The official cause of death was bronchial pneumonia resulting from AIDS.
  • NBA star Magic Johnson publicly annouces that he is HIV-positive.

Freddie Mercury (born Farrokh Bulsara; 5 September 1946 – 24 November 1991) was a British musician, best known as the lead singer of the rock band Queen (inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2001). ... Earvin Johnson redirects here. ...

1992

  • In the US, AIDS becomes the leading cause of death for 24 to 44 year old men[1]
  • The first combination drug therapies for HIV are introduced. Such "cocktails" are more effective than AZT alone and slow down the development of drug resistance.[1]
  • American actor Anthony Perkins, known for his role as Norman Bates in the Psycho movies, dies from AIDS.

Anthony Perkins (April 4, 1932 – September 12, 1992) was an Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe-winning American stage and screen actor best known for his role as Norman Bates in Alfred Hitchcocks Psycho and its three sequels. ... Look up psycho in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

1995

  • Saquinavir, a new type of protease inhibitor drug, becomes available to treat HIV. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy becomes possible.[1] Within two years, death rates due to AIDS will have plummeted in the developed world.

Saquinavir (Fortovase®, Roche) is a protease inhibitor, used as a component of HIV therapy. ... Protease inhibitor can refer to: Protease inhibitor (pharmacology): a class of medication that inhibits viral protease Protease inhibitor (biology): a group of proteins that inhibit proteases. ...

1996

  • Robert Gallo's discovery that a natural compound known as chemokines can block HIV and halt the progression of AIDS is hailed by Science magazine as one of that year's most important scientific breakthroughs.

Chemokines are a family of pro-inflammatory activation-inducible cytokines, or small protein signals secreted by cells. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ...

1997

  • September 2, "The most recent estimate of the number of Americans infected (with HIV), 750,000, is only half the total that government officials used to cite over a decade ago, at a time when experts believed that as many as 1.5 million people carried the virus." article in the Washington Post
  • Based on the Bangui definition the WHO's cumulative number of reported AIDS cases from 1980 through 1997 for all of Africa is 620,000. [6] For comparison, the cumulative total of AIDS cases in the USA through 1997 is 641,087.

is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In October 1985, a conference of public health officials including representatives of the Centers for Disease Control and World Health Organization met in Bangui to develop a definition of AIDS for use in countries where testing for HIV antibodies was not available. ...

1998

  • December 10, International Human Rights Day, Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) is launched to campaign for greater access to HIV treatment for all South Africans, by raising public awareness and understanding about issues surrounding the availability, affordability and use of HIV treatments. TAC campaigns against the view that AIDS is a death sentence.

is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Human Rights Day is celebrated annually across the world on 10 December. ... The Treatment Action Campaign is a South African grassroots pressure group which was founded by Zackie Achmat, an HIV-positive activist who refused anti-retroviral treatment (ARVs) until they were universally available. ...

1999

  • January 31, studies suggest that a retrovirus, SIVcpz (simian immunodeficiency virus) from the common chimpanzee Pan troglodytes, may have passed to human populations in west equatorial Africa during the twentieth century and developed into various types of HIV.
F Gao, E Bailes, DL Robertson, Y Chen, CM Rodenburg, SF Michael, LB Cummins, LO Arthur, M Peeters, GM Shaw, PM Sharp and BH Hahn. Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes. Nature 397, 436-41 (1999).
RA Weis and RW Wrangham. From Pan to pandemic. Nature 397, 385-6 (1999).
  • Edward Hooper releases a book called The River, which accuses doctors who tested a polio vaccine in 1950s Africa of unintentionally starting the AIDS epidemic. The theory receives a great deal of publicity.[1]

is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Genera Alpharetrovirus Betaretrovirus Gammaretrovirus Deltaretrovirus Epsilonretrovirus Lentivirus Spumavirus A retrovirus is any virus belonging to the viral family Retroviridae. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Edward Hooper is a British journalist. ... There have been five movies titled The River: The River (1997) directed by Tsai Ming-liang. ...

