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Encyclopedia > Tiger
Tiger
Bengal Tiger (P. tigris tigris)
Bengal Tiger (P. tigris tigris)
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Felidae
Genus: Panthera
Species: P. tigris
Binomial name
Panthera tigris
(Linnaeus, 1758)

Historical distribution of tigers (pale yellow) and 2006 (green).[2]
Synonyms
Felis tigris Linnaeus, 1758

Tigris striatus Severtzov, 1858
// A tiger is a land mammal, usually with stripes. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bengal Tiger or Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is a subspecies of tiger primarily found in India, Bangladesh and also in Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and in southern Tibet. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... “Feline” redirects here. ... Type species Felis pardus Linnaeus, 1758 Panthera is a genus of the family Felidae (the cats), which contains four well-known living species: the Lion, the Tiger, the Jaguar, and the Leopard. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 741 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1586 × 1283 pixel, file size: 561 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Save The Tiger Fund File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... In scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names used for a single taxon. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nikolai Alekseevich Severtzov (1827 - February 8, 1885) was a Russian explorer and naturalist. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Tigris regalis Gray, 1867

The tiger (Panthera tigris) is a mammal of the Felidae family, one of four "big cats" in the Panthera genus. Native to the mainland of Asia, the tiger is an apex predator and the largest feline species[3] in the world,[4][5] comparable in size to the biggest fossil felids.[6] The Bengal Tiger is the most common subspecies of tiger, constituting approximately 80% of the entire tiger population, and is found in India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Chester Zoo (In captivity), and Nepal. It is the national animal of India. An endangered species, the majority of the world's tigers now live in captivity.[7] John Edward Gray. ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... “Feline” redirects here. ... For people nicknamed The Big Cat, see The Big Cat. ... Type species Felis pardus Linnaeus, 1758 Panthera is a genus of the family Felidae (the cats), which contains four well-known living species: the Lion, the Tiger, the Jaguar, and the Leopard. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Apex predators (also alpha predators, superpredators, or top-level predators) are predators that, as adults, are not normally preyed upon in the wild in significant parts of their ranges. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bengal Tiger or Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is a subspecies of tiger primarily found in India, Bangladesh and also in Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and in southern Tibet. ... Chester Zoo is a Zoological Garden located in the North of England. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ...

Contents

Biology and ecology

Description

Tigers are the heaviest cats found in the wild[8] but the subspecies differ strongly in size, tending to increase proportionally with latitude, as predicted by Bergmann's Rule. Large male Siberian Tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) can reach a total length of 3.5 m and a weight of 306 kg[9]. Apart from those exceptional large individuals, male siberian tigers usually have a head and body length of 190–220 cm and an average weight of 227 kg[10] (the tail of a tiger is 60–110 cm long). The heaviest Indian Tiger (P. t. tigris) mentioned in literature weighed 389 kg (857 lb), the heaviest Siberian tiger (P. t. altaica) 384 kg. [11] Females are smaller, those of the Siberian or Indian subspecies weigh only between 110 and 181 kg. Isle tigers like the Sumatran subspecies (P. t. sumatrae) are much smaller than mainland tigers and weigh usually only 100–160 kg in males and 80–110 kg in females. The extinct Bali Tiger (P. t. balica) was even smaller with a weight of 90–100 kg in males and 65–80 kg in females. Latitude,usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi, , gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the equator. ... The large size of a polar bear allows it to radiate less heat in a cold climate. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris altaica Temminck, 1884 Distribution of the Siberian Tiger (in red) The Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is a rare subspecies of tiger (). Also known as the Amur, North China, Manchurian, or Korean Tiger, it is arguably the largest tiger subspecies in the world. ... KG, kg or Kg can refer to several things: Kilogram, the SI base unit of mass. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris balica (Schwarz, 1912) The Bali tiger (Panthera tigris balica), also called the Balinese tiger, is an extinct subspecies of tiger found solely on the small Indonesian island of Bali. ...


Tigers have rusty-reddish to brown-rusty coats, a fair (whitish) medial and ventral area and stripes that vary from brown or hay to pure black. The form and density of stripes differs between subspecies, but most tigers have in excess of 100 stripes. The pattern of stripes is unique to each animal, and thus could potentially be used to identify individuals, much in the same way as fingerprints are used to identify people. This is not, however, a preferred method of identification, due to the difficulty of recording the stripe pattern of a wild tiger. It seems likely that the function of stripes is camouflage, serving to hide these animals from their prey. The stripe pattern is found on a tiger's skin and if shaved, its distinctive camouflage pattern would be preserved. A macro shot of a palm and the base of several fingers; as seen here, debris can gather between the ridges. ... Countershaded Ibex are almost invisible in the Israeli desert. ...


Like most cats, tigers are believed to have some degree of colour vision.[12] Color vision is a psychophysical phenomenon that exists only in our minds. ...


There is a well-known mutation that produces the white tiger, an animal which is rare in the wild, but widely bred in zoos due to its popularity. The white tiger is not a separate sub-species, but only a colour variation. There are also unconfirmed reports of a "blue" or slate-coloured tiger, and largely or totally black tigers, and these are assumed, if real, to be intermittent mutations rather than distinct species. Similar to the lion, the tiger has the ability to roar. For other uses, see White tiger (disambiguation). ... The Maltese Tigeris a suspected coloration morph of tiger that has historically been reported in the Fujian Province of China and claimed to have been sighted on a few occasions. ... A black tiger is a rare colour variant of the tiger and is not a distinct species or geographic race. ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... Look up roar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Sumatran tiger doing a flehmen
Sumatran tiger doing a flehmen

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 487 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (603 × 742 pixel, file size: 617 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From de. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 487 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (603 × 742 pixel, file size: 617 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From de. ...

Home range

Adult tigers are fiercely territorial. The size of a tiger's home range mainly depends on prey abundance, and, in the case of male tigers, on access to females. A tigress may have a territory of 20 km² while the territories of males are much larger, covering 60–100 km². While females can at times be aggressive towards other females, their territories can overlap and they do tolerate each other. Males, however, are usually intolerant of other males within their territory. Because of their aggressive nature, territorial disputes can be violent, and may end in the death of one of the males. To identify his territory, the male marks trees by spraying urine and anal gland secretions on trees as well as by marking trails with scat. Males show a grimacing face, called the Flehmen response, when identifying a female's reproductive condition by sniffing their urine markings. A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... Territorial Marking is typified by the use of urine by dogs and other similar species. ... Rabbit feces are usually 0. ... A mare exhibits the flehmen response by curling back her upper lip The flehmen response, also called the flehmen position, flehmen reaction, flehming, or flehmening (from German flehmen (of animals) meaning to curl the upper lip), is a particular type of curling of the upper lip in ungulates, felids, and...


