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Encyclopedia > Tile
Mission, or barrel, roof tiles
Mission, or barrel, roof tiles

A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone, porcelain, metal or even glass. Tiles are generally used for covering roofs, floors, and walls, or other objects such as tabletops. Another category are the ceiling tiles, made from lightweight materials such as perlite and mineral wool. The word is derived from the French word tuile, which is, in turn, from the Latin word tegula, meaning a roof tile composed of baked clay. Less precisely, the modern term can refer to any sort of construction tile or similar object, such as rectangular counters used in playing games (see tile-based game). Download high resolution version (818x614, 152 KB)Photograph taken by Sverdrup in Feb 2002. ... Download high resolution version (818x614, 152 KB)Photograph taken by Sverdrup in Feb 2002. ... Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). ... The rocky side of a mountain creek near Orosí, Costa Rica. ... Fine China redirects here. ... Glass can be made transparent and flat, or into other shapes and colors as shown in this sphere from the Verrerie of Brehat in Brittany. ... A roof tiled in imitation of thatch at Croyde, north Devon, England Rooftops in Vietnam Snow on the roof The roof, the top covering of a building, is one of the universal structures found on all buildings. ... A hardwood floor (parquetry) is a popular feature in many houses. ... WALL is a radio station licenced to Middletown, New York that serves Orange County, New York. ... This intricate ceiling is part of the Capitol Theatre in Melbourne, Australia, designed by architect Walter Burley Griffin. ... Expanded Perlite Perlite is an amorphous volcanic glass that has a relatively high water content. ... Mineral wool, means fibres made from minerals or metal oxides, be they synthetic or natural. ... A tile-based game is a game that uses tiles as one of the fundamental elements of play. ...


Tiles are often used to form wall and floor coverings, and can range from simple square tiles to complex mosaics. Tiles are most often made from ceramic, with a hard glaze finish, but other materials are also commonly used, such as glass, slate, and reformed ceramic slurry, which is cast in a mould and fired. WALL is a radio station licenced to Middletown, New York that serves Orange County, New York. ... A hardwood floor (parquetry) is a popular feature in many houses. ... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ... Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). ... Madonna with Child and Angels, ceramica glaze by Renaissance artist Andrea della Robbia. ... Glass can be made transparent and flat, or into other shapes and colors as shown in this sphere from the Verrerie of Brehat in Brittany. ... Slate Slate is a fine-grained, homogeneous, metamorphic rock derived from an original sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low grade regional metamorphism. ...


In the past twenty years, the technology surrounding porcelain tile and glass tiles have increased, moving both from a niche marketplace to a place of prominence in the tile community. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Porcelain. ... Glass tiles are pieces of glass formed into consistent shapes. ...

Contents

Roof tiles

Fancy Japanese roof tiles
Fancy Japanese roof tiles
Ancient greek roof tiles
Ancient greek roof tiles

Roof tiles are designed mainly to keep out rain, and are traditionally made from locally available materials such as clay or slate. Modern materials such as concrete and plastic are also used and some clay tiles have a waterproof glaze. Japanese Roof Tiles Picture taken in Hakone Garden in Saratoga, CA on Feb 5, 2005. ... Japanese Roof Tiles Picture taken in Hakone Garden in Saratoga, CA on Feb 5, 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 817 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tile Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 817 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tile Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... For the singer, see Rain (singer). ... Slate Slate is a fine-grained, homogeneous, metamorphic rock derived from an original sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low grade regional metamorphism. ... Concrete being poured, raked and vibrated into place in residential construction in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Household items made out of plastic. ...


A large number of shapes (or "profiles") of roof tiles have evolved. These include:

  • Flat tiles - the simplest type, which are laid in regular overlapping rows. This profile is suitable for stone and wooden tiles, and most recently, solar cells.
  • Roman tiles - flat in the middle, with a concave curve at one end at a convex curve at the other, to allow interlocking.
  • Pantiles - with an S-shaped profile, allowing adjacent tiles to interlock. These result in a ridged pattern resembling a ploughed field.
  • Mission or barrel tiles are semi-cylindrical tiles made by forming clay around a log and laid in alternating columns of convex and concave tiles.

Roof tiles are 'hung' from the framework of a roof by fixing them with nails. The tiles are usually hung in parallel rows, with each row overlapping the row below it to exclude rainwater and to cover the nails that hold the row below. A solar cell, made from a monocrystalline silicon wafer A solar cell (or a photovoltaic cell) is a device that converts photons from the sun (solar light) into electricity. ... In mathematics, the concept of a curve tries to capture the intuitive idea of a geometrical one-dimensional and continuous object. ... A right circular cylinder An elliptic cylinder In mathematics, a cylinder is a quadric, i. ... A pile of nails. ...