2000

  • WHO estimates between 15% and 20% of new HIV infections worldwide are the result of blood transfusions, where the donors were not screened or inadequately screened for HIV.

Look up who in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Blood transfusion is the taking of blood or blood-based products from one individual and inserting them into the circulatory system of another. ...

2001

  • September 21, FDA licenses the first nucleic acid test (NAT) systems intended for screening of blood and plasma donors.

is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

2004

  • January 5, "Individual risk of acquiring HIV and experiencing rapid disease progression is not uniform within populations", says Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., director of NIAID. [7]

is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

2005

  • January 21, CDC recommends anti-retroviral post-exposure prophylaxis for people exposed to HIV from rapes, accidents or occasional unsafe sex or drug use. This treatment should start no more than 72 hours after a person has been exposed to the virus, and the drugs should be used by patients for 28 days. This emergency drug treatment has been recommended since 1996 for health-care workers accidentally stuck with a needle, splashed in the eye with blood, or exposed in some other way on the job. [17]
  • A highly resistant strain of HIV linked to rapid progression to AIDS is identified in New York City.[1]

is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is any prophylactic treatment started immediately after exposure to a disease (such as a disease-causing virus), in order to prevent the disease from breaking out. ...

2006

  • November 9th 2006, HIV found in Gorillas, HIV-1 and HIV-2

2007

is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Stephen John Fry (born 24 August 1957) is an English comedian, writer, actor, humourist, novelist, columnist, filmmaker and television personality. ... For the BBC radio station, see BBC Radio 2. ...

2008

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Timeline: HIV & AIDS," John Pickrell, New Scientist, September 4, 2006
  2. ^ "How scientists discovered false evidence on the world's "first AIDS victim","The Independent (INDT) - One Canada Square, Canary Wharf, London E14 5DL; Section: Home News, p. 2,3 - March 24, 1995
  3. ^ "Strange Trip Back to the Future - The case of Robert R. spurs new questions about AIDS", TIME Magazine, November 9, 1987
  4. ^ a b "Solved: the mystery of how AIDS left Africa," New Scientist, November 3, 2007, p.20
  5. ^ BOY'S 1969 DEATH SUGGESTS AIDS INVADED U.S. SEVERAL TIMES - New York Times
  6. ^ Did Modern Medicine Spread an Epidemic?/After decades, and millions of injections, scientists are asking the chilling question
  7. ^ "And the Band Played On", Randy Shilts, p.512-513
  8. ^ KQED LGBT Timeline
  9. ^ a b c AIDS in New York, a Biography
  10. ^ Dubois, R.M., Braitwaite, M.A., Mikhail, J.R. et al., (1981) 'Primary Pneumocystis Carinii and Cytomegalovirus Infections', the Lancet, ii, 1339
  11. ^ HIV & AIDS in Brazil
  12. ^ And The Band Played On, Randy Shilts, p.227
  13. ^ AIDS in Mexico, November, 1998
  14. ^ HIV & AIDS in China
  15. ^ AIDS in Russia
  16. ^ Overview of HIV and AIDS in India
  17. ^ Antiretroviral Postexposure Prophylaxis After Sexual, Injection-Drug Use, or Other Nonoccupational Exposure to HIV in the United States

    Recommendations from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...