Male tigers can mingle easily with females in their territories and will even share kills. George Schaller observed a male tiger share a kill with two females and four cubs. Females are often reluctant to let males near their cubs, but Schaller saw that these females made no effort to protect or keep their cubs from the male. This suggests that the male might have been the father of the cubs. In contrast to male lions, male tigers will allow the females and cubs to feed on the kill first. Females will also share kills, even more so than the males. They are also much more tolerant of sharing kills with individuals of the same sex. Dr. George Schaller at a lecture in Beijing Zoo on Aug. ...


Tigers have been studied in the wild using a variety of techniques. The populations of tigers were estimated in the past using plaster casts of their pugmarks. In recent times, camera trapping has been used instead. Newer techniques based on DNA from their scat are also being evaluated. Radio collaring has also been a popular approach to tracking them for study in the wild. Pugmark is the term used to refer to the footprint of most animals (especially megafauna). ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


Reproduction

A female is only receptive for a few days and mating is frequent during that time period. A pair will copulate frequently and noisily, like other cats. The gestation period is 103 days and 3–4 cubs of about 1 kg (2 lb) each are born. The females rear them alone. Wandering male tigers may kill cubs to make the female receptive. At 8 weeks, the cubs are ready to follow their mother out of the den. The cubs become independent around 18 months of age, but it is not until they are around 2–2½ years old that they leave their mother. The cubs reach sexual maturity by 3–4 years of age. The female tigers generally own territory near their mother, while males tend to wander in search of territory, which they acquire by fighting and eliminating another male. Over the course of her life, a female tiger will give birth to an approximately equal number of male and female cubs. Tigers breed well in captivity, and the captive population in the United States may rival the wild population of the world. Sevenspotted Lady Beetles mating In biology, mating is the pairing of opposite-sex or hermaphroditic internal fertilization animals for copulation and, in social animals, also to raise their offspring. ...


Habitat

Tigers are found in a variety of habitats, from tropical rainforests and boreal forests to dry savannas as they are found in Ranthambore National Park. Compared to the lion, the tiger prefers more dense vegetation, for which its camouflage is ideally suited, and where a single predator is not at a disadvantage compared to a pride. Among the big cats, only the tiger and jaguar are strong swimmers; tigers are often found bathing in ponds, lakes, and rivers. Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests of the world Amazon river rain forest in Brazil Tropical rainforests are rainforests generally found near the equator. ... Taiga (SAMPA /taIg@/, from Russian тайга́) is a biome characterized by its coniferous forests. ... “Savannah” redirects here. ... Ranthambore National Park, part of Project Tiger, is located in Rajasthan, India. ... For other uses, see Jaguar (disambiguation). ... This article concentrates on human swimming. ... Two people reflected in a fish pond A pond is typically a man made body of water smaller than a lake. ... Blowdown Lake in the mountains near Pemberton, British Columbia A lake (from Latin lacus) is a body of water or other liquid of considerable size contained on a body of land. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ...


Food

Tiger dentition. The large canines are used to make the killing bite, but they tear meat when feeding using the carnassial teeth
Tiger dentition. The large canines are used to make the killing bite, but they tear meat when feeding using the carnassial teeth

In the wild, tigers mostly feed on larger and medium sized animals. Sambar, gaur, water buffalo, chital, wild boar and nilgai are the tiger's favored prey in India. In Siberia the main prey species are Mandchurian elk, wild boar, sika deer, roe deer and musk deer. In Sumatra; rusa deer, wild boar and Malayan tapir are preyed on. Like many predators, they are opportunistic and will eat much smaller prey such as as monkeys, peacocks, hares and fish. Image File history File linksMetadata 037tiger. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 037tiger. ... The word Animals when used alone has several possible meanings in the English language. ... Binomial name Cervus unicolor (Kerr, 1792) Sambar Sambar in forest Sambar (also sambur, sambhur), is the common name for several large dark brown and maned Asian deer, particularly for the Indian species, which attains a height of 102 to 160 cm (40 to 63 in) at the shoulder and may... Binomial name Bos gaurus H. Smith, 1827 Range map The Gaur (IPA gauɹ) (Bos gaurus, previously Bibos gauris) is a large, dark-coated ox of South Asia and Southeast Asia. ... For the controversy at the University of Pennsylvania, see Water buffalo incident. ... Binomial name Axis axis (Erxleben, 1777) The chital (or cheetal) deer, also known as the spotted deer or axis deer is a deer which commonly inhabits wooded regions of Sri Lanka and Bangladesh, and most of India. ... Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 The Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domesticated pig. ... Binomial name Boselaphus tragocamelus Pall. ... For other uses, see Elk (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Cervus nippon Temminck, 1838 Subspecies The Sika Deer Cervus nippon is a typical member of the family Cervidae. ... Binomial name Capreolus pygargus Pallas, 1771 Subspecies C. p. ... The four species of musk deer make up the family Moschidae. ... [[Image:Example. ... Binomial name Tapirus indicus (Desmarest, 1819) The Malayan Tapir (Tapirus indicus), also called the Asian Tapir, is the largest of the four species of tapir and the only one native to Asia. ... Approximate worldwide distribution of monkeys. ... Peacock re-directs here; for alternate uses see Peacock (disambiguation). ... Jack rabbit and Jackrabbit redirect here. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ...


They also may kill such formidable predators as dholes, leopards, and pythons. Tigers have been known to kill even crocodiles on occasion,[13][14][15] although predation is rare and the predators typically avoid one another. Siberian tigers and brown bears are a serious threat to each other and usually avoid confrotation; however, tigers will kill bear cubs and even adult brown bears on occasion. Bears (Asiatic black bears and brown bears) make up 5-8% of the tigers diet in the Russian Far East. [9] Sloth bears are quite aggressive and will sometimes drive young tigers away from their kills although the opposite happens as well and in some cases Indian tigers even prey on sloth bears.[9] Binomial name Cuon alpinus (Pallas, 1811) The Dhole (Cuon alpinus) is a species of wild dog of the Canidae family. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis pardus Linnaeus, 1758 The Leopard (Panthera pardus) is an Old World mammal of the Felidae family and one of the four big cats of the genus Panthera, along with the tiger (), the lion () and the jaguar (). Once distributed across southern Eurasia and Africa from... Genera Aspidites Antaresia Apodora Bothrochilus Leiopython Liasis Morelia Python Python is the common name for a group of non-venomous constricting snakes, specifically the family Pythonidae. ... Genera Crocodylus Osteolaemus Tomistoma A crocodile can be any of the 14 species of large, water-loving reptiles in the family Crocodylidae (sometimes classified instead as the subfamily Crocodylinae). ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris altaica Temminck, 1884 Distribution of the Siberian Tiger (in red) The Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is a rare subspecies of tiger (). Also known as the Amur, North China, Manchurian, or Korean Tiger, it is arguably the largest tiger subspecies in the world. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Ursus arctos range map. ... Binomial name (G. Cuvier, 1823) Thibetanus bear range Synonyms Selenarctos thibetanus The Asiatic Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus or Selenarctos thibetanus), also known as the Tibetan black bear, the Himalayan black bear, or the moon bear, is a medium sized, sharp-clawed, black-coloured bear with a distinctive white or cream... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Ursus arctos range map. ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: Д́альний Вост́ок Росс́ии; English transliteration: Dalny Vostok Rossii) is an informal term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ... Binomial name Melursus ursinus (Shaw, 1791) The Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus) is a nocturnal bear, inhabiting the lowland forests of India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. ...


