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Encyclopedia > Timbuktu
Timbuktu
  transliteration(s)
 - Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu
 - French: Tombouctou
Sankore Mosque in Timbuktu
Timbuktu (Mali)
Timbuktu
Coordinates: 16°46′33″N 3°00′34″W / 16.77583, -3.00944
Country Flag of Mali Mali
Region Tombouctou Region
Settled 10th century
Elevation 261 m (856 ft)
Population (1998[citation needed])
 - Total 31,973

Timbuktu (Archaic English: Timbuctoo; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu; French: Tombouctou) is a city in Tombouctou Region, in the West African nation of Mali. It is home to the prestigious Sankore University and other madrasas, and was an intellectual and spiritual capital and centre for the propagation of Islam throughout Africa in the 15th and 16th centuries. Its three great mosques, Djingareyber, Sankore and Sidi Yahya, recall Timbuktu's golden age. Although continuously restored, these monuments are today under threat from desertification. Timbuktu is primarily made of mud.[1] Timbuktu For the Malian city, see Timbuktu. ... Koyra Chiini (koyra ʧiini, literally town language), or Western Songhay, is a variety of Songhai in Mali, spoken by about 200,000 people (as of 1999) along the Niger River in Timbuktu and upriver from it in the towns of Diré, Tonka, Goundam, and Niafunké, as well as in the... Image File history File linksMetadata Timbuktu_Mosque_Sankore. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mali. ... Tombouctou is the large northern-most region of Mali, comprised mostly of the Southwestern section of the Sahara desert. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Koyra Chiini (koyra ʧiini, literally town language), or Western Songhay, is a variety of Songhai in Mali, spoken by about 200,000 people (as of 1999) along the Niger River in Timbuktu and upriver from it in the towns of Diré, Tonka, Goundam, and Niafunké, as well as in the... Tombouctou is the large northern-most region of Mali, comprised mostly of the Southwestern section of the Sahara desert. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Sankore University or Sankore or The University of Sankore An ancient center of learning located in Timbuktu, Mali, West Africa. ... A Madrasah complex in Gambia Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Djinguereber Mosque (Masjid) in Timbuktu is a famous learning center of Mali built in 1327, and cited as Djingareyber or Djingarey Ber in various languages. ... Sankoré Madrasah, The University of Sankoré, or Sankore Masjid is one of three ancient centers of learning located in Timbuktu, Mali, West Africa. ... Sidi Yahya is a mosque and madrassa of Timbuktu in the West African country of Mali dating back the early 15th century. ... For the labor union vitiation procedure, see NLRB election procedures#Decertification elections. ...


Timbuktu is populated by Songhay, Tuareg, Fulani, and Mandé people, and is about 15 km north of the Niger River. It is also at the intersection of an east–west and a north–south Trans-Saharan trade route across the Sahara to Araouane. It was important historically (and still is today) as an entrepot for rock-salt from Taoudenni. The Songhai are an ethnic group living in western Africa. ... For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... The Fulbhe (singular Pullo) or Fulani is an ethnic group of people spread over many countries in West Africa,Central Africa and as far as East Africa. ... Mandé is an ethnic group of West Africa. ... This article is about the river. ... The Great Mosque of Djenné, founded in 800, an important trading base, now a World Heritage Site Trans-Saharan trade, refers to trade across the Sahara between Mediterranean countries and West Africa. ... Araouane is a village in the Malian Sahara, lying north of Timbuktu on the road to Taoudenni. ... An entrepôt is a trading centre, or simply a warehouse, where merchandise can be imported and re-exported without paying import duties. ... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with formula NaCl. ... Taoudenni is a remote oasis in northern Mali known for its salt mines. ...


Its geographical setting made it a natural meeting point for nearby west African populations and nomadic Berber and Arab peoples from the north. Its long history as a trading outpost that linked west Africa with Berber, Arab, and Jewish traders throughout north Africa, and thereby indirectly with traders from Europe, has given it a fabled status, and in the West it was for long a metaphor for exotic, distant lands: "from here to Timbuktu." Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... Languages Berber languages Religions Islam (mostly Sunni), Christianity (mostly Kabyle catholic) Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Timbuktu's long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization is scholarship.[2] By the fourteenth century, important books were written and copied in Timbuktu, establishing the city as the centre of a significant written tradition in Africa.[3]

Contents

Origins

Part of a series on
Islam
For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...