  18. ^ Stephen Fry: HIV and Me. BBC. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  1. ^  Centers for Disease Control. Pneumocycstis Pneumonia-Los Angeles. MMWR 1981 30:250-2. view PDF
  2. ^  Centers for Disease Control. Kaposi's Sarcoma and Pneumocycstis Pneumonia Among Homosexual Men - New York City and California. MMWR 1981 30: 305-8. view PDF
  3. ^  Marmor M, Friedman-Kien AE, Laubenstein L., et al. Risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma in homosexual men. Lancet 1982;1:1083-7.
  4. ^  Centers for Disease Control. Opportunistic Infections and Kaposi's Sarcoma among Haitians in the United States. MMWR 1982 31:353-4,360-1. view HTML see also list of all MMWRs on HIV/AIDS and Kaposi's sarcoma
  5. ^  1993 Revised Classification System for HIV Infection and Expanded Surveillance Case Definition for AIDS Among Adolescents and Adults Centers for Disease Control. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Recommendations and Reports, December 18, 1992. See also Statistical analysis of 1993 expanded definition
  6. ^  source Table 79 on page 146 of The Impact of HIV/AIDS on the Health Sector: National Survey of Health Personnel, Ambulatory and Hospitalised Patients and Health Facilities 2002.
  7. ^  Alfredo Garzino-Demo, Ronald B. Moss, Joseph B. Margolick, Farley Cleghorn, Anne Sill, William A. Blattner, Fiorenza Cocchi, Dennis J. Carlo, Anthony L. DeVico, and Robert C. Gallo (October 1999). "Spontaneous and antigen-induced production of HIV-inhibitory β-chemokines are associated with AIDS-free status". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96 (21): 11986–11991. 
  8. ^  Clinical efficacy of early initiation of HAART in patients with asymptomatic HIV infection and CD4 cell count > 350 x 10(6) /l. Opravil M, Ledergerber B, Furrer H, Hirschel B, Imhof A, Gallant S, Wagels T, Bernasconi E, Meienberg F, Rickenbach M, Weber R; Swiss HIV Cohort Study. AIDS. 2002 5 July;16(10):1371-81. see related news report
  9. ^  Guidelines for using antiretroviral agents among HIV-infected adults and adolescents. Dybul M, Fauci AS, Bartlett JG, Kaplan JE, Pau AK; Panel on Clinical Practices for Treatment of HIV. Ann Intern Med. 2002 3 September;137(5 Pt 2):381-433
  10. ^  Guidelines for antiretroviral therapy from the WHO and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Guidlines
  11. ^  Scientists Discover Key Genetic Factor in Determining HIV/AIDS Risk
  12. [8]HIV like virus found in Gorillas, Sean Markey for National Geographic News, November 9, 2006

