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Encyclopedia > Tigran Petrosian
Tigran Petrosian
Full name Tigran Vartanovich Petrosian
Country Flag of Soviet Union Soviet Union
Born June 17, 1929
Tbilisi, Georgia
Died August 13, 1984
Moscow, Russia
Title Grandmaster
World Champion 1963-1969

Tigran Petrosian (Armenian: Տիգրան Պետրոսյան) (June 17, 1929August 13, 1984) was a former World Chess Champion. He is often known by the Russian version of his name, Tigran Vartanovich Petrosian (Russian: Тигран Вартанович Петросян). He was nicknamed "Iron Tigran" due to his playing style because of his almost impenetrable defence, which emphasised safety above all else[1]. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Georgia Established IV-III Millennium BC Government  - Mayor Giorgi (Gigi) Ugulava Area  - City 726 km²  (280. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar). ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... The title International Grandmaster is awarded to superb chess players by the world chess organization FIDE. It is a lifetime title, in chess literature usually abbreviated as GM or IGM (this is in contrast to WGM for Woman Grandmaster and IM for International Master). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar). ... The 1984 World Chess Championship was between Anatoly Karpov (left) and Garry Kasparov (right). ...

Contents

Biography

A Soviet Armenian, Petrosian was born in the city of Tbilisi, Georgia, USSR[2] and spent most of his childhood there. He learned the game of chess at the age of eight, after entering a local chess school at the Tbilisi Pioneer's Palace (currently known as Tbilisi Children's Palace). Petrosian's first coach was Archil Ebralidze. A significant step for Petrosian was moving to Moscow in 1949, where he began to play and win many tournaments. He won the 1951 tournament in Moscow, and began to show steady progress. By 1952 Petrosian became a Soviet and international Grandmaster in chess. Prior to taking up chess full time though, Petrosian was a caretaker and a roadsweeper[3]. Soviet redirects here. ... Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Georgia Established IV-III Millennium BC Government  - Mayor Giorgi (Gigi) Ugulava Area  - City 726 km²  (280. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... Soviet redirects here. ... The title International Grandmaster is awarded to superb chess players by the world chess organization FIDE. It is a lifetime title, in chess literature usually abbreviated as GM or IGM (this is in contrast to WGM for Woman Grandmaster and IM for International Master). ... Chess is a recreational and competitive game for two players. ...


His results in the triennial Candidates Tournament, held to determine the challenger to the world champion, showed a steady improvement: fifth at Zürich in 1953, equal third at Amsterdam in 1956, third in Yugoslavia in 1959. In the 1963 World Championship cycle, he won the Candidates tournament at Curaçao in 1962, then in 1963 he defeated Mikhail Botvinnik 12.5–9.5 to become World Chess Champion. His patient, defensive style frustrated Botvinnik, who only needed to make one risky move for Petrosian to punish him. Petrosian is the only player to go through the Interzonal and the Candidates process undefeated on the way to the world championship match. Petrosian shared first place with Paul Keres at the Piatigorsky Cup, Los Angeles 1963, his first tournament after winning the championship. The Candidates Tournament was an annual chess tournament in which various chess players play against each other. ... View of the inner city with the four main churches visible, and the Albis in the backdrop Zürich (German: , Zürich German: Züri , French: , in English generally Zurich, Italian: ) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and... Nickname: Motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig (Valiant, Determined, Compassionate) Location of Amsterdam Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province North Holland Government  - Mayor Job Cohen (PvdA)  - Aldermen Lodewijk Asscher Hennah Buyne Carolien Gehrels Tjeerd Herrema Maarten van Poelgeest Marijke Vos  - Secretary Erik Gerritsen Area [1][2]  - City 219 km²  (84. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian, Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian and languages of other nationalities. ... At the World Chess Championship 1963 Tigran Petrosian narrowly qualified to challenge Mikhail Botvinnik for the World Chess Championship, and then won the match to become the 9th World Chess Champion. ... For other uses, see Curaçao (disambiguation). ... Mikhail Moiseyevich Botvinnik (IPA: ; Russian: ) (August 17 [O.S. August 4] 1911 - May 5, 1995) was a Russian International Grandmaster and long-time World Champion of chess. ... Interzonal chess tournaments were tournaments organized by FIDE, the World Chess Federation. ... Paul Keres Paul Keres (born January 7, 1916, in Narva, Estonia; died June 5, 1975, in Helsinki, Finland) was an Estonian chess grandmaster and one of the strongest chess players of all time, apart from the World chess champions. ... The Piatigorsky Cup was a triennial series of double round-robin grandmaster chess tournaments held in the United States in the 1960s. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ...