Image File history File links Mosque02. ...

Beliefs
Aqidah (sometimes spelled as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah) (Arabic: عقيدة) is an Islamic term meaning creed. ...

Allah · Oneness of God
Muhammad · Prophets of Islam Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... Islam reveres the one God, who is considered the only Creator and Lord of the Universe. The main fundamental creed (shahadah) of Islam is There is but (one) God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God. The Arabic word for The God is Allah (الله); Muslims consider him the same deity... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ...

Practices

Profession of Faith · Prayer
Fasting · Charity · Pilgrimage The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... White flag featuring the Shahada text as used by the Taliban. ... Salat redirects here. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ...

History · Leaders
Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... Islamic religious leaders have traditionally been persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation. ...

Timeline of Muslim history
Ahl al-Bayt · Sahaba
Rashidun Caliphs · Shi'a Imams There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ...

Texts · Laws
// Quran Text Surahs Ayah Commentary/Exegesis Tafsir ibn Kathir (by Ibn Kathir) Tafsir al-Tabari (by Tabari) Al Kordobi Tafseer-e-kabir (by Imam Razi) Tafheem-al-Quran (by Maulana Maududi) Sunnah/Hadith Hadith (Traditions of The Prophet) The Siha-e-Sitta al-Bukhari (d. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ...

Qur'an · Sunnah · Hadith
Fiqh · Sharia
Kalam · Tasawwuf (Sufism) The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Sufism (Arabic: ‎ - taá¹£awwuf, Kurdish Sufayeti, Persian: صوفی‌گری, sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf), is generally understood by scholars to be the inner or mystical dimension of Islam. ...

Major branches
The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ...

Sunni · Shi'a

Culture · Society
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Muslim culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...

Academics · Animals · Art
Calendar · Children · Demographics
Festivals · Mosques · Philosophy
Politics · Science · Women Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... This article is about the attitudes of Islam regarding animals. ... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... This article discusses childrens rights given by Islam, childrens duties towards their parents, parents treatment of their children, both males and females, biological and foster children, also discussed are some of the differences regarding rights with respect to different schools of thoughts. ... Islam - percentage by country Map showing distribution of Shia and Sunni Muslims in Africa, Asia and Europe. ... Muslim holidays generally celebrate the events of the life of Islams main prophet, Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Kuran. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world. ...

Islam and other religions
This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Christianity · Hinduism · Jainism
Judaism · Sikhism

See also
This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jainism and Islam came in close contact with each other following the Islamic Conquest from Central Asia and Persia in the seventh to the twelfth centuries when much of north and central India came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, and later the Mughal dynasty. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... Map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ...

Criticism of Islam · Islamophobia
Glossary of Islamic terms (Arguments critical to religion in general, or specific to Monotheism, such as the Existence of God, not dealt with here. ... Islamophobia is a controversial[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ...

Islam Portal
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Timbuktu was established by the nomadic Tuareg as early as the 10th century. According to a popular etymology its name is made up of: tin which means "place" and buktu, the name of an old Malian woman known for her honesty and who once upon a time lived in the region. Tuareg and other travelers would entrust this woman with any belongings for which they had no use on their return trip to the north. Thus, when a Tuareg, upon returning to his home, was asked where he had left his belongings, he would answer: «I left them at Tin Buktu », meaning the place where dame Buktu lived. The two terms ended up fusing into one word, thus giving the city the name of Tinbuktu which later became Timbuktu. However, the French orientalist René Basset forwarded a more plausible translation: in the Berber languages "buqt" means ""far away", so "Tin-Buqt(u)" means a place almost at the other end of the world, resp. the Sahara. For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Etymologies redirects here. ... For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Berber language called Tamazight. ...


