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Encyclopedia > Tikal
Tikal National Park*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
State Party Flag of Guatemala Guatemala
Type Mixed
Criteria i, iii, iv, ix, x
Reference 64
Region Latin America and the Caribbean
Inscription History
Inscription 1979  (3rd Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

Tikal (or Tik’al, according to the more current orthography) is the largest of the ancient ruined cities of the Maya civilization. It is located in the El Petén department of Guatemala at 17°13′19″N, 89°37′22″W. Now part of Guatemala's Tikal National Park, it is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a popular tourist spot. The closest large towns are Flores and Santa Elena, about 30 kilometers away. Uses of Tikal: Tikal is the largest of the ancient ruined cities of the Maya civilization. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1308 KB)Taken whilst on holiday in Central America. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guatemala. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... El Petén El Petén is a department of the nation of Guatemala. ... Guatemala is divided into 22 [1] departments (departamentos): Alta Verapaz Baja Verapaz Chimaltenango Chiquimula Petén El Progreso Quiché Escuintla Guatemala Huehuetenango Izabal Jalapa Jutiapa Quetzaltenango Retalhuleu Sacatepéquez San Marcos Santa Rosa Sololá Suchitepequez Totonicapán Zacapa In addition, Guatemala has in the past claimed that all or part... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Flores from the sky Flores is the capital city of Petén department of Guatemala. ... Santa Elena is located on the shores of Lake Petén Itzá in the Petén department of Guatemala. ...

Tikal's Temple V

Tikal was one of the major cultural and population centers of the Maya civilization. Though monumental architecture at the site dates to the 4th century BC, Tikal reached its apogee during the Classic Period, ca. 200 AD to 850 AD, during which time the site dominated the Maya region politically, economically, and militarily while interacting with areas throughout Mesoamerica, such as central Mexican center of Teotihuacan. There is also evidence that Tikal was even conquered by Teotihuacan in the 4th century A.D. Following the end of the Late Classic Period, no new major monuments were built at Tikal and there is evidence that elite palaces were burned. These events were coupled with a gradual population decline, culminating with the site’s abandonment by the end of the 10th century. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... Mesoamerican chronology The chronology of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica is usually divided into the following eras: Paleo-Indian Period c. ... For other uses, see number 200. ... Events April 20 - Guntherus becomes Bishop of Cologne. ... Location of Mesoamerica in the Americas. ... Teotihuacan was the largest Pre-Columbian known city in the Americas, and the name Teotihuacan is used to refer to the civilization this city dominated, which at its greatest extent included most of Mesoamerica. ... For other uses, see Elite (disambiguation). ... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ...