Adult elephants are too dangerous to tigers to serve as common prey, but conflicts between elephants and tigers do sometimes take place. A case where a tiger killed an adult female Indian rhino has been observed.[16] Young elephant and rhino calves are occasionally taken. Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... Binomial name Rhinoceros unicornis (Linnaeus, 1758) Indian Rhinoceros range The Indian Rhinoceros or the Great One-horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) is a large mammal found in Nepal and in Assam, India. ...


Tigers sometimes prey on domestic animals such as dogs, cows, horses and donkeys. These individuals are termed cattle-lifters or cattle-killers in contrast to typical game-killers. Especially old and injured tigers have been known to attack humans and are then termed as man-eaters, which often leads to them being captured, shot or poisoned. The Sundarbans mangrove swamps of Bengal, where some healthy tigers have been known to hunt humans, have had a higher incidence of man-eaters. This article is about modern humans. ... Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh and India The Sundarbans delta is the largest mangrove forest in the world. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ...


Hunting methods

Hunting Tiger
Hunting Tiger
Tigers' extremely strong jaws and sharp teeth make them superb predators.
Tigers' extremely strong jaws and sharp teeth make them superb predators.

Tigers hunt alone and prefer medium to large sized herbivores. They ambush their prey as other cats do, overpowering them from any angle, using their body size and strength to knock large prey off balance. Even with their great masses, tigers can reach speeds of about 49-65 km/h (35-40 mph). Tigers prefer to bite the throats of large prey and use their muscled forelimbs to hold onto the prey, bringing it to the ground. The tiger remains latched onto the neck until its prey dies. With small prey, the tiger bites the nape, often breaking the spinal cord, piercing the windpipe, or severing the jugular vein or carotid artery. The prey is killed instantly. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1728 × 1152 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1728 × 1152 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1416x2126, 1019 KB) Beschreibung: Gebiss eines sibirischen Tigers Aufnahmedatum: 19. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1416x2126, 1019 KB) Beschreibung: Gebiss eines sibirischen Tigers Aufnahmedatum: 19. ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... Kilometre per hour (American spelling: kilometer per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... Look up nape in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... The trachea, or windpipe, is a tube that has an inner diameter of about 12mm and a length of about 10-16cm. ... The jugular veins are veins that bring deoxygenated blood from the head back to the heart via the superior vena cava. ... In human anatomy, the carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck. ...


In the wild, tigers can leap as high as 5 m (16 ft) and as far as 9–10 m (30–33 ft), making them one of the highest-jumping mammals (just slightly behind cougars in jumping ability). For other uses, see Cougar (disambiguation) or Puma (disambiguation). ...


They have been reported to carry domestic livestock weighing 50 kg (110 lb) while easily jumping over fences 2 m (6 ft 6 in) high. Their heavily muscled forelimbs are used to hold tightly onto the prey and to avoid being dislodged, especially by large prey such as gaurs. Gaurs and water buffalos weighing over a ton have been killed by tigers weighing about a sixth as much. The combination of claws and power behind a tiger's paws enables it to kill an adult human with one swipe.[17]


Extinction risk

Main article: Tiger hunting
Tiger headcount in 1990

Humans are the tiger's most significant predator, as tigers are often poached illegally for their fur. Many Indian tigers' parts found their way to Tibet, where they were widely used for making traditional costumes. A poached tiger in Bali, Indonesia Historical Tiger hunting in India, c. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the maximum global distribution of tigers in 1990 as a percentage of the top market (India - 3,750). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the maximum global distribution of tigers in 1990 as a percentage of the top market (India - 3,750). ... This article is about modern humans. ... For other uses, see Fur (disambiguation). ...


At the Kalachakra Tibetan Buddhist festival in south India in January 2006 the Dalai Lama preached a ruling against using, selling, or buying wild animals, their products, or derivatives. The result when Tibetan pilgrims returned to Tibet afterwards was much destruction by Tibetans of their wild animal skins including tiger and leopard skins used as ornamental garments. It has yet to be seen whether this will result in a long-term slump in the demand for poached tiger and leopard skins.[18][19][20] Kālacakra (Sanskrit कालचक्र; Tibetan དུས་ཀྱི་འཁོར་ལོ་ dus kyi khor lo) is a term used in Tantric Buddhism that means time-wheel or time-cycles. It refers both to a Tantric deity (Tib. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... Tenzin Gyatso (born 6 July 1935) is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis pardus Linnaeus, 1758 The Leopard (Panthera pardus) is an Old World mammal of the Felidae family and one of the four big cats of the genus Panthera, along with the tiger (), the lion () and the jaguar (). Once distributed across southern Eurasia and Africa from...


Their bones and nearly all body parts are used in traditional Chinese medicine for a range of purported uses including pain killers and aphrodisiacs. The use of tiger parts in pharmaceutical drugs in China is already banned. China has even made some offenses in connection with Tiger poaching punishable by death. Though it has been made illegal, China's wealthy businessmen are known to eat Tiger penis as they feel it is an aphrodisiac. [1].Poaching for fur and destruction of habitat have greatly reduced tiger populations in the wild. A century ago, it is estimated there were over 100,000 tigers in the world but the population has dwindled to between 7,000 and 5,000 tigers.[21] Some estimates suggest the population is even lower at less than 2,500 mature breeding individuals, with no subpopulation containing more than 250 mature breeding individuals.[1] The threat of extinction is mitigated somewhat by the presence of some 20,000 tigers currently in captivity, [22] although parts of the captive population (eg. the 4-5,000 animals in China's commercial tiger farms) is of very low genetic diversity and can be of little use in keeping the species alive. Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... An aphrodisiac is an agent which is used to increase sexual desire [1]. The name comes from the Greek goddess of Sensuality Aphrodite. ... For other uses, see Poaching (disambiguation). ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ...