Petrosian defended his title in 1966, defeating Boris Spassky 12.5–11.5, the first World Champion to win a title match while champion since Alekhine beat Bogoljubov in 1934. In 1968, he was granted an Master's degree from Yerevan State University for his thesis, "Chess Logic". In 1969 Spassky got his revenge, winning by 12.5–10.5 and taking the title. Boris Spassky Boris Vasilievich Spassky (also Spasskij) (Russian: ) (born January 30, 1937) is a Russian chess player and former world champion. ... Alexander Alexandrovich Alekhine (sometimes spelled Aljechin) (in Russian, Александр Александрович Але́хин), (October 31 or November 1, 1892 - March 24, 1946) was a chess master... Efim Dmitriyevich Bogoljubov, alternatively Yefim Bogolyubov, (1889 – 1952) was a leading Russian chess master. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Yerevan State University (Armenian: ÔµÖ€Õ¥Õ¾Õ¡Õ¶Õ« ÕŠÕ¥Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Õ€Õ¡Õ´Õ¡Õ¬Õ½Õ¡Ö€Õ¡Õ¶) is a university, located in Yerevan, Armenia. ...


He was the only player to win a game against Bobby Fischer during the latter's 1971 Candidates matches, finally bringing an end to Fischer's amazing streak of twenty consecutive wins (seven to finish the 1970 Palma de Mallorca Interzonal, six against Taimanov, six against Larsen, and the first game in their match). Nevertheless Petrosian lost the match. Robert James Bobby Fischer (born March 9, 1943) is a United States-born chess Grandmaster and in 1972 became the only US-born chessplayer to become the official World Chess Champion. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Palma (Catalan) Spanish name Palma de Mallorca Postal code 070XX Area code 34 (Spain) + 971 (Palma de Mallorca) Website http://www. ... Interzonal chess tournaments were tournaments organized by FIDE, the World Chess Federation. ... Mark Evgenievich Taimanov (Марк Евгеньевич Тайманов) (born February 7, 1926) is a leading Russian chess player and concert pianist. ... Bent Larsen Bent Larsen (born March 4, 1935) is a Danish chess player. ...


Along with a number of other Soviet Chess champions, he signed a petition condemning the actions of the defector Viktor Korchnoi in 1976. It was the continuation of a bitter feud between the two, dating back at least to their 1974 Candidates semi-final match which Petrosian withdrew from after 5 games while trailing 3.5-1.5 (+3-1=1). His match with Korchnoi in 1977 saw the two former colleagues refuse to shake hands or speak to each other. They even demanded separate eating and toilet facilities. Petrosian went on to lose the match and was subsequently fired as editor of Russia's largest chess magazine, "64". His detractors condemned his reluctance to attack and some put it down to a lack of courage. At this point however, Botvinnik spoke out on his behalf, stating that he only attacked when he felt secure and his greatest strength was in defence[4]. Soviet redirects here. ... Chess is a recreational and competitive game for two players. ... Viktor Lvovich Korchnoi (also Korchnoy, Kortchnoy, Kortschnoi, etc. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Mikhail Moiseevich Botvinnik (Михаи́л Моисе́евич Ботви́нник) (August 17, 1911 - May 5, 1995) was a Jewish Russian International Grandmaster and long-time World Champion of chess. ...


Some of his late successes included victory in the 1979 Paul Keres Memorial tournament in Tallinn (12/16 without a loss, ahead of Tal, Bronstein and others), shared first place (with Portisch and Huebner) in the Rio de Janeiro Interzonal the same year, and 2nd place in Tilburg in 1981, half a point behind the winner Beliavsky. It was here that he played his last famous victory, a miraculous escape against the young Garry Kasparov[5]. Petrosian later died of cancer of the stomach in 1984 in Moscow. Paul Keres Paul Keres (born January 7, 1916, in Narva, Estonia; died June 5, 1975, in Helsinki, Finland) was an Estonian chess grandmaster and one of the strongest chess players of all time, apart from the World chess champions. ... County Harju County Mayor Jüri Ratas Area 159. ... Mikhail Tal (Latvian: ; Russian: , Mikhail Nekhemievich Tal, IPA: ) (November 9, 1936–June 28, 1992) was a Soviet-Latvian chess player, and the eighth World Chess Champion. ... David Bronstein David Ionovich Bronstein (Дави́д Ио́нович Бронште́йн) (February 19, 1924, Bila Tserkva, Ukraine – December 5, 2006, Minsk, Belarus) was renowned as a leading chess grandmaster and writer. ... Lajos Portisch is a Hungarian chess player, born in 1937, whose positional style earned him the nickname of the Hungarian Botvinnik. One of the strongest non-Soviet grandmasters in the 1960s and 1970s, he participated in 12 straight interzonals and qualified for the candidates cycle 5 times. ... Doctor Robert Hübner (born November 6, 1948 in West Germany) is a respected German chess Grandmaster and papyrologist (recognised as an expert in Egyptian hieroglyphics). ... Location of Rio de Janeiro Coordinates: Country Brazil Region Southeast State Rio de Janeiro Government  - Mayor Cesar Maia (PFL) Area  - City 1,260 km²  (486. ... Tilburg ( (help· info)) is a municipality and a city in the Netherlands, located in the southern province of Noord-Brabant. ... A. Beliavsky, at 35th chess olympiad Bled 2002 Alexander Beliavsky (born December 17, 1953) is a Ukrainian chess grandmaster. ... Garry Kimovich Kasparov (Russian: ; IPA: ) (born April 13, 1963, in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR) (now Azerbaijan) is a Russian chess grandmaster of Armenian descent and former World Chess Champion. ...


