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Encyclopedia > Tigris
Tigris
Map of the Tigris-Euphrates Watershed
Map of the Tigris-Euphrates Watershed
Origin Eastern Turkey
Mouth Shatt al Arab
Basin countries Turkey, Syria, Iran, Iraq

The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. Image File history File links Tigr-euph. ... Bold text For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the... [[ == Headline text == This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrūd in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (yellow outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (blue lines) of a contiguous area. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... Bold text For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Etymology

The original Sumerian name was Idigna or Idigina, probably from *id (i)gina "running water",[1] which can be interpreted as "the swift river", contrasted to its neighbor, the Euphrates, whose leisurely pace caused it to deposit more silt and build up a higher bed than the Tigris. This form was borrowed and gave rise to Akkadian Idiqlat. Either through a Persian intermediary or borrowed directly from Akkadian, the word was adopted into Greek as Tigris. The Sumerian language ( EME.GIR15 native tongue) of ancient Sumer was spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. Sumerian was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...


In Pahlavi, tigr means "arrow", in the same family as Old Persian tigra- "pointed" (compare tigra-xauda), Modern Persian têz "sharp", Kurdish tij "sharp" (hence the variants in Dicle). However, it does not appear that this was the original name of the river, but that it (like the Semitic forms of the name) was coined as an imitation of the indigenous Sumerian name. This is similar to the name Persian name of the Euphrates, Ufratu, which does have a meaning in Persian, but is still modeled after the Sumerian name Purattu. Middle Persian or Pahlavi is the Iranian language spoken during Sassanian times. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the KulOba kurgan burial near Kerch. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Kurdish language is a language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ...


Another name for this watercourse, used from the time of the Persian Empire, is Arvand; today, the name Arvand refers to the lower part of the Tigris (ie. the Shatt al-Arab) in Persian. The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrūd in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the...


The name of the Tigris in different languages that have been important to the region (listed by date of attestation):

The Tigris outside Diyarbakır, Turkey
The Tigris outside Diyarbakır, Turkey
Language Name for Tigris
Sumerian Idigna, Idigina IDIGNA (Borger 2003 nr. 124) 𒈦𒄘𒃼
Akkadian Idiqlat
Hurrian Aranzah[2]
Greek ἡ Τίγρης, -ητος hē Tígrēs;

ἡ, ὁ Τίγρις, -ιδος hē, ho Tígris Image File history File links Download high resolution version (890x575, 541 KB) The river Tigris presents a bucolic pastoral scene outside Diyarbakır, Turkey. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (890x575, 541 KB) The river Tigris presents a bucolic pastoral scene outside Diyarbakır, Turkey. ... Diyarbakır (Ottoman Diyar-i Bekr دیاربکر land of the Bekr as derived from Arabic[1]; Kurdish Amed; Syriac ; Greek Amida; Armenian Ô±Õ´Õ«Õ¤ Amid) is a major city in southeastern Turkey situated on the banks of the River Tigris, and the seat of Diyarbakır Province. ... The Sumerian language ( EME.GIR15 native tongue) of ancient Sumer was spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. Sumerian was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Hurrian is a conventional name for the language of the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC. Hurrian was the language of the Mitanni kingdom in northern Mesopotamia, and was likely spoken at least initially in Hurrian settlements in...

Old Persian Tigrā (Middle Persian Tigr; Modern Persian دجله Dijle)
Hebrew חידקל Ḥîddeqel
Syriac ܕܩܠܬ Deqlaṯ
Arabic دجلة Diğlä
Kurdish Dîjle
Turkish Dicle

Sketch of the first column of the Behistun Inscription Old Persian is the oldest attested Persid language. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... The Kurdish language is a language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ...

