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Encyclopedia > Tifinagh
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Tifinagh (pronounced [tifinax]) is the alphabetic script used by the Tuareg, a Berber people of northern Africa, to write their language, Tamasheq or Tamashek. Before the 3rd century AD, Tifinagh was more widely used by speakers of Berber languages (or Tamazight) all across North Africa and on the Canary Islands. This older version of Tifinagh is sometimes named Libyan (French libyque) to distinguish it from the modern version used by the Tuareg. It dates from about the 6th century BC[1]. While ultimate Phoenician origin is widely accepted (for it as for most of the world's alphabets), it is clearly very innovative and may have more than one ancestor, "probably Punic and Northern Arabic scripts" according to O'Connor 112; some scholars (eg M. Cohen) consider its origin to be a question as yet unresolved[2]. Some scholars consider it to be autochthonous in origin. Mustafa A'ashi considers "tifinagh" to be a Berber word deriving from the two words itif + nnegh, meaning our invention in the Berber language; however, given that the singular is tafineq (of which tifinagh is the regular plural), the etymology more commonly given (eg by Karl Prasse) relates to the Greek phoinikos "Phoenician". Mustafa A'ashi suggests that Tifinagh may be older than the Phoenician script, and that that might motivate translating "Tifinagh" as our invention. Other scholars argue that neither etymology is correct. For other uses of the word, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to Northwest Africa, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... // Etymology World map showing Africa (geographically) The name Africa came into Western use through the Romans, who used the name Africa terra — land of the Afri (plural, or Afer singular) — for the northern part of the continent, as the province of Africa with its capital Carthage, corresponding to modern-day... // Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages spoken in Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Niger, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco and Algeria. ... Capitals Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Santa Cruz de Tenerife Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7 447 km²  1,5% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 8th  1 843 755  4,4%  247,58/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  Canary Islander (Canarian)  canario/a Statute of Autonomy August 16... (7th century BC - 6th century BCE - 5th century BCE - other centuries) (600s BCE - 590s BCE - 580s BCE - 570s BCE - 560s BCE - 550s BCE - 540s BCE - 530s BCE - 520s BCE - 510s BCE - 500s BCE - other decades) (2nd millennium BCE - 1st millennium BCE - 1st millennium) The 5th and 6th centuries BCE were... An alphabet is a complete standardized set of letters — basic written symbols — each of which roughly represents a phoneme of a spoken language, either as it exists now or as it may have been in the past. ... Afro-Asiatic - Berber The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... Afro-Asiatic - Berber The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ...


Howard Barraclough "Barry" Fell seems to find the origin of Tifinagh in Old Norse inscriptions in Scandinavia and Canada (Peterborough). The symbol for "m" for instance is a lunar crescent, and Old Norse moon was "man". He was recognized by the Libyan government for his decipherment of Tifinagh Rock inscriptions, and Scandinavian experts, too, appear to accept his work on Tifinagh inscriptions there and in Canada. There also appears to be some archeological evidence for his interpretations of the Peterborough, Ontario, rock inscriptions to be correct.


Traditionally, the script marks no vowels, except word-finally; however, various proposals to allow it to mark vowels have been made in recent times. In some areas, Arabic vowel diacritics are combined with Tifinagh characters to mark vowels. The letter forms vary significantly across the wide area where Tifinagh is used. The direction of writing varies; right-to-left is common, but the older "Libyan" inscriptions most commonly use the unusual orientation bottom-to-top. Occasionally the script has been used to write other neighboring languages, such as Tagdal Songhai. The Songhay languages are a group of closely related languages/dialects centered on the Niger river, widely used as a lingua franca, particularly thanks to the medieval Songhay Empire. ...


A modern version, sometimes styled "Neo-Tifinagh", was put forward by the Académie Berbère in the 1960's; it is written left to right, marks vowels, and has been modified to better fit Northern Berber phonology. In a modified form, this script has recently (2003) been adopted for pedagogical purposes in Morocco.


Code chart

Tifinagh is encoded in the Unicode range U+2D30—U+2D7F, starting from version 4.1.0. There are 55 defined characters, but there are more characters being used than those defined. In ISO 15924, the code Tfng is assigned to Tifinagh. Here is a comparison chart for the character glyph and the transliteration. In computing, Unicode provides an international standard which has the goal of providing the means to encode the text of every document people want to store on computers. ... ISO 15924 list Codes for the representation of names of scripts©. See also External links http://www. ...