Contents

Site characteristics

Environmental setting

The ruins lie on lowland rainforest. Conspicuous trees at the Tikal park include gigantic ceiba (Ceiba pentandra) the sacred tree of the Maya; tropical cedar (Cedrela odorata), and mahogany (Swietenia). Regarding the fauna, agouti, coatis, gray fox, spider monkeys, howler monkeys, Harpy Eagles, Falcons, ocellated turkeys, guans, toucans, green parrots and leaf-cutting ants can be seen there regularly. Jaguars Jaguarundis and Cougars are also said to roam in the park. The Daintree Rainforest in Queensland, Australia. ... Species About 10-20 species, including: Ceiba aesculifolia Ceiba glaziovii Ceiba insignis Ceiba pentandra Ceiba speciosa Ceiba trichistandra Ceiba is the name of a genus of many species of large trees found in tropical areas, including Central and South America, The Bahamas,the Caribbean, West Africa, and Southeast Asia. ... An example of Mahogany The name mahogany is used when referring to numerous varieties of dark-colored wood, originally the wood of the species Swietenia mahagoni, known as West Indian or Cuban Mahogany. ... Agouti refers to a number of species of rodents, as well as a number of genes affecting coat coloration in several different animals. ... Species Nasua nasua Nasua narica Nasua nelsoni The name coati (pronounced ) is applied to any of three species of small neotropical mammals in the genus Nasua, family Procyonidae, ranging from southern Arizona to north of Argentina. ... Binomial name Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Schreber, 1775) Gray Fox range The Gray Fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) is a species of canid ranging from southern Canada, throughout most of the lower United States and Central America, to Venezuela. ... Type species Simia paniscus Linnaeus, 1758 Species Ateles paniscus Ateles belzebuth Ateles chamek Ateles hybridus Ateles marginatus Ateles fusciceps Ateles geoffroyi Spider monkeys are New World monkeys of the family Atelidae, subfamily Atelinae. ... Type species Simia belzebul Linnaeus, 1766 Species Alouatta coibensis Alouatta palliata Alouatta pigra Alouatta belzebul Alouatta guariba Alouatta macconnelli Alouatta nigerrima Alouatta sara Alouatta seniculus Alouatta caraya The howler monkeys (genus Alouatta monotypic in subfamily Alouattinae) are among the largest of the New World monkeys. ... Binomial name Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758) The name harpy eagle usually refers to the neotropical eagle, Harpia harpyja (see below for other birds called harpy eagles). ... Falcons eat humans. ... Binomial name Meleagris ocellata Cuvier, 1820 Distribution map The Ocellated Turkey (Meleagris ocellata) is a large bird around 70-90 cm long and 3 kg (female) to 4 kg (male) weight. ... Guan(ch é—œ, é–¢, å…³) is a Chinese family name rendered in Cantonese as Kwan. ... For other uses, see Toucan (disambiguation). ... Systematics (but see below) Family Cacatuidae (cockatoos) Family Psittacidae (true parrots) Subfamily Loriinae (lories and lorikeets) Subfamily Psittacinae (typical parrots and allies) Tribe Arini (American psittacines) Tribe Cyclopsitticini (fig-parrots) Tribe Micropsittini (pygmy-parrots) Tribe Nestorini (kakas and Kea) Tribe Platycercini (broad-tailed parrots) Tribe Psittrichadini (Pesquets Parrot) Tribe... Genera Acromyrmex Atta Leafcutter ants are conspicuous insects found in warmer regions of Central and South America. ... For other uses, see Jaguar (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Herpailurus yaguarondi (Lacépède, 1809) The Jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi) is a medium-sized Central and South American wild cat: length 30 inches (65 cm) with 20 inches (45 cm) of tail. ... For other uses, see Cougar (disambiguation) or Puma (disambiguation). ...


Etymology

Emblem Glyph for Tikal (Mutal)

The name "Tikal" is probably not ancient. It most likely derives from Ti-akal, a Mayan place name meaning "At the Reservoir(s)."[citation needed] This refers to the several large and partially artificial water basins found near the center of the ruins. Hieroglyphic inscriptions at the ruins, however, refer to the central area of the ancient city as Yax Mutal or Yax Mutul. The kingdom as a whole was simply called Mutal or Mutul, which is the reading of the "hair bundle" Emblem Glyph seen in the accompanying photo. Its meaning remains obscure, although some scholars think that it is the Hair knot of the Ahau or ruler. Image File history File links Tikalemblem. ... Image File history File links Tikalemblem. ... Maya glyphs in stucco at the Museo de sitio in Palenque, Mexico The Maya script, commonly known as Maya hieroglyphs, was the writing system of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica, presently the only deciphered script of the Mesoamerican writing systems. ...

The site

Temple IV the second Tallest in Mesoamerica (After La Danta in El Mirador) , view from Mundo Perdido
Temple IV the second Tallest in Mesoamerica (After La Danta in El Mirador) , view from Mundo Perdido

There are thousands of ancient structures at Tikal and only a fraction of these have been excavated after decades of archaeological work. The most prominent surviving buildings include six very large Mesoamerican step pyramids, labeled Temples I - VI, each of which support a temple structure on their summits. Some of these pyramids are over 60 meters high (200 feet). They were numbered sequentially during the early survey of the site. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... El Mirador is a large pre-Columbian site of the Maya civilization, located in the north of the modern department of El Petén, Guatemala. ... The term archaeological excavation has a double meaning. ... This July 2007 does not cite any references or sources. ... Most Ancient Mesoamerican civilisations built pyramid-shaped structures. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ...