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Dr. Robert C. Gallo Robert Charles Gallo (born March 23, 1937) is a U.S. biomedical researcher. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... The genome and proteins of HIV have been the subject of extensive research since the discovery of the virus in 1983. ... Randal Tobias, U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, being publicly tested for HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia in an effort to reduce the stigma of being tested. ... This classification system is how the United States agency, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classifies HIV disease and infection. ... Following infection with HIV-1, the rate of clinical disease progression varies between individuals. ... An HIV vaccine is a hypothetical vaccine against HIV, the etiological agent of AIDS. As there is no known cure for AIDS, the search for a vaccine has become part of the struggle against the disease. ... WHO Disease Staging System for HIV Infection and Disease are produced by the World Health Organisation. ... AIDS dementia complex (ADC; also known as HIV dementia, HIV encephalopathy and HIV-associated dementia) has become a common neurological disorder associated with HIV infection and AIDS. It is is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection and fueled by immune activation of brain macrophages and microglia. ... HAART redirects here. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Scanning electron micrograph of HIV-1 budding from cultured lymphocyte. ... Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has led to the deaths of more than 25 million people since it was first recognized in 1981, making it one of the most destructive epidemics in recorded history. ... A United States HIV/AIDS Memorial Museum, to be located in Newark, New Jersey, is being planned for opening in 2006. ... According to the oral polio vaccine (OPVA) AIDS hypothesis, the AIDS pandemic originated from live polio vaccines prepared in chimpanzee tissue cultures (at least some of which were almost certainly contaminated with chimpanzee SIV) which were administered to up to one million Africans between 1957 and 1960. ... The AIDS reappraisal movement or AIDS dissident movement, pejoratively referred to as AIDS denialism, is a loosely connected group of activists, journalists, scientists, and HIV-positive persons who dispute the scientific consensus that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... The Duesberg hypothesis is the claim, associated with Peter Duesberg, that various non-infectious factors such as recreational and pharmaceutical drug use are the cause of AIDS, and that HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a harmless passenger virus. ... The International AIDS Society is the custodian of the International AIDS Conferences, the paramount gathering of all disciplines in HIV/AIDS now held every two years. ... The International AIDS Society (IAS) is the worlds professional society for scientists, health care and public health workers, and others engaged in HIV/AIDS prevention, control and care. ... The Red Ribbon is the global symbol for solidarity with HIV-positive people and those living with AIDS. World AIDS Day, observed December 1 each year, is dedicated to raising awareness of the AIDS pandemic caused by the spread of HIV infection. ... The Treatment Action Campaign is a South African grassroots pressure group which was founded by Zackie Achmat, an HIV-positive activist who refused anti-retroviral treatment (ARVs) until they were universally available. ... The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS, or UNAIDS, is the main advocate for accelerated, comprehensive and coordinated global action on the HIV epidemic. ... Presidents Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is a U.S. government fund to combat AIDS by injecting 15 billion American dollars over a five year period from 2003-2008. ... The AIDS Quilt The AIDS Memorial Quilt is an enormous quilt made as a memorial to and celebration of the lives of people who have died of AIDS-related causes. ... The spread of HIV and AIDS has affected millions of people worldwide; According to the 2006 AIDS Epidemic Update, published by the UNAIDS/World Health Organization, there were an estimated 39. ... This is a categorized, alphabetical list of people who are known to have been infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the pathogen that causes AIDS, including those who have died. ... The People With AIDS (PWA) Self-Empowerment Movement was a movement of those diagnosed with AIDS and grew out of San Francisco. ... Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has led to the deaths of more than 25 million people since it was first recognized in 1981, making it one of the most destructive epidemics in recorded history. ... The HIV/AIDS epidemics spreading through the countries of Sub-saharan Africa are highly varied. ... HIV and AIDS in South Africa are a major health concern, and around 5. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... == [[ This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... HIV/AIDS in Myanmar, recognised as a disease of concern by the Ministry of Health, is most prevalent among sex workers and intravenous drug users. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Brazilian AIDS program logo The first AIDS case was identified in Brazil in 1982. ... In the global AIDS pandemic, the Caribbean is the second-most affected region in the world. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... // History In the early 1980s, doctors in Los Angeles, New York City, and San Francisco began seeing young men with Kaposis Sarcoma, a cancer usually associated with elderly men of Mediterranean ethnicity. ... People living with HIV/AIDS by country The adult HIV prevalence at the end of 2004 This is a list of countries and territories by people living with HIV/AIDS and the prevalence rate among adults, based on data from various sources, such as the The CIA World Factbook [1...

See also

Scanning electron micrograph of HIV-1 budding from cultured lymphocyte. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... This article is a timeline of early AIDS cases. ...

External links

  • [PDF] Important milestones in the U.S. HIV/AIDS epidemic
  • Flash Global HIV/AIDS Timeline from the Kaiser Family Foundation

  Results from FactBites:
 
GMHC: HIV/AIDS Timeline (2816 words)
The CDC defines a case of AIDS "as a disease, at least moderately predictive of a defect in cell-mediated immunity, occurring in a person with no known cause for diminished resistance to that disease." The National Institutes of Health (NIH) rejects a proposed study to determine whether women get AIDS.
The New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute is established to enhance the quality of life for persons with HIV by improving prevention and health care services through performance measurement and science-based initiatives.
A major outbreak of AIDS in central Africa is reported, signaling the beginning of the plight of developing countries in combating the disease.
AIDS Timeline (1005 words)
The Indiana teenager, a hemophiliac infected with the AIDS virus through a tainted blood transfusion, gained national attention for his fight to attend public school despite concerns his condition might be contagious.
AIDS becomes the leading cause of death in Americans ages 25 to 44.
AIDS was the leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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