Subspecies

There are nine recent subspecies of tiger, three of which are extinct and one of which is almost certain to become extinct in the near future. Their historical range (severely diminished today) ran through Russia, Siberia, Iran, Afghanistan, India, China and south-east Asia, including the Indonesian islands. These are the surviving subspecies, in descending order of wild population: This article is about the zoological term. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... “Siberian” redirects here. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Motto Bhinneka Tunggal Ika(Old Javanese) Unity in Diversity National ideology: Pancasila[1] Anthem Indonesia Raya Capital (and largest city) Jakarta Official languages Indonesian Government Presidential Republic  -  President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono  -  Vice President Muhammad Jusuf Kalla Independence from the Netherlands   -  Declared 17 August 1945   -  Recognized 27 December 1949  Area  -  Total...

Bengal tiger
Bengal tiger
  • The Bengal tiger or the Royal Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is found in parts of India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and Myanmar. It lives in varied habitats: grasslands, subtropical and tropical rainforests, scrub forests, wet and dry deciduous forests and mangroves. The Indian government's estimated population figure for these tigers is between 3,100 and 4,500, some 3,000 of which are found in India alone. However, many Indian tiger conservationists doubt this number, seeing it as overly optimistic. The number of Bengal tigers in India may be fewer than 2,000,[23] as most of the collected statistics are based on pugmark identification, which often gives a biased result. Even though this is the most 'common' tiger, these tigers are under severe pressure from both habitat destruction and poaching. In 1972, India launched a massive wildlife conservation project, known as Project Tiger, to protect the depleting numbers of tigers in India. The project helped increase the population of these tigers from 1,200 in the 1970s to 3,000 in the 1990s and is considered as one of the most successful wildlife conservation programs. At least one Tiger Reserve (Sariska) has lost its entire tiger population to poaching.[24] Males in the wild usually weigh 205 to 227 kg (450–500 lb), while the average female will weigh about 141 kg.[25] However, the northern Indian and the Nepalese Bengal tigers are supposed to be somewhat bulkier than those found in the south of the Indian Subcontinent, with males averaging around 520 lbs (236 kg).[26]
Indochinese Tiger
Indochinese Tiger
  • The Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti), also called Corbett's tiger, is found in Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. Estimates of its population vary between 1,200 to 1,800, but it seems likely that the number is in the lower part of the range. The largest current population is in Malaysia, where illegal poaching is strictly controlled, but all existing populations are at extreme risk from habitat fragmentation and inbreeding. In Vietnam, almost three-quarters of the tigers killed provide stock for Chinese pharmacies. Also, the tigers are seen by poor natives as a resource through which they can ease poverty. Indochinese tigers are smaller and darker than Bengal tigers. Males weigh from 150–190 kg (330–420 lb) on average while females are smaller at 110–140 kg (242–308 lb).
  • The Malayan tiger (Panthera tigris jacksoni), exclusively found in the southern (Malaysian) part of the Malay Peninsula, was not considered a subspecies in its own right until 2004. The new classification came about after a study by Luo et al. from the Laboratory of Genomic Diversity Study,[27] part of the National Cancer Institute of the United States. Recent counts showed there are 600–800 tigers in the wild, making it the third largest tiger population behind the Bengal tiger and the Indochinese tiger. The Malayan tiger is a national icon in Malaysia, appearing on its coat of arms and in logos of Malaysian institutions, such as Maybank.
Sumatran tiger
Sumatran tiger
  • The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) is found only on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. The wild population is estimated at between 400 and 500, seen chiefly in the island's national parks. Recent genetic testing has revealed the presence of unique genetic markers, indicating that it may develop into a separate species, if it is not made extinct.[28] This has led to suggestions that Sumatran tigers should have greater priority for conservation than any other subspecies. Habitat destruction is the main threat to the existing tiger population (logging continues even in the supposedly protected national parks), but 66 tigers were recorded as being shot and killed between 1998 and 2000, or nearly 20% of the total population. The Sumatran tiger is the smallest of all living tiger subspecies. Adult males weigh between 100–130 kg (220–286 lb), females 70–90 kg (154–198 lb). Their small size is an adaptation to the thick, dense forests of the Sumatra island where they reside, as well as the smaller-sized prey. On February 3, 2007 a pregnant Sumatran Tiger was caught by people from Rokan Hilir village at Riau province. Indonesian fauna conservation officials are planning to transfer her to the Bogor Safari Park in Java.
Amur tiger
Amur tiger
  • The Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica), also known as the Siberian, Manchurian or North China tiger, is confined completely to the Amur region in far eastern Siberia, where it is now protected. The last two censuses (1996 and 2005) found 450–500 Amur tigers within their single and more or less continuous range making it one of the largest undivided tiger populations in the world. Considered the largest subspecies, with an average weight of around 227 kg (500 lb) for males.[29] The Amur tiger is also noted for its thick coat, distinguished by a paler golden hue and a smaller number of stripes. The Amur tiger is the largest and heaviest of all naturally-occurring felines. A six-month old Amur tiger can be as big as a fully grown leopard.
South China tiger
South China tiger
  • The South China tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis), also known as the Amoy or Xiamen tiger, is the most critically endangered subspecies of tiger and will almost certainly become extinct. It is one of the smaller tiger subspecies. The length of the South China tiger ranges from 2.2–2.6 m (87–104 in) for both males and females. Males weigh between 127 and 177 kg (280–390 lb) while females weigh between 100 and 118 kg (220–260 lb). It seems likely that the last known wild South China tiger was shot and killed in 1994, and no live tigers have been seen in their natural habitat for the last 20 years. In 1977, the Chinese government passed a law banning the killing of wild tigers, but this appears to have been too late to save the subspecies. There are currently 59 known captive South China tigers, all within China, but these are known to be descended from only six animals. Thus, the genetic diversity required to maintain the subspecies may no longer exist, making extinction a possibility. Currently, there are breeding efforts to reintroduce these tigers to the wild by 2008.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1286x1200, 282 KB) [[1]] with adjusted levels. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1286x1200, 282 KB) [[1]] with adjusted levels. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bengal Tiger or Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is a subspecies of tiger primarily found in India, Bangladesh and also in Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and in southern Tibet. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Project Tiger is a wildlife conservation project initiated in India in 1972 to protect the Bengal Tigers. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Sariska is a national park in the Indian state of Rajasthan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2064x1407, 1814 KB) Indo-Chinese Tigers Photo taken by Kabir Bakie at the Cincinnati Zoo August 28, 2005 [ http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2064x1407, 1814 KB) Indo-Chinese Tigers Photo taken by Kabir Bakie at the Cincinnati Zoo August 28, 2005 [ http://www. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris corbetti Mazák, 1968 Distribution map The Indochinese tiger or Corbetts tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) is a subspecies of tiger found in Cambodia, China, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. ... For other uses, see Poaching (disambiguation). ... Habitat fragmentation is a process of environmental change important in evolution and conservation biology. ... It has been suggested that inbreeding depression be merged into this article or section. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris jacksoni Luo et al. ... The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the United States Federal governments National Institutes of Health. ... Current crest. ... Maybank, a trade name for Malayan Banking Berhad is the largest bank and financial group in Malaysia, with significant personal banking operations in Brunei, Singapore and the Philippines as well. ... Image File history File links Description: Panthera tigris sumatran subspecies Source: photo taken by Monika Betley Date: - Author: Monika Betley Permission: Monika Betley released it under GFDL Other versions of this file: - File links The following pages link to this file: Tiger Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates Sumatran Tiger Wikipedia:Featured... Image File history File links Description: Panthera tigris sumatran subspecies Source: photo taken by Monika Betley Date: - Author: Monika Betley Permission: Monika Betley released it under GFDL Other versions of this file: - File links The following pages link to this file: Tiger Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates Sumatran Tiger Wikipedia:Featured... Trinomial name Panthera tigris sumatrae Pocock, 1929 Distribution map The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) is found only on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... // Bali Barat National Park Gunung Rinjani National Park Kelimutu National Park Komodo National Park Manupeu Tanah Daru National Park Laiwangi Wanggameti National Park Alas Purwo National Park Baluran National Park Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park Gunung Ciremai National Park Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park Gunung Halimun National Park Gunung Merapi... Habitat destruction is a process of land use change in which one habitat-type is removed and replaced with some other habitat-type. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Nickname: Kota Hujan (City of Rain) Location of Bogor in Indonesia Coordinates: Government  - Mayor Diani Budiarto Time zone WIB (UTC+7) Area code(s) 0251 Website: www. ... This article is about the Java island. ... Download high resolution version (1296x648, 166 KB)A Siberian Tiger from the Tulsa Zoo in Tulsa, OK. Image by Ash Lux. ... Download high resolution version (1296x648, 166 KB)A Siberian Tiger from the Tulsa Zoo in Tulsa, OK. Image by Ash Lux. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris altaica Temminck, 1884 Distribution of the Siberian Tiger (in red) The Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is a rare subspecies of tiger (). Also known as the Amur, North China, Manchurian, or Korean Tiger, it is arguably the largest tiger subspecies in the world. ... The Amur River or Heilong Jiang (Russian: Амур; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , or Black Dragon River; Mongolian: , Khar Mörön or Black River; Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black River) is the worlds eighth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China. ... “Siberian” redirects here. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis pardus Linnaeus, 1758 The Leopard (Panthera pardus) is an Old World mammal of the Felidae family and one of the four big cats of the genus Panthera, along with the tiger (), the lion () and the jaguar (). Once distributed across southern Eurasia and Africa from... Image File history File links Panthera_tigris_amoyensis. ... Image File history File links Panthera_tigris_amoyensis. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris amoyensis (Hilzheimer, 1905) South China Tiger range The South China Tiger or South Chinese Tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis), also known as the Chinese, Amoy, or Xiamen tiger, is a subspecies of tiger native to the forests of Southern China. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... Genetic diversity is a characteristic of ecosystems and gene pools that describes an attribute which is commonly held to be advantageous for survival -- that there are many different versions of otherwise similar organisms. ...