The majority of pyramids currently visible at Tikal were built during Tikal’s resurgence following the Tikal Hiatus (i.e., from the late 7th to the early 9th century). It should be noted, however, that the majority of these structures contain sub-structures that were initially built prior to the hiatus. The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ...

Tikal Temple I: Located in the Grand Plaza

Temple I (also known as the Temple of Ah Cacao or Temple of the Great Jaguar) was built around C.E. 695; Temple II or the Moon Temple in C.E. 702; and Temple III in C.E. 810. The largest structure at Tikal, Temple IV, is approximately 70 meters (230 feet) tall. Temple IV marks the reign of Yik’in Chan Kawil (Ruler B, the son of Ruler A or Jasaw Chan K'awiil I) and two carved wooden lintels over the doorway that leads into the temple on the pyramid’s summit record a long count date (9.15.10.0.0) that corresponds to C.E. 741 (Sharer 1994:169). Temple V dates to about C.E. 750, and is the only one where no tomb has been found. Temple VI, also known as the Temple of the Inscriptions, was dedicated in C.E. 766. Image File history File links Temple-1-tikal-feb-2006. ... Image File history File links Temple-1-tikal-feb-2006. ... View of Temple I from the Grand Plaza Tikal Temple I is the designation given to one of the major structures at Tikal, one of the largest cities and archaeological sites of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization in Mesoamerica, located in the Petén Basin region of northern Guatemala. ... View of Temple I from the Grand Plaza Tikal Temple I is the designation given to one of the major structures at Tikal, one of the largest cities and archaeological sites of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization in Mesoamerica, located in the Petén Basin region of northern Guatemala. ... Events People of Byzantium revolt against Justinian II. Leontius II made emperor, Justinian II is banished. ... // Births April 20 - Jafar Sadiq, Muslim scholar (d. ... 8-10 is also going to be the Toronto Raptors record as of Dec. ... Events June 18 - Constantine V succeeds Leo III as emperor of the Byzantine Empire. ... Events Last Umayyad caliph Marwan II (744-750) overthrown by first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Bold textItalic textLink title GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM... Events November 16 - Nicetas appointed Patriarch of Constantinople Births January 1 - Ali al-Rida, Shia Imam (d. ...

Tikal Temple II

Str. 5C-54, in the southwest portion of Tikal’s central core and west of Temple V, is known as the Lost World Pyramid. A 30 mt. High "True Pyramid", with stairways in 3 sides and stucco masks, dating to the Late Preclassic, this pyramid is part of an enclosed complex of structures that remained intact through and un-impacted by later building activity at Tikal. The organization of this complex adheres to the themes defined for E-Groups. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x800, 93 KB)Tikal Maya Ruins Took while i was traveling in Central America, more picture of Tikal can be found here: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x800, 93 KB)Tikal Maya Ruins Took while i was traveling in Central America, more picture of Tikal can be found here: http://www. ... Mesoamerican chronology The chronology of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica is usually divided into the following eras: Paleo-Indian Period c. ... E-Groups are unique architectural complexes found among a number of ancient Maya settlements. ...


The ancient city also has the remains of royal palaces, in addition to a number of smaller pyramids, palaces, residences, and inscribed stone monuments. There is even a building which seemed to have been a jail, originally with wooden bars across the windows and doors. There are also seven courts for playing the Mesoamerican ballgame, including a set of 3 in the "Seven Temples Plaza" a unique feature in Mesoamerica. The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... Ballcourt at Monte Alban Ballcourt at Uaxactun The Mesoamerican ballgame[1] was a sport with ritual associations played for over 3000 years by the peoples of Mesoamerica in Pre-Columbian times. ...


The residential area of Tikal covers an estimated 60 km² (23 square miles), much of which has not yet been cleared, mapped, or excavated. A huge set of earthworks has been discovered ringing Tikal with a 6 meter wide trench behind a rampart. Only some 9km of it has been mapped; it may have enclosed an area of some 125 km square (see below). Population estimates place the demographic size of the site between 100,000 and 200,000. In civil engineering, earthworks are engineering works created through the moving of massive quantities of soil or unformed stone. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Separation barrier. ...