Although Tuaregs founded Timbuktu, it was merchants (mostly from Djenne) who set up the various markets and built permanent dwellings in the town, establishing the site as a meeting place for people traveling by camel.[4][5] Like its predecessor, Tiraqqa, a neighboring trading city of the Wangara, Timbuktu grew to great wealth because of its key role in trans-Saharan trade in gold, ivory, slaves, salt and other goods by the Tuareg, Mandé and Fulani merchants, transferring goods from caravans coming from the Islamic north to boats on the Niger. Thus if the Sahara functioned as a sea, Timbuktu was a major port. It became a key city in several successive empires: the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire from 1324, and the Songhai Empire from 1468, the second occupations beginning when the empires overthrew Tuareg leaders who had regained control. It reached its peak in the early 16th century, but its capture in 1591 by a band of Moroccan adventurers was not the start so much as a symptom of the crumbling of the ancient economy with Portuguese goods that came instead from the river's mouth (Braudel pp 434–35). The location of Djenné within Mali Djenné (also Dienné or Jenne) is a city on the Bani River in southern Mali with a population of about 12,000 (in 1987). ... A marketplace is the space, actual or metaphorical, in which a market operates. ... Wangara is a suburb of Perth, Western Australia, located within the City of Wanneroo. ... The Great Mosque of Djenné, founded in 800, an important trading base, now a World Heritage Site Trans-Saharan trade, refers to trade across the Sahara between Mediterranean countries and West Africa. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The slave trade means a trade in human beings treated as objects of commerce. ... This article is about common table salt. ... Mandé is an ethnic group of West Africa. ... The Fulbhe (singular Pullo) or Fulani is an ethnic group of people spread over many countries in West Africa,Central Africa and as far as East Africa. ... A camel train is a series of camels carrying goods or passengers in a group as part of a regular or semi-regular service between two points. ... Not to be confused with the modern country Ghana. ... Extent of the Mali Empire (ca. ... Events Publication of Defensor pacis by Marsilius of Padua Mansa Kankan Musa I, ruler of the Mali Empire arrives in Cairo on his hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca. ... The Songhai Empire, (ca. ... August 26 - Baeda Maryam succeeds his father Zara Yaqob as Emperor of Ethiopia. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


The leaders of the Songhai kingdom (also spelled Songhay) began expanding their domain along the Niger River. Like the kingdoms of Ghana and Mali that flourished in the region in earlier centuries, Songhai grew powerful because of its control of local trade routes. Timbuktu would soon become the heart of the mighty Songhai Empire. It became wealthy because many merchants traveled trade routes that went through it. The Songhai are an ethnic group living in western Africa. ...


Legendary tales

Tales of Timbuktu's fabulous wealth helped prompt European exploration of the west coast of Africa. Among the earliest descriptions of Timbuktu are those of Leo Africanus, Ibn Battuta and Shabeni. Explorer redirects here. ... Leo Africanus was the Christianised name of Hasan bin Muhammed al-Wazzan al-Fasi (Hasan, son of Muhammed, the Weigher from Fez) (Granada 1488? – 1554?). A former inhabitant of Granada, his family left the city sometime after the Christian conquest of the Muslim kingdom in 1492. ... It has been suggested that Travelling route of Ibn Batuta be merged into this article or section. ...


The place name is said to come from a Tuareg woman named Buktu who dug a well in the area where the city stands today; hence "Timbuktu", which means "Buktu's well".


Leo Africanus

Perhaps most famous among the tales written about Timbuktu is that by Leo Africanus. As a captured renegade who later converted back to Islam from Christianity, following a trip in 1512, when the Songhai empire was at its height he wrote the following: Leo Africanus was the Christianised name of Hasan bin Muhammed al-Wazzan al-Fasi (Hasan, son of Muhammed, the Weigher from Fez) (Granada 1488? – 1554?). A former inhabitant of Granada, his family left the city sometime after the Christian conquest of the Muslim kingdom in 1492. ... The Songhai Empire, (ca. ...

The rich king of Tombuto hath many plates and sceptres of gold, some whereof weigh 1300 pounds. ... He hath always 3000 horsemen ... (and) a great store of doctors, judges, priests, and other learned men, that are bountifully maintained at the king's expense. [6]

At the time of Leo Africanus' visit, grass was abundant, providing plentiful milk and butter in the local cuisine, though there were neither gardens nor orchards surrounding the city.[7]


Shabeni

Shabeni was a merchant from Tetuan who was captured and ended up in England where he told his story of how as a child of 14, around 1787, he had gone with his father to Timbuktu. A version of his story is related by James Grey Jackson in his book An Account of Timbuctoo and Hausa, 1820: ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Hausa are a Sahelian people chiefly located in the West African regions of northern Nigeria and southeastern Niger. ...