Extinct tiger subspecies

A hunted down Balinese Tiger.
A hunted down Balinese Tiger.
  • The Balinese tiger (Panthera tigris balica) has always been limited to the island of Bali. These tigers were hunted to extinction – the last Balinese tiger is thought to have been killed at Sumbar Kima, West Bali on 27 September 1937; this was an adult female. No Balinese tiger was ever held in captivity. The tiger still plays an important role in Balinese Hindu religion.
  • The Javan tiger (Panthera tigris sondaica) was limited to the Indonesian island of Java. It now seems likely that this subspecies was made extinct in the 1980s, as a result of hunting and habitat destruction, but the extinction of this subspecies was extremely probable from the 1950s onwards (when it is thought that fewer than 25 tigers remained in the wild). The last specimen was sighted in 1979.
  • The Caspian tiger or Persian Tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) appears to have become extinct in the late 1960s, with the last reliable sighting in 1968, though it is thought that such a tiger was last shot dead in the south-eastern-most part of Turkey in 1970. Historically it ranged through Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, the former Soviet Union and Turkey. The Caspian tiger was a large subspecies and reached nearly the dimensions of the Bengal Tiger. The heaviest confirmed weight of a male was 240 kg. The ground colour was comparable to that of the Indian subspecies, but differed especially in the tight, narrow striping pattern. The stripes were rather dark grey or brown than black. Especially during the winter was the fur relatively long. The Caspian tiger was one of two subspecies of tiger (along with the Bengal) that was used by the Romans to battle gladiators and other animals, including the Barbary Lion.

Image File history File links Panthera_tigris_balica. ... Image File history File links Panthera_tigris_balica. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris balica (Schwarz, 1912) The Balinese Tiger is an extinct species of tiger found solely on the small Indonesian island of Bali. ... This article is about the Indonesian island. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris sondaica (Temminck, 1844) Javan Tiger range map The Javan tiger (Panthera tigris sondaica) was a tiger limited to the Indonesian island of Java. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris virgata (Illiger, 1815) Distribution of caspian tigers in 1900 (red) Synonyms P. tigris lecoqi (China) Color-enhanced photo of a captive specimen (possibly the same individual as above) The Caspian tiger or Persian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) was the westernmost subspecies of tiger, found in Iran... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Gladiator (disambiguation). ... Trinomial name Panthera leo leo (Linnaeus, 1758) The Barbary Lion Panthera leo leo is a subspecies of lion. ...