Recently, a project exploring the earthworks has shown that the scale of the earthworks is highly variable and that in many places it is inconsequential as a defensive feature. In addition, some parts of the earthwork were integrated into a canal system. The earthwork of Tikal varies significantly in coverage from what was originally proposed and it is much more complex and multifaceted than originally thought.


History

Tikal was a dominating influence in the southern Maya lowlands throughout most of the Early Classic. The site, however, was often at war and inscriptions tell of alliances and conflict with other Maya states, including Uaxactun, Caracol, Dos Pilas, Naranjo, and Calakmul. The site was defeated at the end of the Early Classic by Caracol, who rose to take Tikal's place as the paramount center in the southern Maya lowlands. It appears another defeat was suffered at the hands of Dos Pilas during the middle 7th century, with the possible capture and sacrifice of Tikal's ruler at the time (Sharer 1994:265). Uaxactun (pronounced Wash-ak-toon) is an ancient ruin of the Maya civilization, located in the Peten department of Guatemala, some 40 km (25 miles) north of Tikal. ... Caracol or El Caracol is the name given to a large ancient Maya site located in the Cayo District of the nation of Belize. ... Dos Pilas is a Pre-Columbian site of the Maya civilization, located in what is now Peten, Guatemala. ... Inscription relating to the reign of king Itzamnaaj Kawil, 784-810. ... Calakmul is the name of both a municipality and a major archeological site in the Mexican state of Campeche, in the central part of the Yucatán Peninsula. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...


Tikal hiatus

The "Tikal hiatus" refers to a period between the late 6th to late 7th century where there was a lapse in the writing of inscriptions and large-scale construction at Tikal. This hiatus in activity at Tikal was long unexplained until later epigraphic decipherments identified that the period was prompted by Tikal's comprehensive defeat at the hands of the Caracol polity in A.D. 562 after six years of warfare against an alliance of Calakmul, Dos Pilas and Naranjo. The hiatus at Tikal lasted up to the ascension Jasaw Chan K'awiil I (Ruler A) in A.D. 682. In A.D. 695, Yukno’m Yich’Aak K’ahk’ of Calakmul (Kanal), was defeated by the new ruler of Tikal, Jasaw Chan K'awiil I, Nu’n U Jol Chaak’s heir. This defeat of Calakmul restores Tikal’s preeminence in the Central Maya region, but never again in the southwest Petén, where Dos Pilas maintained its presence. The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Caracol or El Caracol is the name given to a large ancient Maya site located in the Cayo District of the nation of Belize. ...


The beginning of the Tikal hiatus has served as a marker by which archaeologists commonly sub-divide the Classic period of Mesoamerican chronology into the Early and Late Classic.[1] Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Mesoamerican chronology The chronology of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica is usually divided into the following eras: Paleo-Indian Period c. ...


Rulers

The known rulers of Tikal, with general or specific dates attributed to them, include the following:


King of Tikal from wooden lintel in Temple III
Depicting either "Yax Nuun Ayin II" or "Dark Sun" Maya king on lintel of temple III, Tikal, from Maudslay, 1902 I find conflicting sources as to if this is a depiction of king Yax Nuun Ayin II aka Chitam or of his successor Dark Sun. Perhaps due to part of the text being missing? If I find something that...

Late Preclassic

  • Yax Ehb' Xook – ca. A.D. 60, dynastic founder
  • Siyaj Chan K'awil Chak Ich'aak ("Stormy Sky I") – ca. 2nd century
  • Yax Ch’aktel Xok – ca. 200

Events Boudicca sacks London (approximate date). ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...