Chess legacy

He has two major opening systems named after him: the Petrosian variation of the King's Indian Defence (1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 g6 3. Nc3 Bg7 4. e4 d6 5. Nf3 O-O 6. Be2 e5 7. d5) and the Petrosian system in the Queen's Indian Defense (1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 e6 3. Nf3 b6 4. a3). This is a list of chess openings by the ECO classification: See also Chess and chess openings. ... The Kings Indian Defence is a chess opening that begins 1. ... The Queens Indian Defense is a chess opening defined by the moves 1. ...


He is most famous for being one of the best players pioneering the theory of prophylaxis, years after Aron Nimzowitsch. His style of play was often highly strategical, notable for anticipating opponent's possible attacks, and he based many of his games on avoidance of error, content with accumulating small advantages. His games are now widely used for instruction in chess schools around the world. He was also the chief editor of the chess magazine, "Shakhmatnaya Moskva" ("The Chess Moscow") from 1963–66. Prophylaxis (Greek προφυλακτικος, prophylaktikos, to guard or prevent beforehand) or a prophylactic move stops the opponent from taking action in a certain area for fear of some type of reprisal. ... Aron Nimzowitsch (also Nimzovich or Niemzowitsch) (November 7, 1886, Riga – March 16, 1935, Denmark) was a chess player of grandmaster strength and a very influential chess writer. ...


Notable chess games

  • Tigran Petrosian vs Robert James Fischer, Yugoslavia ct 1959, Nimzo-Indian, 4.e3 (E40), 1-0 After Black's weak fifth move, Petrosian energetically exploits his spatial advantage.
  • Tigran Petrosian vs Mikhail Botvinnik, Moscow 1963 (5th game of the WCh match), Gruenfeld Defense: Three Knights. Burille Variation (D94), 1-0 A classical endgame of R+N vs R+B.
  • Tigran Petrosian vs Boris Spassky, Moscow Wch 1966, King's Indian, Fianchetto, Panno Variation (E63), 1-0 One of Petrosian's most famous games, where he demonstrated his superior understanding of the exchange sacrifice.
  • Mikhail Tal vs Tigran Petrosian, Moscow Ch URS 1973, Caro-Kann, Steinitz Variation (B17), 0-1 Both former world champions attack, but Petrosian is quicker.

In chess an exchange sacrifice occurs when one player gives up a rook a minor piece (knight or bishop). ...

Quotations

  • In those years, it was easier to win the Soviet Championship than a game against "Iron Tigran".Lev Polugaevsky (Kasparov 2004:80).

Lev Polugaevsky (sometimes transliterated Polugayevsky; (20 November 1934-30 August 1995) was an International Grandmaster of chess and frequent contender for the world chess championship, although he never achieved that title. ...

References

  1. ^ (Vasiliev 1974:27) and (Kasparov 2004:7, 16, 62, 80)
  2. ^ Georgian Soviet Encyclopedia, Vol. 8, Tbilisi, 1984, pp. 51
  3. ^ ("Chess" Magazine - Sept 1984)
  4. ^ ("Chess" Magazine - Sept 1984)
  5. ^ The game at Chessgames.com

Sources

  • World Chess Champions by Edward G. Winter, editor. 1981 ISBN 0-08-024094-1
  • Twelve Great Chess Players and Their Best Games by Irving Chernev; Dover; August 1995. ISBN 0-486-28674-6
  • Garry Kasparov (2004). On my Great Predecessors, Volume 3. Everyman. ISBN 1-85744-371-3
  • Viktor Vasiliev Tigran Petrosian: His Life and Games. Zhizn Shakhmatista, 1969. B. T. Batsford, 1974. ISBN 0-7134-2818-X .
  • Tigran Petrosian. Chess Champions. Retrieved on August 14, 2005.

Edward Winter is a noted journalist and author about chess. ... Garry Kimovich Kasparov (Russian: ; IPA: ) (born April 13, 1963, in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR) (now Azerbaijan) is a Russian chess grandmaster of Armenian descent and former World Chess Champion. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Tigran Petrosian
Preceded by
Mikhail Botvinnik
World Chess Champion
1963–1969
Succeeded by
Boris Spassky

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tigran Petrosian - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (556 words)
An ethnic Armenian, Petrosian was born in the village Mulki of Aragatsotn region, Armenia, and lived during his childhood in the city of Tbilisi, Georgia, USSR.
Petrosian is the only player to go through the Interzonal and the Candidates process undefeated on the way to the world championship match.
Petrosian defended his title in 1966, defeating Boris Spassky 12.5–11.5, the first World Champion to win a title match while champion since Alekhine beat Bogoljubov in 1934.
Chess Champion of the World Tigran Petrosian (327 words)
Petrosian got acquainted with chess at Tbilisi Pioneers' Palace in the beginning of 1940's.
Petrosian won with the score of 12.5 : 9.5 (+ 5, - 2, = 15) and became the 9-th World Champion in the history of chess.
Petrosian lost with the score of 10.5 : 12.5 (+ 4, - 6, = 13).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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