Evolution

The Tiger is uncommon in the fossil record, which is why its evolution remains partly unclear. The oldest remains of a tiger like cat, called Panthera palaeosinensis have been found in China and Java. This species occurred about 2 million years ago at the beginning of the pleistocene and was smaller than a tiger. Early true tiger fossils stem from Java and are between 1.6 and 1.8 million years old. Distinct fossils from the early and middle pleistocene were discovered in deposits from China, Sumatra and Java. A subspecies called Trinil tiger (Panthera tigris trinilensis) for example occurred about 1.2 million years ago and was found at the locality of Trinil, Java, Indonesia.[30] In India, and northern Asia the tiger appears for the first time in the late pleistocene. Fossil tigers were also found in eastern Beringia (but not on the American Continent) and Sachalin island. Tiger fossils of the late pleistocene have also turned up in Japan. These fossils indicate that the Japanese tiger was not bigger than the island subspecies of tigers of recent ages. This may be due to the phenomenon in which body size is related to environmental space (see island dwarfism), or in the case of a large predator like a tiger, availability of prey. Until the Holocene tigers occurred also in Borneo, where it is not present today. Binomial name Panthera palaeosinensis (Zdansky, 1924) Panthera palaeosinensis was an early Pleistocene species from northern China. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris trinilensis The Trinil tiger (Panthera tigris trinilensis) is the oldest tiger fossil dating from about 1. ... Trinil is a palaeoanthropological site on the banks of the Bengawan Solo River in Java, Indonesia. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... The Bering land bridge, also known as Beringia, was a land bridge roughly 1600 km (1000 miles) north to south at its greatest extent, which joined present-day Alaska and eastern Siberia at various times during the ice ages. ... Sakhalin (Russian: , IPA: ; Japanese: 樺太 ) or サハリン )); Chinese: 庫頁; also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45°50 and 54°24 N. It is part of Russia and is its largest island, administered as part of Sakhalin Oblast. ... The skeleton of a dwarf elephant from the island of Crete. ...


Traditional Asian medicine

Skeleton
Skeleton

Tiger parts are used in traditional Chinese medicines. Many people in China believed that tiger parts have medicinal properties. There is no scientific corroboration to these beliefs. Although all trade in tiger parts is illegal under CITES and a domestic trade ban has been in place in China since 1993 there is still a number of tiger farms in the country specializing in breeding the cats for profit from meat and other tiger products. It is estimated that between 4000 and 5000 captive-bred, semi-tame animals live in these farms today. [31] [32] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international agreement between Governments, drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the World Conservation Union (IUCN). ...


Tigers in literature and popular culture

Tyger! Tyger! Burning bright
In the forests of the night,
What immortal hand or eye
Could frame thy fearful symmetry?...


William Blake, "The Tyger", Songs of Experience. The most anthologized poem in the English language. William Blakes original plate for The Tyger. ...

The word "tiger" is borrowed from the Greek word "tigris", which itself is derived "possibly from an Iranian source."[33] In American English, "Tigress" was first recorded in 1611. "Tiger's-eye" is a name for a golden-brown striped, chatoyant, fibrous variety of quartz used as a semi-precious gemstone. Polished tigers eye gemstone Polished tigers eye gemstone Tigers eye (also Tigers eye, Tiger eye) is a chatoyant gemstone that is usually yellow- to red-brown, with a silky luster. ... In gemology, chatoyancy is an optical reflectance effect seen in certain gemstones. ... Quartz (from German Quarz[1]) is the second most common mineral in the Earths continental crust. ...


The tiger has long been a subject of imaginative literature. Both Rudyard Kipling in The Jungle Book and William Blake in Songs of Experience depict the tiger as a menacing and fearful animal. In The Jungle Book, the tiger, Shere Khan, is the wicked mortal enemy of the protagonist, Mowgli. However, other depictions are more benign: Tigger, the tiger from A. A. Milne's Winnie the Pooh stories, is cuddly and likable. In the Man Booker Prize winning novel "Life of Pi," the protagonist, Pi Patel, sole human survivor of a ship wreck in the Atlantic Ocean, befriends another survivor: a large Bengal Tiger. The famous comic strip Calvin and Hobbes features Calvin and his stuffed tiger, Hobbes. A tiger is also featured on the cover of the popular cereal "Frosted Flakes" (also marketed as "Frosties") bearing the name "Tony the Tiger". This article is about the British author. ... Embossed cover from the original MacMillan edition of The Jungle Book, 1894, based on art by John Lockwood Kipling (Rudyards father) For other uses, see The Jungle Book (disambiguation). ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... The Songs of Experience is a poetry collection, forming the second part of William Blakes Songs of Innocence and Experience. ... Mowgli attacking Shere Khan (right) with a burning branch; detail of a rare clay bas-relief by John Lockwood Kipling, father of Rudyard, , 1907. ... Mowgli by John Lockwood Kipling (father of Rudyard Kipling). ... Tigger is a fictional tiger character originally introduced in A. A. Milnes book, The House at Pooh Corner. ... Alan Alexander Milne (January 18, 1882 – January 31, 1956), also known as A. A. Milne, was a British author, best known for his books about the teddy bear Winnie-the-Pooh and for various childrens poems. ... “Pooh” redirects here. ... The Man Booker Prize for Fiction, also known in short as the Booker Prize, is a literary prize awarded each year for the best original full-length novel, written in the English language, by a citizen of either the Commonwealth of Nations or the Republic of Ireland. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... Life of Pi is a novel by Canadian author Yann Martel. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bengal Tiger or Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is a subspecies of tiger primarily found in India, Bangladesh and also in Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and in southern Tibet. ... Listen to this article (3 parts) (info) Part 1 â€¢ Part 2 â€¢ Part 3 This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2006-01-29, and may not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ...


The tiger is one of the most popular sports teams nicknames/mascots. Some examples are the Australian Football League team Richmond Tigers, the American Major League Baseball team Detroit Tigers, the NFL's Cincinnati Bengals(a reference to the bengal tiger), the Australian NRL team Wests Tigers, the English rugby union club Leicester Tigers, the English football (soccer) club Hull City and the NCAA Division I sports teams LSU Tigers, Auburn Tigers, Princeton Tigers, and Clemson Tigers. In Asia, the Japanese Hanshin Tigers and the South Korean Kia Tigers are very popular Baseball teams, too. This article is about the national league in Australian rules football. ... Richmond Football Club logo The Richmond Football Club, nicknamed The Tigers, is an Australian rules football club playing in the Australian Football League. ... MLB and Major Leagues redirect here. ... Major league affiliations American League (1901–present) Central Division (1998–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 2, 5, 6, 16, 23, 42 Name Detroit Tigers (1901–present) Other nicknames The Bless You Boys Ballpark Comerica Park (2000–present) Tiger Stadium (1912-1999) Briggs Stadium (1938-1960) Navin Field (1912-1938) Bennett... NFL logo For other uses of the abbreviation NFL, see NFL (disambiguation). ... Information in this article or section has not been verified against sources and may not be reliable. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bengal Tiger or Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is a subspecies of tiger primarily found in India, Bangladesh and also in Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and in southern Tibet. ... NRL may refer to: National Rugby League Namespace Routing Language National Rookie League Numaligarh Refinery Limited US Naval Research Laboratory North Ronaldsay Airport, the IATA airport code Category: ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Official website www. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... Hull City Association Football Club is an English football club based in Kingston upon Hull, East Riding of Yorkshire. ... The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA, often said NC-Double-A) is a voluntary association of about 1200 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletics programs of many colleges and universities in the United States. ... Division I (or DI) is the highest level of intercollegiate athletics sanctioned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association in the United States. ... LSU (Louisiana State University) is a member of the NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) and the Southeastern Conference. ... Auburn Tigers is the name given to Auburn University athletic teams. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... Clemson University is a member of the NCAAs Division I and is in the Atlantic Division of the Atlantic Coast Conference. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Kia Tigers (Korean: ) are a Korean professional baseball team founded in 1982. ...