Early Classic

  • Balam Ajaw ("Decorated Jaguar") – A.D. 292
  • K'inich Ehb' – ca. A.D. 300
  • Ix Une' B'alam ("Queen Jaguar") – A.D. 317
  • "Leyden Plate Ruler" – A.D. 320
  • K'inich Muwaan Jol – died A.D. 359
  • Chak Toh Ich’ak I ("Jaguar Paw I") – c.a. 360-378. His palace, unusually, was never built over by later rulers, and was kept in repair for centuries as an apparent revered monument. He died on the same day that Siyah K'ak' arrived in Tikal.
  • Nun Yax Ayin – A.D. 370-411. Nun Yax Ayin was a noble from Teotihuacan who was installed on Tikal's throne in 379 by Siyah K'ak'.
  • Siyah Chan K'awil II ("Stormy Sky II") – A.D. 411-456.
  • K'an-Ak ("Kan Boar") – A.D. 458-486.
  • Ma'Kin-na Chan – ca. late 5th century.
  • Chak Tok Ich'aak (Bahlum Paw Skull) – A.D. 486-508. Married to "Lady Hand"
  • Ix Kalo'mte' Ix Yo K'in ("Lady of Tikal") – A.D. 511-527. Co-ruled with Kaloomte' B'alam, possibly as consort.
  • Kaloomte' B'alam ("Curl-Head" and "19th Lord") – A.D. 511-527. Co-ruled with Ix Kalo'mte' Ix Yo K'in ("Lady of Tikal"), as regent.
  • "Bird Claw" ("Animal Skull I", "Ete I") – ca. A.D. 527–537.
  • Wak Chan K'awil ("Double-Bird") – A.D. 537-562. Capture and possible sacrifice by Caracol.
  • "Lizard Head II" – Unknown, lost a battle with Caracol in A.D. 562.

Siyah Kak (alternative spelling: Siyaj Kak ) was a Mesoamerican leader of the 4th century, mentioned in the glyphs of some monument of the Maya civilization. ... Nun Yax Ayin was a king of the most powerful state of classic Maya civilization, Tikal in the late 4th century. ... Teotihuacan was the largest Pre-Columbian known city in the Americas, and the name Teotihuacan is used to refer to the civilization this city dominated, which at its greatest extent included most of Mesoamerica. ... January 19 - Theodosius I is elevated as Roman Emperor at Sirmium. ... Siyah Kak (alternative spelling: Siyaj Kak ) was a Mesoamerican leader of the 4th century, mentioned in the glyphs of some monument of the Maya civilization. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Caracol or El Caracol is the name given to a large ancient Maya site located in the Cayo District of the nation of Belize. ...

Hiatus

  • K'inich Waaw – A.D. 593-628.
  • K'inich Wayaan – ca. early/mid 7th century.
  • K'inich Muwaan Jol II – ca. early/mid 7th century.

The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...

Late Classic

  • Jasaw Chan K'awiil I (a.k.a. Ruler A or Ah Cacao) – A.D. 682-734. Entombed in Temple I. His queen Lady Twelve Macaw (died A.D. 704) is entombed in Temple II. Triumphed in war with Calakmul in A.D. 711.
  • Yik’in Chan Kawil (a.k.a. Ruler B) – A.D. 734-766. His wife was Shana'Kin Yaxchel Pacal "Green Jay on the Wall" of Lakamha. It is unknown exactly where is tomb lies, but strong archaeological parallels between Burial 116 (the resting place of his father) and Burial 196, located in the diminutive pyramid immediately south of Temple II and referred to as Str. 5D-73, suggest the latter may be the tomb of Yik’in Chan Kawil (Sharer 1994:169). Other possible locations, and likely candidates as mortuary shrines, include Temples IV and VI.
  • "Temple VI Ruler" – A.D. 766-768
  • Yax Nuun Ayiin II ("Chitam") – A.D. 768-790
  • Chitam II ("Dark Sun") – Buried ca. A.D. 810 Buried in Temple III
  • "Jewel K'awil" – A.D. 849
  • Jasaw Chan K'awiil II – A.D. 869-889

Note: English language names are provisional nicknames based on their identifying glyphs, where rulers' Maya language names have not yet been definitively deciphered phonetically. Jasaw Chan K’awiil I (682-734) was a ruler of a polity centered at Tikal during its Late Classic phase. ...