On the east side of the city of Timbuctoo, there is a large forest, in which are a great many elephants. The timber here is very large. The trees on the outside of the forest are remarkable...they are of such a size that the largest cannot be girded by two men. They bear a kind of berry about the size of a walnut, in clusters consisting of from ten to twenty berries. Shabeeny cannot say what is the extent of this forest, but it is very large. Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea...

Center of learning

Timbuktu*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Djinguereber Mosque
State Party Flag of Mali Mali
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iv, v
Reference {{{ID}}}
Region Africa
Inscription history
Inscription 1988  (12th Session)
Endangered 1990-2005
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

During the early 15th century, a number of Islamic institutions were erected. The most famous of these is the Sankore mosque, also known as the University of Sankore. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 697 KB) Cour de la mosquée de Djingareiber, Tombouctou KaTeznik, 7 janvier 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Mali Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mali. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Africa. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... These are thirty sites which the UNESCO World Heritage Committee has decided to include on a list of World Heritage Sites in danger; this list also shows the year in which the World Heritage committee added the site to this list. ...


While Islam was practiced in the cities, the local rural majority were non-Muslim traditionalists. Often the leaders were nominal Muslims in the interest of economic advancement while the masses were traditionalists.


University of Sankore

Main article: Sankore University

Sankore, as it stands now, was built in 1581 AD (= 989 A. H.) on a much older site (probably from the 13th or 14th century) and became the center of the Islamic scholarly community in Timbuktu. The "University of Sankore" was a madrassah, very different in organization from the universities of medieval Europe. It was composed of several entirely independent schools or colleges, each run by a single master or imam. Students associated themselves with a single teacher, and courses took place in the open courtyards of mosque complexes or private residences. The primary focus of these schools was the teaching of the Qur'an, although broader instruction in fields such as logic, astronomy, and history also took place. Scholars wrote their own books as part of a socioeconomic model based on scholarship. The profit made by buying and selling of books was only second to the gold-salt trade. Among the most formidable scholars, professors and lecturers was Ahmed Baba – napolean bonaparte frequently quoted in the Tarikh-es-Sudan and other works. Sankore University or Sankore or The University of Sankore An ancient center of learning located in Timbuktu, Mali, West Africa. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1064 KB) Portes de la Medersa de Sankore KaTeznik, 7 janvier 2005 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sankore Madrasah Metadata This file contains additional information... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1064 KB) Portes de la Medersa de Sankore KaTeznik, 7 janvier 2005 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sankore Madrasah Metadata This file contains additional information... Sankoré Madrasah, The University of Sankoré, or Sankore Masjid is one of three ancient centers of learning located in Timbuktu, Mali, West Africa. ... Madrassa in the Gambia The word madrassa in the Arabic language (and other languages of the Islamic nations such as Persian, Turkish, Indonesian etc. ... The first European medieval institutions generally considered to be universities were established in Italy, France, and England in the late 11th and the 12th centuries for the study of arts, law, medicine, and theology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Ahmad Baba redirects here. ...


The manuscripts and libraries of Timbuktu

A German Map from 1855
A German Map from 1855

The most outstanding treasure at Timbuktu are the 100,000 manuscripts kept by the great families from the town. [8]. These manuscripts, some of them dated from pre-Islamic times and 12th century, have been preserved as family secrets in the town and in other villages nearby. The most were written in Arabic or Fulani, by wise men coming from Mali Empire. Their contents are didactic, especially in the subjects of astronomy, music, and botany. More recent manuscripts deal on law, sciences and history (with unique records as the Tarikh el-Fetash by Mahmoud Kati from the 16th century or the Tarikh es-Sudan by Abderrahman es-Sadi on Sudanic history in 17th century), religion, trading, etc. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (821x985, 161 KB)Map of Timbuktu from 1855 taken from http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (821x985, 161 KB)Map of Timbuktu from 1855 taken from http://www. ... Christ Pantocrator seated in a capital U in an illuminated manuscript from the Badische Landesbibliothek, Germany. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Categories: Africa-related stubs | Burkina Faso | Cameroon | Ethnic groups of Africa | Fulani Empire | Mali | Nigeria ... Extent of the Mali Empire (ca. ... The Tarikh es-Sudan (or History of the Sudan) is a medieval chronicle written by Abderrahman es-Sadi in the 17th Century, giving the general history of the western Sahel. ...