There are also roof tiles for special positions, particularly where the planes of the several pitches meet. They include ridge, hip and valley tiles.


Invention

The earliest finds of roof tiles are documented from a very restricted area around Corinth (Greece), where fired tiles began to replace thatchet roofs at two temples of Apollo and Poseidon between 700-650 BC.[1] Spreading rapidly, roof tiles were within fifty years in evidence for a large number of sites around the Eastern Mediterranean, including Mainland Greece, Western Asia Minor, Southern and Central Italy.[2] Early roof tiles showed an S-shape, with the pan and cover tile forming one piece. They were rather bulky affairs, weighting around 30 kg apiece.[3] Being more expensive and labour-intensive to produce than thatchet, their introduction has been explained with their greatly enhanced fire resistance which gave desired protection to the costly temples.[4] Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... Lycian Apollo, early Imperial Roman copy of a fourth century Greek original (Louvre Museum) In Greek and Roman mythology, Apollo (Ancient Greek , Apóllōn; or , Apellōn), the ideal of the kouros, was the archer-god of medicine and healing, light, truth, archery and also a bringer of death... Neptune reigns in the city centre, Bristol, formerly the largest port in England outside London. ... For the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, see Mediterranean Basin. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to...


The spread of the roof tile technique has to be viewed in connection with the simultaneous rise of monumental architecture in archaic Greece. Only the appearing stone walls, which were replacing the earlier mudbrick and wood walls, were strong enough to support the weight of a tiled roof.[5] As a side-effect, it has been assumed that the new stone and tile construction also ushered in the end of 'Chinese roof' (Knickdach) construction in Greek architecture, as they made the need for an extended roof as rain protection for the mudbrick walls obsolete.[6] The archaic period in Greece is the period during which the ancient Greek city-states developed, and is normally taken to cover roughly the 9th century to the 6th century BCE. The Archaic period followed the dark ages, and saw significant advancements in political theory, and the rise of democracy...


Floor tiles

For more details on the installation of floor tiles, see tile installation.
6"x6" porcelain floor tiles
6"x6" porcelain floor tiles
the elaborate floor pattern of the Sydney Queen Victoria Building
the elaborate floor pattern of the Sydney Queen Victoria Building

These are commonly made of ceramic or stone, although recent technological advances have resulted in glass tiles for floors as well. Ceramic tiles may be painted and glazed. Small mosaic tiles may be laid in various patterns. Floor tiles are typically set into mortar consisting of sand, cement and often a latex additive for extra strength. The spaces between the tiles are nowadays filled with sanded or unsanded floor grout, but traditionally mortar was used. Tiles are usually cemented to a substrate surface such as a prepared wall or floor. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1015x825, 460 KB) Summary PJM is the creator and owner of this image. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1015x825, 460 KB) Summary PJM is the creator and owner of this image. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3072x2304, 2217 KB) Summary Taken of the central mosaic on the ground floor of the QVB by myself. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3072x2304, 2217 KB) Summary Taken of the central mosaic on the ground floor of the QVB by myself. ... The Queen Victoria Building, or QVB, is a grand Victorian building located in the heart of Downtown Sydney. ... Glass tiles are pieces of glass formed into consistent shapes. ... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ... Mortar holding weathered bricks. ... Patterns in the sand Sand is a granular material made up of fine rock particles. ... In the most general sense of the word, cement is a binder, a substance which sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. ... The LaTeX logo, typeset with LaTeX LATEX, written as LaTeX in plain text, is a document markup language and document preparation system for the TeX typesetting program. ... Grout is a construction material used to embed rebars in masonry walls, connect sections of pre-cast concrete, fill voids, and seal joints (like those between tiles). ...


Natural stone tiles can be especially beautiful. However, as a natural product they are often less uniform and require more planning for use and installation. Stone tiles described as "gauged" have very uniform width and length dimensions; "ungauged" stone tiles may vary from their nominal dimensions. Stone tiles such as granite can be sawn on both sides (and then polished on the facing up side) so that they have a uniform thickness. Other natural stone tiles such as slate are typically "riven" (split) on the facing up side so that the thickness of the tile varies from one spot on the tile to another and from one tile to another. Variations in tile thickness can be handled by adjusting the amount of mortar under each part of the tile, by using wide grout lines that "ramp" between different thicknesses, or by using a cold chisel to knock off high spots.


Some stone tiles such as polished granite and marble are inherently very slippery when wet. Stone tiles with a riven (split) surface such as slate or with a sawn and then sand-blasted surface--granite is occasionally prepared this way--will be more slip resistant. Ceramic tile for use in wet areas can be made more slip resistant either by using very small tiles so that the grout lines acts as grooves or by imprinting a contour pattern onto the face of the tile.