Modern history of Tikal

Two stelae on the North Acropolis in 1970
Two stelae on the North Acropolis in 1970

As is often the case with huge ancient ruins, knowledge of the site was never completely lost in the region. Some second- or third-hand accounts of Tikal appeared in print starting in the 17th century, continuing through the writings of John Lloyd Stephens in the early 19th century. Due to the site's remoteness from modern towns, however, no scientific expedition visited Tikal until Modesto Méndez and Ambrosio Tut visited it in 1848 . Several other expeditions came to further investigate, map, and photograph Tikal in the 19th and early 20th century. Tikal, North Acropolis, showing two carved stelae. ... Tikal, North Acropolis, showing two carved stelae. ... John Lloyd Stephens in 1839 John Lloyd Stephens (November 28, 1805–October 13, 1852) was an American explorer, writer, and diplomat. ...


In 1951 a small airstrip was built at the ruins, which previously could only be reached by several days travel through the jungle on foot or mule. From 1956 through 1970 major archeological excavations were made by the University of Pennsylvania. In 1979 the Guatemalan government began a further archeological project at Tikal, which continues to this day. The University of Pennsylvania (also known as Penn[3][4]) is a private, coeducational research university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ...


Popular culture

Yavin 4 is one of the many moons of the gas planet Yavin in the Star Wars universe. ... This movie poster for Star Wars depicts many of the films important elements, such as Luke Skywalker, Princess Leia, Han Solo, X-Wing and Y-Wing fighters Star Wars, retitled Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope in 1981 (see note at Title,) is the original (and in chronological... Tikal ) is a fictional character from the Sonic the Hedgehog game series of games released by Sega. ... Sonic Adventure ) is a video game created by Sonic Team and released on December 23, 1998 in Japan by Sega for the Sega Dreamcast. ... For other uses, see Fantastic Four (disambiguation). ... Rio Grande Games is a publisher of German-style board games in English. ... Arjen Anthony Lucassen Arjen Anthony Lucassen (born April 3, 1960) is a composer and musician from the Netherlands. ... A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis is a graphical adventure game, originally released in 1992 and published by LucasArts. ... Helmut and Franz Vonlichten E.S. Posthumus is an independent music group that produces cinematic style music. ...

Photo gallery

Notes

  1. ^ Miller and Taube (1993), p.20.
  2. ^ See annotations of the equivalent images of this mask, Nos. 7909A, 7909B, 7909C, at the Justin Kerr Precolumbian Portfolio (Kerr n.d.)

References

  • Coe, Michael D. (1987). The Maya, 4th edition (revised), London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27455-X. 
  • Harrison, Peter D. (2006). "Maya Architecture at Tikal", in Nikolai Grube (ed.): Maya: Divine Kings of the Rain Forest, Eva Eggebrecht and Matthias Seidel (assistant eds.), Köln: Könemann Press, pp.218–231. ISBN 3-8331-1957-8. OCLC 71165439. 
  • Kerr, Justin (n.d.). A Precolumbian Portfolio (online database). FAMSI Research Materials. Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies, Inc. Retrieved on 2007-06-13.
  • Miller, Mary; and Karl Taube (1993). The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05068-6. 
  • Sharer, Robert J. (1994). The Ancient Maya, 5th edition (fully revised), Stanford CA: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-804-72130-0. 

I dont know anything! ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mary Miller is the master of Saybrook College at Yale University and the Vincent Scully Professor of the History of Art. ... Karl Andreas Taube is an American Mayanist, anthropologist, epigrapher and ethnohistorian, known for his publications and research into the pre-Columbian cultures of Mesoamerica and the American Southwest. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Tikal

Coordinates: 17°13′19″N, 89°37′22″W Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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Uaxactún and Tikal lie atop the drainage divide between the Gulf of Mexico and the
FAMSI - John Pohl's Mesoamerica - Tikal (258 words)
TIKAL (circa A.D. At the same time that Teotihuacán was emerging to dominate the Basin of México, powerful Maya city states were expanding throughout the lowland jungles of Central America.
Tikal then continued to dominate political affairs throughout the Central Petén until the end of the ninth century when the city was abandoned during the so-called Maya “collapse”.
Tikal’s main plaza is bounded by the North Acropolis with its multiple temples dedicated to the memory of its early Classic rulers, and the Central Acropolis which served as the main palace during the Late Classic era.
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