The Ahmed Baba Institute (Cedrab), founded in 1970 by the government of Mali, with collaboration of Unesco, holds some of these manuscripts in order to restore and digitize them. More than 18,000 manuscripts have been collected by the Ahmed Baba centre, but there are an estimated 300,000-700,000 manuscripts in the region.[9] Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ahmad Baba redirects here. ...


The collection of ancient manuscripts at the University of Sankore and other sites around Timbuktu document the magnificence of the institution, as well as the city itself, while enabling scholars to reconstruct the past in fairly intimate detail. Dating from the 16th to the 18th centuries, these manuscripts cover every aspect of human endeavor and are indicative of the high level of civilization attained by West Africans at the time. In testament to the glory of Timbuktu, for example, a West African Islamic proverb states that "Salt comes from the north, gold from the south, but the word of God and the treasures of wisdom come from Timbuktu." Sankoré Madrasah, The University of Sankoré, or Sankore Masjid is one of three ancient centers of learning located in Timbuktu, Mali, West Africa. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ...


From 60 to 80 private libraries in the town have been preserving these manuscripts: Mamma Haidara Library; Fondo Kati Library (with approximately 3,000 records from Andalusian origin, the oldest dated from 14th and 15th centuries); Al-Wangari Library; and Mohamed Tahar Library, among them. These libraries are considered part of the "African Ink Road" that stretched from West Africa connecting North Africa and East Africa. At one time there were 120 libraries with manuscripts in Timbuktu and surrounding areas. There are more than one million objects preserved in Mali with an additional 20 million in other parts of Africa, the largest concentration of which is in Sokoto, Nigeria, although the full extent of the manuscripts is unknown. During the colonial era efforts were made to conceal the documents after a number of entire libraries were taken to Paris, London and other parts of Europe. Some manuscripts were buried underground, while others were hidden in the desert or in caves. Many are still hidden today. The United States Library of Congress microfilmed a sampling of the manuscripts during an exhibition there in June 2003. In February 2006 a joint South African/Malian effort began investigating the Timbuktu manuscripts to assess the level of scientific knowledge in Timbuktu and in the other regions of West Africa. [10] This article is about the historical region. ... Location of Sokoto in Nigeria, Sokoto is a city located in the extreme northwest of Nigeria, near to where the Sokoto River and Rima River meet. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... Microfilm machines may be available at libraries or record archives. ...


Ravage and decline

The city began to decline after explorers and slavers from Portugal and then other European countries landed in West Africa, providing an alternative to the slave market of Timbuktu and the trade route through the world's largest desert. The decline was hastened when it was invaded by Morisco mercenaries armed with European-style guns in the service of the Moroccan sultan in 1591. A trade route is the sequence of pathways and stopping places used for the commercial transport of cargo. ... Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ...


Many European individuals and organizations made great efforts to discover Timbuktu and its fabled riches. In 1788 a group of titled Englishmen formed the African Association with the goal of finding the city and charting the course of the Niger River. In 1824, the Paris-based Société de Géographie offered a 10,000 franc prize to the first non-Muslim to reach the town and return with information about it. The Scot Gordon Laing arrived in September 1826 but was killed shortly after by local Muslims who were fearful of European discovery and intervention. The Frenchman René Caillié arrived in 1828 traveling alone disguised as Muslim; he was able to safely return and claim the prize. The source of the Niger River and the location of Timbuktu werent known to Europeans. ... This article is about the river. ... The Société de Géographie, Paris, is the worlds oldest geographical society. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Alexander Gordon Laing (December 27, 1793–September 26, 1826) was a Scottish explorer and the first European to reach Timbuktu. ... René Caillié (September 19, 1799 - May 17, 1838) was a French explorer, and the first European to return alive from the town of Timbuktu. ...

Timbuktu seen from a distance by Heinrich Barth's party, Sept. 7th 1853
Timbuktu seen from a distance by Heinrich Barth's party, Sept. 7th 1853

Robert Adams, an African-American sailor, claimed to have visited the city in 1811 as a slave after his ship wrecked off the African coast.[11] He later gave an account to the British consul in Tangier, Morocco in 1813. He published his account in an 1816 book, The Narrative of Robert Adams, a Barbary Captive (still in print as of 2006), but doubts remain about his account.[citation needed] Only three other Europeans reached the city before 1890: Heinrich Barth in 1853 and the German Oskar Lenz with the Spanish Cristobal Benítez in 1880. For other uses, see Tangier (disambiguation). ... Heinrich Barth (1821-1865), German explorer, was born at Hamburg on February 16, 1821, and educated at Berlin University, where he graduated in 1844. ...