During Bleeding Kansas in 1850s, pro-slavery militiamen operating out of Missouri who raided anti-slavery settlements in Kansas styled themselves the "Tigers." This tradition survives in University of Missouri mascot "Tigers." Division of the states during the Civil War:  Union states  Union territories  Border states  Bleeding Kansas  The Confederacy  Confederate territories (not always held) Bleeding Kansas, sometimes referred to in history as Bloody Kansas or the Border War, was a sequence of violent events involving Free-Staters (anti-slavery) and pro... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English[2] Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ...


Humble Oil, a division of Standard Oil Company of New Jersey, USA, (Jersey Standard), used a caricatured tiger and the slogan "Put a Tiger in your Tank" to promote their gasoline/petrol products. Jersey Standard used a real tiger in its advertising when it took the Exxon name company-wide in 1972 and when advertising abroad as Esso. The brand kept the tiger mascot as a part of ExxonMobil when they merged in 1999. For other uses, see Exon (disambiguation). ... An Esso Station in Stabekk, Norway Esso sign Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Esso is an international trade name for Exxon Mobil Corporation and its related companies. ...


The tiger is one of the 12 Chinese zodiac animals. Also in various Chinese art and martial art, the tiger is depicted as an equal rival towards the Chinese dragon. In Imperial China, a tiger often represented the highest army general (or present day defense secretary), while the emperor and empress were represented by a dragon and phoenix, respectively. Chinese astrology (占星術 pinyin: zhan4 xing1 shu4; 星學 pinyin: xing1 xue2; 七政四餘 pinyin: qi1 zheng4 si4 yu2; and 果老星宗 pinyin: guo3 lao3 xing1 zong1) is related to the Chinese calendar, particularly its 12-year cycle of animals (aka Chinese Zodiac), and... Chinese Jade ornament with flower design, Jin Dynasty (1115-1234 AD), Shanghai Museum. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Thai name Thai: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Han Tu: The Chinese dragon is a mythical Chinese creature that also appears in other East Asian cultures, and is also sometimes called the Oriental (or Eastern) dragon. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is appointed by the President with the approval of the Senate, and is a member of the Cabinet. ... It has been suggested that European dragon be merged into this article or section. ... Fenghuang sculpture, Nanning city, Guangxi, China. ...


The tiger is regarded as the king of the jungle in most parts of Asia, because its forehead has a marking which resembles the Chinese character 王, which means "king". Consequently, many cartoon depictions of tigers in China and Korea are drawn with 王 on their forehead. For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


The tiger is regared as a messenger of the "mountain god" or the "mountain god" himself in Korean traditional culture.


In a poll organised by Animal Planet in 2004, More than 50,000 viewers from 73 countries voted to decide their favourite animal. The tiger received 10,904 votes winning the title of the World's Favourite Animal, beating man's best friend, dog, by 17 votes. Third most popular was the dolphin, followed by the horse and the lion.[34] Animal Planet, launched in 1996, is a cable and satellite television network co-owned by Discovery Communications, Inc. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Genera See article below. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ...


A stylized tiger cub, "Hodori", was a mascot of the 1988 Summer Olympic Games of Seoul. Hodori Hodori was the official mascot of the 1988 Summer Olympic Games in Seoul, South Korea. ... (Redirected from 1988 Summer Olympic Games) The Games of the XXIV Olympiad were held in 1988 in South Korea. ... Look up Seoul in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The image and name of the tiger are used on tins of Tiger Balm, an ointment for strained or sore muscles. The white and red versions of Haw Par Tiger Balm. ...


In Monty Python's The Meaning of Life, a British officer in the Zulu War is diagnossed to have lost a leg to a tiger. In this movie, they list the scientific name of the tiger as Felis horriblis, whereas in actuality the scientific name is Panthera tigris. The Meaning of Life was a Monty Python comedy film made in 1983. ... The Battle of Rorkes Drift The Anglo-Zulu War was fought in 1879 between Britain and the Zulus, and signalled the end of the Zulus as an independent nation. ...


The tiger as a national animal

The Tiger is the national animal of:

Pet tigers

The American Zoo and Aquarium Association estimates that up to 12,000 tigers are being kept as private pets in the USA, which is significantly more than the world's entire wild population.[35] 4000 are believed to be in captivity in Texas alone.[35] The American Zoo and Aquarium Association, or AZA is a people-based association dedicated to raising awareness of zoos and aquariums. ...


Part of the reason for America's enormous tiger population relates to legislation. Only nineteen states have banned private ownership of tigers, fifteen require only a licence, and sixteen states have no regulations at all.[35]


The success of breeding programmes at American zoos and circuses led to an overabundance of cubs in the 1980s and 90s, which drove down prices for the animals.[35] The SPCA estimate there are now 500 lions, tigers and other big cats in private ownership just in the Houston area.[35] The SPCA (Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals) is an acronym used to refer to a number of national societies to protect and provide shelter to animals in danger. ...