Description

Tigris River in Mosul, Iraq
Tigris River in Mosul, Iraq

The Tigris is approximately 1,750 km (1,150 miles) long, rising in the Taurus Mountains of eastern Turkey and flowing in a generally southeasterly direction until it joins the Euphrates near Al Qurna in southern Iraq. The two rivers together form the Shatt al-Arab waterway, which empties into the Persian Gulf. The river is joined by many tributaries, including the Diyala and both the Upper and Lower Zab rivers. The Tigris River as it flows through Mosul, Iraq, as seen from a UH-60 Blackhawk from the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault), 9th Aviation Battalion, A Company, June 16, 2003 during Operation Iraqi Freedom. ... The Tigris River as it flows through Mosul, Iraq, as seen from a UH-60 Blackhawk from the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault), 9th Aviation Battalion, A Company, June 16, 2003 during Operation Iraqi Freedom. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Demirkazık Summit [IN CHINA] The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros Dağları, also known as Ala-Dagh or Bulghar-Dagh) are a mountain range in the southeastern Anatolian plateau, from which the Euphrates (Turkish: Fırat) descends into Syria. ... The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب, Stream of the Arabs) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrūd in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Map of Mesopotamia showing the Diyala River The Diyala River is a river and tributary of the Tigris that runs through Iran and Iraq. ... Zab (Kurdish: Zê, Persian: زاب; Zâb, Syriac: ܙܘܐ; Zawa) is the name given to two separate rivers that flow through Iran, Iraq and Turkey to become the two principal tributaries of the Tigris. ...


Baghdad, the capital of Iraq, stands on the banks of the Tigris, while the port city of Basra straddles the Shatt al-Arab. In ancient times, many of the great cities of Mesopotamia stood on or near the river, drawing water from it to irrigate the civilization of the Sumerians. Notable Tigris-side cities included Nineveh, Ctesiphon and Seleucia, while the city of Lagash was irrigated by Tigris water delivered to it via a canal dug around 2400 BC. Saddam Hussein's hometown, Tikrit, is also located on the river and derives its name from it. Baghdad (Arabic ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Location of Basra Basra (Arabic: ‎; BGN: Al Başrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of 2,600,000 (2003). ... Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian and Pahlavi: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun, Persian: ‎, also known as in Arabic Madain, Maden or Al-Madain: المدائن) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years... The name Seleucia may denote any one of several cities in the Seleucid Empire. ... Lagash or Sirpurla was one of the oldest cities of Sumer and later Babylonia. ... (Redirected from 2400 BC) (25th century BC - 24th century BC - 23rd century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2350 BC - End of the Early Dynastic IIIb Period in Mesopotamia 2334 - 2279 BC -- Sargon... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: [1]; April 28, 1937[2] – December 30, 2006[3]), was the President of Iraq from July 16, 1979, until April 9, 2003. ... Looking north along the Tigris towards Saddams Presidential palace in April 2003 Tikrit (تكريت, Tikrīt also transliterated as Takrit or Tekrit) is a town in Iraq, located 140 km northwest of Baghdad on the Tigris river (at 34. ...


The Tigris has long been an important transport route in a largely desert country. It is navigable as far as Baghdad by shallow-draft vessels, but rafts are required for transport upstream to Mosul. River trade declined in importance during the 20th century as the Basra-Baghdad-Mosul railway and roads took over much of the freight traffic. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


Management and water quality

The river is heavily dammed in both Iraq and Turkey, in order to provide water for irrigating the arid and semi-desert regions bordering the river valley. Damming has also been important for averting floods in Iraq, to which the Tigris has historically been notoriously prone following snowmelt in the Turkish mountains around April. Recent Turkish damming of the river has been the subject of some controversy, both for its environmental effects within Turkey and its potential to reduce the flow of water downstream. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


A coalition of 34 countries destroyed Iraq's water treatment plants during the 1990 Gulf War, affecting the water quality of the Tigris. Combatants UN Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf, Peter de la Billière, Khalid bin Sultan, Saleh Al-Muhaya, Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 378 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 dead, 75,000 wounded The Gulf War or the Persian Gulf War...


Since the 2003 invasion of Iraq the Coalition claims the Tigris has seen significant water quality improvement in Iraq due to efforts of the United States of America in rehabilitating and expanding sewage treatment plants. no independent verification has occured due to the poor security situation.[1] Combatants Coalition Forces: United States United Kingdom South Korea Australia Poland Romania others. ... Water quality is the chemical and physical characterization of water. ... ...


References

  1. ^ F. Delitzsch, Sumerisches Glossar, Leipzig (1914), IV, 6, 21.
  2. ^ E. Laroche, Glossaire de la langue Hourrite, Paris (1980), p. 55.

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Tigris - MSN Encarta (476 words)
Tigris (Arabic Dijlah, Turkish Dicle), river in southwestern Asia, rising in Turkey and flowing through Iraq before joining the Euphrates to form the Shatt al Arab, which empties into the Persian Gulf.
In southern Iraq the Tigris joins with the Euphrates to form the Shatt al Arab, which is 170 km (110 mi) long and flows to the head of the Persian Gulf.
The Tigris is too shallow for navigation by all but very small boats, especially south of Baghdād where the river fans out and meanders through dense marshland.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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