About 60 British merchant seamen were held prisoner there during the Second World War, and during May 1942 two of them, William Soutter and John Graham of the British SS Allende died there and are buried in the European cemetery - surely the most remote British war graves tended by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.


In the 1990s, Timbuktu came under attack from Tuareg people hoping to build their own state. The Tuareg Rebellion was symbolically ended with a burning of weapons in the town in 1996. The Tuareg Rebellion was an uprising of the 1990s by various Tuareg groups in Niger and Mali with the aim of achieving autonomy or forming their own nation. ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


Timbuktu today

Street Scene - Caille House
Street Scene - Caille House
A typical street scene at Timbuktu, Mali, with omnipresent bread-baking ovens
A typical street scene at Timbuktu, Mali, with omnipresent bread-baking ovens

Today, Timbuktu is an impoverished town, although its reputation makes it a tourist attraction to the point where it even has an international airport (Timbuktu Airport). It is one of the eight regions of Mali, and is home to the region's local governor. It is the sister city to Djenné, also in Mali. The 1998 census listed its population at 31,973, up from 31,962 in the census of 1987.[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Timbuktu_Caille_House_Street_Scene. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Timbuktu_Caille_House_Street_Scene. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2000x1275, 288 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Timbuktu Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2000x1275, 288 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Timbuktu Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Mali is divided into eight regions and a district. ... Djenné (also Dienné or Jenne) is a historically and commercially important small city in the Niger Inland Delta of central Mali. ...


Timbuktu is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, listed since 1988. In 1990, it was added to the list of World Heritage Sites in danger due to the threat of desert sands. A program was set up to preserve the site and, in 2005, it was taken off the list of endangered sites. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... These are thirty sites which the UNESCO World Heritage Committee has decided to include on a list of World Heritage Sites in danger; this list also shows the year in which the World Heritage committee added the site to this list. ... This article is about arid terrain. ...


Timbuktu was one of the major stops during Henry Louis Gates' PBS special "Wonders of the African World". Gates visited with Abdel Kadir Haidara, curator of the Mamma Haidara Library together with Ali Ould Sidi from the Cultural Mission of Mali. It is thanks to Gates that an Andrew Mellon Foundation grant was obtained to finance the construction of the library's facilities, later inspiring the work of the Timbuktu Manuscripts Project. Unfortunately, no practising book artists exist in Timbuktu although cultural memory of book artisans is still alive, catering to the tourist trade. The town is home to an institute dedicated to preserving historic documents from the region, in addition to two small museums (one of them the house in which the great German explorer Heinrich Barth spent six months in 1853-54), and the symbolic Flame of Peace monument commemorating the reconciliation between the Tuareg and the government of Mali. Henry Louis Gates Jr. ... PBS redirects here. ... The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation is a foundation endowed with wealth accumulated by the late Andrew W. Mellon. ... Timbuktu Manuscripts Project is a cultural project which aims to preserve around 700,000 scholarly Islamic manuscripts in the city of Timbuktu, Mali. ...


The image of the city as mysterious or mythical has survived to the present day in other countries: a poll among young Britons in 2006 found 34% did not believe the town existed, while the other 66% considered it "a mythical place".[12] Not to be confused with United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ...


Attractions

Timbuktu's vernacular architecture is marked by mud mosques, which are said to have inspired Antoni Gaudí. These include Vernacular architecture is a term used to categorize a method of construction which uses locally available resources to address local needs. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Antoni Plàcid Guillem Gaudí i Cornet (Riudoms or Reus, 25 June 1852 – Barcelona, 10 June 1926) – sometimes referred to by the Spanish translation of his name, Antonio Gaudí – was a Spanish, Catalan architect, who belonged to the Modernisme (Art Nouveau) movement and was famous for his unique style and...