The hardness of natural stone tiles varies such that some of the softer stone tiles are not suitable for very heavy traffic floor areas. On the other hand, ceramic tiles typically have a glazed upper surface and when that become scratched or pitted the floor looks worn, whereas the same amount of wear on natural stone tiles won't show or will be less noticeable.


Natural stone tiles can be stained by spilled liquids; they must be sealed and periodically resealed with a sealant in contrast to ceramic tiles which only need their grout lines sealed. However, because of the complex, non repeating patterns in natural stone, small amounts of dirt on many natural stone floor tiles do not show.


Most vendors of stone tiles emphasize that there will be variation in color and pattern from one batch of tiles to another of the same description and variation within the same batch.


Stone floor tiles tend to be heavier than ceramic tiles and somewhat more prone to breakage during shipment.


Ceiling tiles

Vinyl Ceiling Tile
Vinyl Ceiling Tile

Ceiling tiles are lightweight tiles used in the interior of buildings. They are placed on a steel grid and, depending on the tile selected, may provide thermal insulation, sound absorption, enhanced fire protection, and improved indoor air quality. Also frequently called ceiling panels, or drop-ceiling tiles, they offer the advantage of easy access to wiring and plumbing above the ceiling grid, and can be easily changed, removed, or replaced as needed. They are fabricated from perlite, mineral wool, plastic, tin, aluminum, and fibers from recycled paper. They frequently have patterns comprised of holes, to improve their sound absorption properties, though many have a molded surface providing a textured, sculpted, or pressed-tin look to the ceiling. Some tiles are available with decorative photo/transfer surfaces, some are approved for installation under fire suppression sprinkler heads so the sprinklers do not show, some are approved for use in food preparation areas, and some are certified for indoor air quality by the GreenGuard Institute. Tiles are available that resist mold and moisture damage, that have enhanced acoustical properties, and that can be easily trimmed with household scissors. Recycling old tiles depends upon the material used to make them, and some landfills no longer accept traditional mineral fiber tiles, so they must be recycled to the manufacturer. Some plastic tiles can be 100% curbside recycled. Image File history File links Ceilingtile_medallion. ... Image File history File links Ceilingtile_medallion. ... Expanded Perlite Perlite is an amorphous volcanic glass that has a relatively high water content. ... Mineral wool, means fibres made from minerals or metal oxides, be they synthetic or natural. ...

Decorative tilework

Ancient mosaic in the British Museum.
Ancient mosaic in the British Museum.
Typical tilework on buildings in Santarém, Portugal.
Typical tilework on buildings in Santarém, Portugal.

Decorative tilework typically takes the form of mosaic upon the walls, floor, or ceiling of a building. Although decorative tilework was known and extensively practiced in the ancient world (as evidenced in the magnificent mosaics of Pompeii and Herculaneum), it perhaps reached its greatest expression during the Islamic period. Roman dog mosaic showing hunting, possibly from the floor of a Roman villa in England (British Museum). ... Roman dog mosaic showing hunting, possibly from the floor of a Roman villa in England (British Museum). ... The centre of the museum was redeveloped in 2000 to become the Great Court, with a tessellated glass roof by Buro Happold and Foster and Partners surrounding the original Reading Room. ... Download high resolution version (768x1024, 141 KB)Carfree area of Santarém, Portugal (E. Rauch) File links The following pages link to this file: Tile Santarém, Portugal Permeable paving Cobblestone Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (768x1024, 141 KB)Carfree area of Santarém, Portugal (E. Rauch) File links The following pages link to this file: Tile Santarém, Portugal Permeable paving Cobblestone Categories: GFDL images ... Coat of Arms Santarém is a municipality in Portugal with a total area of 560. ... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ... WALL is a radio station licenced to Middletown, New York that serves Orange County, New York. ... A hardwood floor (parquetry) is a popular feature in many houses. ... This intricate ceiling is part of the Capitol Theatre in Melbourne, Australia, designed by architect Walter Burley Griffin. ... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ... Pompeii (pom-pay) is a ruined Roman city near modern Naples in the Italian region of Campania, in the territory of the commune of Pompei. ... Herculaneum (in modern Italian Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town, located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ...


Some places, notably Portugal and São Luís, have a tradition of tilework (called azulejos) on buildings that continues today. São Luís is the capital of the state of Maranhão, Brazil. ... Mission, or barrel, roof tiles For the towns named Tile, see Tile, Somalia and Tile, Lebanon. ...


In the United States, decorative tiles were in vogue, especially in southern California, in the 1920s and 1930s. Prominent among art tile makers during this period was Ernest A. Batchelder. Downtown Los Angeles Skyline Southern California, also colloquially referred to as SoCal, is an informal name for the megalopolis and nearby desert that occupies the southern-most quarter of the U.S. state of California. ... Ernest A. Batchelder (1875 - 1957), an artist and educator who made Southern California his home in the early 20th century, now enjoys fame as a maker of art tiles. ...


