FACTOID # 3: South Carolina has the highest rate of violent crimes and aggravated assaults per capita among US states.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Tigre language
Tigre
ቲግሬ Tigre, ኻሳ Xasa
Spoken in: Eritrea, Sudan
Total speakers: 800,000 in Eritrea
Language family: Afro-Asiatic
 Semitic
  South Semitic
   Ethiopic
    North Ethiopic
     Tigre
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: tig
ISO 639-3: tig

  Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ... The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a language family with about 375 languages (SIL estimate) and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout North Africa, East Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia (including some 200 million speakers of Arabic). ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... The Semitic languages are the northeastern subfamily of the Afro-Asiatic languages, and the only family of this group spoken in Asia. ... Ethiopic languages is a language group which belongs to the Western branch of the Southern Semitic languages. ... Ethiopian Semitic languages (sometimes Ethiopic) is a language group which together with Old South Arabian forms the Western branch of the South Semitic languages. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ...

Tigre (Ge'ez ትግረ tigre or ትግሬ tigrē; sometimes written as Tigré, also known as Xasa in Sudan; Arabic ألخاصية ḫāṣiyah) is a Semitic language that closely speaks the Ge'ez in it's purest form and it is also closely related to Tigrinya. It is spoken by approximately one million people in Eritrea, with a few speakers in Sudan. Tigre is also the name for the people. The Tigre language, speakers and area should not be confused with the Tigrinya people who also live in Eritrea and who speak Tigrinya. Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing Arabic and various other languages, together with various closely related scripts that typically differ in the presence or absence of a few letters. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... Geez (also transliterated Giiz, , and pronounced IPA: ; ISO 639-2 gez) is an ancient South Semitic language that had developed in the current region of Eritrea and northern Ethiopia in the Horn of Africa, as the language of the peasantry. ... Tigrinya (Geez ትግርኛ tigriññā, also spelled Tigrigna) is a Semitic language spoken by the Tigray-Tigrinya people in central Eritrea (there referred to as the Tigrinya people), where it is one of the main working languages (Eritrea does not have official languages), and in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia (whose... The Tigre are an ethnic group of Eritrea who speak the Tigre language. ... The Tigray-Tigrinya are an ethnic group who live in the southern, central and northern parts of Eritrea and the northern highlands of Ethiopias Tigray province. ... Tigrinya (Geez ትግርኛ tigriññā, also spelled Tigrigna) is a Semitic language spoken by the Tigray-Tigrinya people in central Eritrea (there referred to as the Tigrinya people), where it is one of the main working languages (Eritrea does not have official languages), and in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia (whose...


Since the 19th century, Tigre has been written using the Ge'ez alphabet. This mode of writing was introduced by Swedish missionaries for biblical translation. However, as Ge'ez is the language of the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church, many Tigre Muslims use the Arabic alphabet. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... A missionary is traditionally defined as a propagator of religion who works to convert those outside that community; someone who proselytizes. ... Geez (also transliterated Giiz, , and pronounced IPA: ; ISO 639-2 gez) is an ancient South Semitic language that had developed in the current region of Eritrea and northern Ethiopia in the Horn of Africa, as the language of the peasantry. ... The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church is an Oriental Orthodox church. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing Arabic and various other languages, together with various closely related scripts that typically differ in the presence or absence of a few letters. ...

Contents

Sounds

Consonant and vowel phonemes

Tigre has preserved the two pharyngeal consonants which were part of the ancient Ge'ez language. Tigre also has the set of seven vowels, with one key difference: the distinction between the two vowels which are phonetically close to [ɐ] (traditionally the "first order vowel" and ä in the most common transcription system) and [a] in languages such as Tigrinya and Amharic is in Tigre more a matter of length than of quality: [a] vs. []. A pharyngeal consonant is a type of consonant which is articulated with the root of the tongue against the pharynx. ... Geez (also transliterated Giiz, , and pronounced IPA: ; ISO 639-2 gez) is an ancient South Semitic language that had developed in the current region of Eritrea and northern Ethiopia in the Horn of Africa, as the language of the peasantry. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...


The charts below show the phonemes of Tigre. For the representation of Tigre sounds, this article uses a modification of a system that is common (though not universal) among linguists who work on Ethiopian Semitic languages, but it differs somewhat from the conventions of the International Phonetic Alphabet. When the IPA symbol is different, it is indicated in brackets in the charts. For the long vowel , the symbol "ā" is used, in agreement with Raz's book.[1] The consonants p, p' and x appear in parentheses because they occur only in a small number of loanwords. As in other Ethiopian Semitic languages, the phonemic status of ǝ is questionable; it may be possible to treat it as an epenthetic vowel that is introduced to break up consonant clusters. Ethiopic languages is a language group which belongs to the Western branch of the Southern Semitic languages. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... In poetry and phonetics, epenthesis (, from Greek epi on + en in + thesis putting) is the insertion of a consonant, a vowel, or a whole syllable into a word, usually to facilitate pronunciation. ...