Other attractions include a museum, terraced gardens and a water tower. The Djinguereber Mosque (Masjid) in Timbuktu is a famous learning center of Mali built in 1327, and cited as Djingareyber or Djingarey Ber in various languages. ... Sankore University or Sankore or The University of Sankore An ancient center of learning located in Timbuktu, Mali, West Africa. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Sidi Yahya is a mosque and madrassa of Timbuktu in the West African country of Mali dating back the early 15th century. ... For other uses, see Museum (disambiguation). ... The mushroom-shaped concrete water tower of Roihuvuori in Helsinki, Finland was built in the 1970s. ...

Language

The main language of Timbuktu is a Songhay language called Koyra Chiini, spoken by over 80% of residents. Smaller groups, numbering 10% each before many were expelled during the Tuareg/Arab rebellion of 1990-1994, speak Hassaniya Arabic and Tamashek. The Songhay languages (IPA [soŋay], in the dialects of Gao and Timbuktu [soŋoy]) are a group of closely related languages/dialects centered on the middle stretches of the Niger River in present day Mali and Niger, widely used as a lingua franca there ever since the era of... Koyra Chiini (koyra ʧiini, literally town language), or Western Songhay, is a variety of Songhai in Mali, spoken by about 200,000 people (as of 1999) along the Niger River in Timbuktu and upriver from it in the towns of Diré, Tonka, Goundam, and Niafunké, as well as in the... Ḥassānīya is a Bedouin dialect derived from the Arabic dialect spoken by the Beni Hassān tribes, who extended their authority over most of the Mauritanian Sahara between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries. ... Tuareg or Tamasheq/Tamajaq/Tamahaq is a Berber language or family of closely related languages spoken by the Tuareg, in parts of Mali, Niger, Algeria, Libya and Burkina Faso (with a few speakers, the Kinnin, even in Chad[1].) They are quite mutually comprehensible, and are commonly regarded as a...


Famous people connected with Timbuktu

  • Ali Farka Toure (1939–2006) Born in Kanau, in the Timbuktu region.
  • Heinrich Barth (1821-1865) German traveller and scholar and the first European to investigate into African history
  • Bernard Peter de Neumann, GM (1917–1972) "The Man From Timbuctoo".[13] Held prisoner of war there along with other members of the crew of the Criton during 1941-1942.

Ali Farka Toure (born 1939 in Niafunke, Mali) is an African blues singer and guitarist, known throughout the continent as one of its most famous performers. ... Heinrich Barth (1821-1865), German explorer, was born at Hamburg on February 16, 1821, and educated at Berlin University, where he graduated in 1844. ... Bernard Peter de Neumann GM (18 September 1917–16 September 1972), had an adventurous, sometimes dangerous, and innovative career, that included being charged and convicted of piracy by the Vichy French, and becoming famous as “The Man From Timbuctoo”. Peter de Neumann as Commander of HMRC Vigilant in about 1950...

Sister cities

Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Chemnitz (Sorbian/Lusatian Kamjenica, 1953-1990 called Karl-Marx-Stadt; Czech: Saská Kamenice) is a city in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Second-hand bookshop at Hay-on-Wye Hay-on-Wye (Welsh: Y Gelli Gandryll or Y Gelli), often described as the town of books, is a market town in Brecknockshire, Wales, very close to the border with England, within the Brecon Beacons National Park. ... This article is about the country. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tunisia. ... Kairouan (Arabic القيروان) (also known as Kairwan, Kayrawan, Al Qayrawan) is a muslim holy city which ranks after Mecca and Medina as a place of pilgrimage. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... For the record label, see Marrakesh Records. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Saintes is a town and commune in France, in the Charente-Maritime département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Location in Maricopa County and the state of Arizona Coordinates: Country United States State Arizona Counties Maricopa Incorporated November 29, 1894 Government  - Mayor Hugh Hallman Area  - City  39. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ...

See also

Timbuktu Manuscripts Project is a cultural project which aims to preserve around 700,000 scholarly Islamic manuscripts in the city of Timbuktu, Mali. ...