Code Char Unicode Transliteration Name
2D30 Image:2D30.png a ya
2D31 Image:2D31.png b yab
2D32 Image:2D32.png bh yabh
2D33 Image:2D33.png g yag
2D34 Image:2D34.png gh yaghh
2D35 Image:2D35.png dj Berber Academy yaj
2D36 Image:2D36.png dj yaj
2D37 Image:2D37.png d yad
2D38 Image:2D38.png d. yadh
2D39 Image:2D39.png d. yadd
2D3A Image:2D3A.png d. yaddh
2D3B Image:2D3B.png e yey
2D3C Image:2D3C.png f yaf
2D3D Image:2D3D.png k yak
2D3E Image:2D3E.png k Tuareg yak
2D3F Image:2D3F.png ⴿ kh yakhh
2D40 Image:2D40.png h yah
2D41 Image:2D41.png h Berber Academy yah
2D42 Image:2D42.png h Tuareg yah
2D43 Image:2D43.png h. yahh
2D44 Image:2D44.png a yaa
2D45 Image:2D45.png kh yakh
2D46 Image:2D46.png kh Tuareg yakh
2D47 Image:2D47.png q yaq
2D48 Image:2D48.png q Tuareg yaq
2D49 Image:2D49.png i yi
2D4A Image:2D4A.png j yazh
2D4B Image:2D4B.png j Ahaggar yazh
2D4C Image:2D4C.png j Tuareg yazh
2D4D Image:2D4D.png l yal
2D4E Image:2D4E.png m yam
2D4F Image:2D4F.png n yan
2D50 Image:2D50.png ny uareg yagn
2D51 Image:2D51.png ng Tuareg yang
2D52 Image:2D52.png p yap
2D53 Image:2D53.png u yu
2D54 Image:2D54.png r yar
2D55 Image:2D55.png r. yarr
2D56 Image:2D56.png gh yagh
2D57 Image:2D57.png gh Tuareg yagh
2D58 Image:2D58.png gh Ayer yagh
2D59 Image:2D59.png s yas
2D5A Image:2D5A.png s. yass
2D5B Image:2D5B.png sh yash
2D5C Image:2D5C.png t yat
2D5D Image:2D5D.png t. yath
2D5E Image:2D5E.png ch yach
2D5F Image:2D5F.png t. yatt
2D60 Image:2D60.png v yav
2D61 Image:2D61.png w yaw
2D62 Image:2D62.png y yay
2D63 Image:2D63.png z yaz
2D64 Image:2D64.png z Tawellemet yaz
2D65 Image:2D65.png z. yazz
2D6F Image:2D6F.png +w Labialization mark
2D5C 2D59 Image:2D5C.png Image:2D59.png ⵜⵙ ts yats
2D37 2D63 Image:2D37.png Image:2D63.png ⴷⵣ dz yadz
2D5C 2D5B Image:2D5C.png Image:2D5B.png ⵜⵙ ch yach
2D37 2D4A Image:2D37.png Image:2D4A.png ⴷⵊ dj yadzh

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External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Tifinagh (501 words)
Les tifinagh s’écrivent traditionnellement de bas en haut, mais le sens de la graphie peut varier en fonction de la place et du support.
Actuellement il y a réappropriation par les populations berbères du Maghreb des tifinagh (tifinak ou tifinar), en tant que revendication identitaire et culturelle.
En effet bien que les tifinagh notent des phonèmes, ils nous renvoient aussi à la naissance des premières écritures et aux symboles, qui les ont précédées.
Tifinagh - Test for Unicode support in Web browsers (190 words)
The Tifinagh range was introduced with version 4.1 of the Unicode Standard, and is located in Plane 0, the Basic Multilingual Plane.
The Tifinagh script is used in Morocco for Berber languages, including Tachelhite, Tamazhige and Tarifite.
The characters that appear in the “Character” columns of the following table depend on the browser that you are using, the fonts installed on your computer, and the browser options you have chosen that determine the fonts used to display particular character sets, encodings or languages.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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