Media

Video of the Panthera tigris at Disney's Animal Kingdom


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See also

For other uses, see White tiger (disambiguation). ... A black tiger is a rare colour variant of the tiger and is not a distinct species or geographic race. ... Species Smilodon californicus Smilodon fatalis Smilodon gracilis Smilodon populator Smilodon floridus Smilodon neogaeus For the record label, see Smilodon Records Smilodon (IPA: //, a bahuvrihi from Greek: knife and (Ionic) tooth) is an extinct genus of large machairodontine saber-toothed cats that are understood to have lived between approximately 3 million... Species Smilodon californicus Smilodon fatalis Smilodon gracilis Smilodon populator The large extinct cats known as smilodon lived approximately 3 million-10,000 years ago in North America and South America. ... Binomial name The Tigon or Tigron is a hybrid cross between a female Panthera leo (lion), and a male Panthera tigris (tiger). ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... Hercules the liger and his trainer The liger is a hybrid cross between a male Panthera leo (lion), and a female Panthera tigris (tiger) and is denoted scientifically as Panthera tigris × Panthera leo. ... Monk walking tiger on a leash Tiger Temple, or Wat Pha Luang Ta Bua, is a Buddhist temple in Western Thailand which keeps numerous animals, among them several tame tigers that walk around freely once a day and can be petted by tourists. ... A sculpture of Siegfried & Roy with one of their beloved white lions near the Mirage hotel on the Las Vegas Strip Siegfried & Roy are two gay German-American entertainers who worked on the Las Vegas Strip, USA. Their long running show of magic and illusion was famous for working with... Project Tiger is a wildlife conservation project initiated in India in 1972 to protect the Bengal Tigers. ... The Maltese Tigeris a suspected coloration morph of tiger that has historically been reported in the Fujian Province of China and claimed to have been sighted on a few occasions. ... The Toyger is a breed of cat, the result of breeding domestic shorthaired tabbies (beggining in the 1980s) to make them resemble the toy tiger as its striped coat is reminiscent of the tigers. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Cat Specialist Group (2002). Panthera Tigris. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 10 May 2006. Database entry includes justification for why this species is endangered.
  2. ^ Save The Tiger Fund | Wild Tiger Conservation
  3. ^ Crossbreed ligers can grow larger than Tigers, but they are not a species with its own breeding population.
  4. ^ BBC Wildfacts – Tiger.
  5. ^ Lesson 5, Kids for Tigers.
  6. ^ Cat Specialist Group.
  7. ^ Vital Statistics: Tigers
  8. ^ WWF – Tigers – Ecology.
  9. ^ a b c Vratislav Mazak: Der Tiger. Nachdruck der 3. Auflage von 1983. Westarp Wissenschaften Hohenwarsleben, 2004 ISBN 3 894327596
  10. ^ Sunquist, Mel and Fiona Sunquist. 2002. Wild Cats of the World. University Of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  11. ^ Graham Batemann: Die Tiere unserer Welt Raubtiere, Deutsche Ausgabe: Bertelsmann Verlag, 1986.
  12. ^ Tigers: Senses. Busch Gardens Animal Information Database. Retrieved on 2006-06-22.
  13. ^ Tiger – BangaliNET.com
  14. ^ Tiger – Oakland Zoo
  15. ^ Sunquist, Fiona & Mel Sunquist. 1988. Tiger Moon. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  16. ^ Sympatric Tiger and Leopard: How two big cats coexist in the same area. Ecology.info
  17. ^ http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/LAC.20070512.BCTIGER12/TPStory/National
  18. ^ Simon Denyer (March 6, 2006). Dalai Lama offers Indian tigers a lifeline. iol.co.za. Retrieved on 2007-07-20.
  19. ^ Justin Huggler (February 18, 2006). Fur flies over tiger plight. New Zealand Herald. Tibet.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-20.
  20. ^ Dalai Lama campaigns for wildlife. BBC News (April 6, 2005). Retrieved on 2007-07-20.
  21. ^ Big Cat Recuse - Tiger
  22. ^ Medicare program; endangered tigers; foster children. 2007. 60 Minutes (CBS).
  23. ^ Task force says tigers under siege
  24. ^ No tigers found in Sariska: CBI. DeccanHerald.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-20. (Archive).
  25. ^ Sunquist, Mel and Fiona Sunquist. 2002. Wild Cats of the World. University Of Chicago Press, Chicago
  26. ^ Sunquist, Mel and Fiona Sunquist. 2002. Wild Cats of the World. University Of Chicago Press, Chicago
  27. ^ Laboratory of Genomic Diversity LGD.
  28. ^ Cracraft J., Felsenstein J., Vaughn J., Helm-Bychowski K. (1998) Sorting out tigers (Panthera tigris) Mitochondrial sequences, nuclear inserts, systematics, and conservation genetics. Animal Conservation 1: 139–150.
  29. ^ Sunquist, Mel and Fiona Sunquist. 2002. Wild Cats of the World. University Of Chicago Press, Chicago
  30. ^ Van den Hoek Ostende. 1999. Javan Tiger - Ruthlessly hunted down. 300 Pearls - Museum highlights of natural diversity. Downloaded on 11 August 2006.
  31. ^ WWF: Chinese tiger farms must be investigated
  32. ^ WWF: Breeding tigers for trade soundly rejected at CITES
  33. ^ Tiger at the Online Etymology Dictionary
  34. ^ "Tiger is world's favourite animal", Manchester Evening News, June 12, 2004. Retrieved on 2007-07-11. 
  35. ^ a b c d e Lloyd, J & Mitchinson, J: "The Book of General Ignorance". Faber & Faber, 2006.
General references
  • Mazák, V. 1981. Panthera tigris. (PDF). Mammalian Species, 152: 1-8. American Society of Mammalogists.
  • Ronald M. Nowak: Walker's Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999 ISBN 0-8018-5789-9
  • Tom Brakefield. 1993. Big cats kingdom of might, Voyageur press.
  • John Seidensticker: Riding the Tiger. Tiger Conservation in Human-dominated Landscapes Cambridge University Press, 1999 ISBN 0521648351

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... The term crossbreed or crossbred refers to a hybrid animal of two purebred parents created by means of crossbreeding. ... Hercules the liger and his trainer The liger is a hybrid cross between a male Panthera leo (lion), and a female Panthera tigris (tiger) and is denoted scientifically as Panthera tigris × Panthera leo. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Manchester Evening News is an English daily newspaper published each week day evening and on Saturdays. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Lloyd (born 1951 in Dover, England; birth name: John Hardress Wilfred Lloyd), British comedy writer and producer. ... John Mitchinson is the head of research for the British television panel game QI, and co-author of The Book of General Ignorance with QIs creator John Lloyd. ... QI: The Book of General Ignorance (UK cover) The Book of General Ignorance is a series of books based on the final round in the intellectual British panel game QI, written by John Lloyd and John Mitchinson. ...

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Gallery


  Results from FactBites:
 
Tiger -- Kids' Planet -- Defenders of Wildlife (284 words)
Tiger habitat varies widely, from tropical rainforests to snow-covered coniferous and deciduous forests and from mangrove swamps to drier forests.
Tiger prey consists mostly of pigs, deer, antelope, buffalo and other large mammals, although tigers have been known to hunt smaller mammals and birds.
Tigers are solitary hunters that stalk and attack from ambush.
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