Further reading

  • Braudel, Fernand, 1979 (in English 1984). The Perspective of the World, vol. III of Civilization and Capitalism
  • Jenkins, Mark, (June 1997) To Timbuktu, ISBN-13: 978-0688115852 William Marrow & Co. Revealing travelogue along the Niger to Timbuktu
  • Pelizzo, Riccardo, Timbuktu: A Lesson in Underdevelopment, Journal of World System Research, vol. 7, n.2, 2001, pp. 265-283, jwsr.ucr.edu/archive/vol7/number2/pdf/jwsr-v7n2-pelizzo.pdf
  • Felix DuBois (Original French version) and Diana White (English translation), 1897. Timbuctoo the Mysterious, ISBN-13: 978-1425494278: Kessinger Publishing (May 30, 2006)

Fernand Braudel (August 24, 1902–November 27, 1985) was a French historian. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Smithsonian is a monthly magazine published by the Smithsonian Institution of the United States in Washington, DC External link Smithsonian webpage Categories: Smithsonian Institution | United States magazines | Stub ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Toplum Postası Newspaper was established in 1976 as a bi-sheet newsletter and is now one of the most popular and widely read weekly Turkish language newspapers in London. ...

Tourism

Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Timbuktu — World Heritage (Unesco.org)
  2. ^ Timbuktu. (2007). Encyclopædia Britannica. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica.
  3. ^ Okolo Rashid. Legacy of Timbuktu: Wonders of the Written Word Exhibit - International Museum of Muslim Cultures[1]
  4. ^ History of Timbuktu, Mali - Timbuktu Educational Foundation
  5. ^ Early History of Timbuktu - The History Channel Classroom
  6. ^ "Ibn Battuta and his Saharan Travels" 153 Club
  7. ^ For Leo Africanus, see Leo Africanus: Description of Timbuktu in Reading About the World, Volume 2, edited by Paul Brians, Michael Blair, Douglas Hughes, Michael Neville, Roger Schlesinger, Alice Spitzer, and Susan Swan and published by HarperCollinsCustomBooks.
  8. ^ Un patrimoine inestimable en danger : les manuscrits trouvés à Tombouctou, par Jean-Michel Djian dans Le Monde diplomatique d'août 2004.
  9. ^ Reclaiming the Ancient Manuscripts of Timbuktu
  10. ^ Curtis Abraham, "Stars of the Sahara," New Scientist, 18 August 2007: 37-39
  11. ^ Calhoun, Warren Glenn; From Here to Timbuktu, p. 273 ISBN 0-7388-4222-2
  12. ^ "Search on for Timbuktu's twin" BBC News, 18 October 2006. Retrieved 28 March 2007
  13. ^ The Daily Express, 10 February 1943. Front Page: The Man From Timbuctoo
  14. ^ This article is based on a translation of an article from the German Wikipedia.Von China bis nach Mali - Chemnitz ist international Sz Online - 11 December 2003
  15. ^ "Search on for Timbuktu's twin" BBC News, 18 October 2006. Retrieved 28 March 2007

This monthly magazine is not to be mistaken for the daily Le Monde. Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs. ... This article is about the river. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x566, 48 KB) Summary Map of the w:Niger River, and Niger River Basin shown in green. ... View of Bamako Bamako district Bamako, population 1,690,471 (2006), is the capital of Mali, and is the biggest city in the country. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Lokoja is the capital city of Kogi State located in central Nigeria. ... Onitsha (pop 7 million 2005 est. ... Overview of the Sokoto River system (green is Nigeria, orange is Niger) The Sokoto River (formerly known as Gublin Kebbi) is a river in north-west Nigeria and a tributary of the River Niger. ... The Bani River is a tributary of the Mali. ... The Kaduna River got its name from the crocodiles that lived in the river and surrounding area. ... The Benue River or Bénoué River is the major tributary of the Niger River. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
History of Timbuktu, Mali (1747 words)
Timbuktu is located in the western African nation of Mali at the edge of the sahara.
Timbuktu is also the cross-road where "the camel met the canoe." It is to this privilege position that the city owes much of its historical dynamism.
Timbuktu remained under the protection of the descendants of Mansa Musa until 1434 when the Tuareg under the leadership of Akil Akamalwal invaded and captured the city.
Digital History (533 words)
Timbuktu was founded in 1080 and within 300 years had become one of the era's most important trading points.
Timbuktu was an influential Islamic intellectual centre, a cosmopolitan multicultural city of commerce and learning and the second-largest imperial court in the world.
Timbuktu was once a center of religion, culture, and learning, as well as a commercial crossroads on the trans-Saharan caravan route.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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