Consonants
Bilabial/
Labiodental
Dental Palato-alveolar/
Palatal
Velar Pharyngeal Glottal
Stops and
affricates
Voiceless (p) t č [ʧ] k ʔ
Voiced b d ǧ [ʤ)] g
Ejective (p') t' č' [ʧ'] k'
Fricatives Voiceless f s š [ʃ] (x) ħ h
Voiced z ž [ʒ] ʕ
Ejective s'
Nasals m n
Approximants w l y [j]
Flap/Trill r
Vowels
Front Central Back
High i ə [ɨ] u
Mid e o
Low a, ā [aː]


In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... A pharyngeal consonant is a type of consonant which is articulated with the root of the tongue against the pharynx. ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or unaspirated consonants in a language. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or unaspirated consonants in a language. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Gemination

Gemination is significant in Tigre--that is, consonant length can distinguish words from one another. Although gemination plays a significant role in verb morphology, it is usually accompanied by other features, and there are few pairs of Tigre words that are distinguished only by gemination: šakkarko 'I praised', šakarko 'I got drunk'. Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-07-20, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... For other uses, see Morphology. ...


All consonants except the pharyngeal and glottal consonants and w and y can geminate.


See also

The Tigre are an ethnic group of Eritrea who speak the Tigre language. ...

External links

Bibliography

  • Beaton, A.C. & A. Paul (1954). A grammar and vocabulary of the Tigre language (as spoken by the Beni Amer). Khartoum: Publications Bureau.
  • Elias, D.L. (2005). Tigre of Habab: Short Grammar and Texts from the Rigbat People. Ph.D dissertation. Harvard University.
  • Leslau, W. (1945) Short Grammar of Tigré. Publications of the American Oriental Society, Offprint Series, No. 18. New Haven: American Oriental Society.
  • Leslau, W. (1945), "The Verb in Tigré", in: Journal of the American Oriental Society 65/1, pp. 1-26.
  • Leslau, W. (1945), "Grammatical Sketches in Tigré (North Ethiopic): Dialect of Mensa", in: Journal of the American Oriental Society 65/3, pp. 164-203.
  • Leslau, W. (1948), "Supplementary observations on Tigré grammar", in: Journal of the American Oriental Society 68/3, pp. 127-139.
  • Littmann, E. (1897), "Die Pronomina in Tigré", in: Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 12, pp. 188-230, 291-316.
  • Littmann, E. (1898), "Das Verbum der Tigre-Sprache", in: Zeitschrift für Assyrologie 13, pp. 133-178; 14, pp. 1-102.
  • Littmann, E. (1910-15). Publications of the Princeton expedition to Abyssinia, 4 vols. in 4, Leyden.
  • Littmann, E. and Höfner, M. (1962) Wörterbuch der Tigrē-Sprache: Tigrē-Deutsch-Englisch. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag.
  • Nakano, Aki'o & Yoichi Tsuge (1982). A Vocabulary of Beni Amer Dialect of Tigre. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa.
  • Palmer, F.R. (1956). "'Openness' in Tigre: a problem in prosodic statement", in: Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 18/3, pp. 561-577.
  • Palmer, F.R. (1961). "Relative clauses in Tigre", in: Word 17/1, pp. 23-33.
  • Palmer, F.R. (1962). The morphology of the Tigre noun. London: Oxford University Press.
  • Raz, Sh. (1980). "Tigre syntax and Semitic Ethiopian", in: Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 43/2, pp. 235-250.
  • Raz, Sh. (1980). "The morphology of the Tigre verb (Mansaʿ dialect)", in: Journal of Semitic Studies 25/1, pp. 66-84; 25/2, pp. 205-238.
  • ^ Raz, Sh. (1983). Tigre grammar and texts. Malibu, California, USA: Undena Publications.
  • Sundström, R. (1914). "Some Tigre texts", in: Le Monde Orientale 8, pp. 1-15.
Modern Semitic languages
Amharic | Arabic | Chaha | Harari | Hebrew | Inor | Maltese |
Neo-Aramaic | Silt'e | Soddo | South Arabian | Syriac | Tigre | Tigrinya

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tigre - encyclopedia article about Tigre. (883 words)
Tigre River The Tigre is a Peruvian tributary to the Amazon River west of the Nanay, and is navigable for 125 miles from its confluence with the Amazon.
Tigre language Tigre is a Semitic language descended from Ge'ez and is closely related to Tigrinya and Amharic.
Tigre Island, island of Honduras The Republic of Honduras is an independent country in western Central America, bordered to the west by Guatemala, to the south west El Salvador, to the south east by Nicaragua, to the south by the Pacific Ocean, to the north by the Gulf of Honduras and the Caribbean Sea.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m