Islamic tilework

Perhaps because of the tenets of Moslem law (sharia) which disavow religious icons and images in favor of more abstract and universal representations of the divine, many consider decorative tilework to have reached a pinnacle of expression and detail during the Islamic period. Palaces, public buildings, and mosques were heavily decorated with dense, often massive mosaics and friezes of astonishing complexity. As both the influence and the extent of Islam spread during the Middle Ages this artistic tradition was carried along, finding expression from the gardens and courtyards of Málaga in Moorish Spain to the mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. Not to be confused with Shahryar. ... Christ the Redeemer (1410s, by Andrei Rublev) An icon (from Greek , eikon, image) is an image, picture, or representation; it is a sign or likeness that stands for an object by signifying or representing it, or by analogy, as in semiotics; in computers an icon is a symbol on the... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Frieze of the Tower of the Winds. ... Location of Málaga Municipality Málaga Mayor Francisco de la Torre Prados Area    - City 385,50 km²  - Land 385,50 km²  - Water 0. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Map of Constantinople. ...


Azulejo- Small Arabic tiles that are glazed and are used as dadoes in palaces and courtyards


The mathematics of tiling

Certain shapes of tiles, most obviously rectangles, can be replicated to cover a surface with no gaps. These shapes are said to tessellate (from the Latin tessera, 'tile'). For detailed information on tilings see the tessellation page. In geometry, a rectangle is defined as a quadrilateral where all four of its angles are right angles. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... A tessellated plane seen in street pavement. ...


Literature

Invention of roof tiles

  • Marilyn Y. Goldberg, “Greek Temples and Chinese Roofs,” American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 87, No. 3. (Jul., 1983), pp. 305-310
  • Orjan Wikander, “Archaic Roof Tiles the First Generations,” Hesperia, Vol. 59, No. 1. (Jan. - Mar., 1990), pp. 285-290
  • William Rostoker; Elizabeth Gebhard, “The Reproduction of Rooftiles for the Archaic Temple of Poseidon at Isthmia, Greece,” Journal of Field Archaeology, Vol. 8, No. 2. (Summer, 1981), pp. 211-227

See also

Look up Tile in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Tile

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... A tile-based game is a game that uses tiles as one of the fundamental elements of play. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Encaustic tiles are ceramic tiles in which the pattern or figure on the surface is not a product of the glaze but of different colors of clay. ... Top: Large, colorful Toynbee tile found in downtown Washington, D.C.; Bottom: Closeup of its bottom tab, apparently mentioning the U.S.S.R., which had been gone for years by the time this photo was taken. ... Tiles are usually cemented to a substrate surface such as a prepared wall or floor. ... The largest (6000 m²) wooden shingle roof in Europe: Zakopane, Poland Roof shingles are a roof covering consisting of individual overlapping elements. ... Slate Slate is a fine-grained, homogeneous, metamorphic rock derived from an original sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low grade regional metamorphism. ... Glass tiles are pieces of glass formed into consistent shapes. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Porcelain. ... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ...

References

  1. ^ Orjan Wikander, p.285
  2. ^ Orjan Wikander, p.286
  3. ^ William Rostoker; Elizabeth Gebhard, p. 212
  4. ^ Orjan Wikander, p.289
  5. ^ Marilyn Y. Goldberg, p.309
  6. ^ Marilyn Y. Goldberg, p.305


  Results from FactBites:
 
Penrose tiling - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (690 words)
A Penrose tiling is pattern of tiles, discovered by Roger Penrose and Robert Ammann, which could completely cover an infinite plane, but only in a pattern which is non-repeating (aperiodic).
That it must be possible to tile the plane aperiodically was first proven as a general proposition in 1966 by Robert Berger, who shortly thereafter invented the first aperiodic set of tiles, consisting of 20426 distinct tile shapes.
Aperiodic tiling was first considered only an interesting mathematical structure, but physical materials were later found where the atoms were arranged in the same pattern as a Penrose tiling.
Dissection Tiling (1634 words)
Tilings have been used directly for constructing dissections (by overlaying two tilings with the same fundamental domain), but they also are useful for understanding n-to-one dissections in the limit as n grows large -- the number of pieces can be approximated by kn+O(sqrt n) where k is the average pieces/polygon in a dissection tiling.
This dissection tiling of the nonagon [original, Dec 1995], involving three different strips with straight boundaries, must be aperiodic: the strips have incommensurate periods, and one must alternate the strips in an aperiodic way to achieve the correct density of each type of piece.
Several different dissection tilings are possible for inputs consisting of a mixture of pentagons and decagons, depending on the ratio between the two shapes.
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