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Encyclopedia > Tier One

Tier One is Scaled Composites' program of suborbital human spaceflight using the reusable spacecraft SpaceShipOne and its launcher White Knight. The craft are designed by Burt Rutan, and the project is funded 20 million US Dollars by Paul Allen. In 2004 it made the first privately funded human spaceflight and won the 10 million US Dollars Ansari X Prize for the first non-governmental reusable manned spacecraft. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x774, 76 KB) Spaceship One in flight Source: Rokits XPrize gallery, specifically 316_from_ex_1024. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x774, 76 KB) Spaceship One in flight Source: Rokits XPrize gallery, specifically 316_from_ex_1024. ... Scaled Composites (often abbreviated as Scaled) was founded in 1982 in Mojave, California by famous aircraft designer Burt Rutan out of what used to be the Rutan Aircraft Factory. ... A sub-orbital spaceflight (or sub-orbital flight) is a spaceflight that does not involve putting a vehicle into orbit. ... Edward White on a spacewalk during the Gemini 4 mission Human spaceflight is spaceflight with a human crew and possibly passengers, which is in contrast to robotic space probes or remotely-controlled unmanned space missions. ... A reusable launch system (or RLV: reusable launch vehicle) is a launch vehicle which is capable of launching into space more than once. ... Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne SpaceShipOnes patch The Scaled Composites Model 316 SpaceShipOne is an experimental air-launched suborbital spaceplane that uses a hybrid rocket motor. ... SpaceShipOne and White Knight during a captive carry test flight The Scaled Composites Model 318 White Knight is a jet-powered carrier aircraft used to launch the SpaceShipOne experimental spacecraft. ... Elbert Leander Burt Rutan (born June 17, 1943 in Estacada, Oregon) is an American aerospace engineer noted for his originality in designing light, strong, unusual-looking, energy-efficient aircraft. ... Paul Gardner Allen (born January 21, 1953) is an American entrepreneur whose fortune was founded when he formed Microsoft with Bill Gates. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flight 15P of SpaceShipOne was the first privately-funded human spaceflight. ... The X prize logo shows a stylised letter X representing a spacecraft trajectory and containing a starfield. ...


The objective of the project is to develop technology for low-cost routine access to space. Tier One is not itself intended to carry paying passengers, but it is envisioned that there will be commercial spinoffs, initially in space tourism. The company Mojave Aerospace Ventures was formed to manage commercial exploitation of the technology. A deal with Virgin Galactic could see routine space tourism, using a spacecraft based on Tier One technology, starting as soon as 2008. The curvature of the Earth seen from orbit would be one of the main attractions for tourists paying to go into space Space tourism is the recent phenomenon of space travel by individuals for the purpose of personal pleasure. ... Mojave Aerospace Ventures (MAV) is a company founded by Paul Allen and Burt Rutan to handle the commercial spinoffs from the Tier One project. ... Virgin Galactic is a company within Sir Richard Bransons Virgin Group, which plans to offer sub-orbital spaceflights and later orbital spaceflights to the paying public. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Design

The design concept is to air launch a three-person piloted spacecraft which climbs to slightly above 100 km altitude using a hybrid rocket motor and then glides to the ground and lands horizontally. Scaled Composites list the following components of the program: A Boeing X-43 being air launched from under the wing of a B-52 Stratofortress. ... km redirects here. ... A hybrid rocket propulsion system comprises propellants of two different states of matter, the most common configuration being a rocket engine composed of a solid propellant lining a combustion chamber into which a liquid or gaseous propellant is injected so as to undergo a strong exothermic reaction to produce hot...

SpaceShipOne and White Knight during a captive carry test flight The Scaled Composites Model 318 White Knight is a jet-powered carrier aircraft used to launch the SpaceShipOne experimental spacecraft. ... SpaceShipOne is small, having a three-person cabin and short but wide wings. ... A hybrid rocket propulsion system comprises propellants of two different states of matter, the most common configuration being a rocket engine composed of a solid propellant lining a combustion chamber into which a liquid or gaseous propellant is injected so as to undergo a strong exothermic reaction to produce hot... Interior cockpit of a modern flight simulator A flight simulator is a system that tries to replicate, or simulate, the experience of flying an aircraft as closely and realistically as possible. ... In human spaceflight, a pilot is someone who directly controls the operation of a spacecraft while located within the same craft. ...

Spacecraft

Tier One's spacecraft, Scaled Composites model 316, known as SpaceShipOne, is a spaceplane designed to: Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne SpaceShipOnes patch The Scaled Composites Model 316 SpaceShipOne is an experimental air-launched suborbital spaceplane that uses a hybrid rocket motor. ... A spaceplane is a rocket plane designed to pass the edge of space. ...

  • carry three humans (one of them a pilot) in a sea-level pressurised cabin
  • be propelled by rocket from an altitude of 15 km to in excess of 100 km
  • reenter atmosphere and shed kinetic energy in an aerodynamically stable configuration
  • glide transonically and subsonically
  • land horizontally on a standard runway

The fuselage is cigar-shaped, with an overall diameter of about 1.5 m. The main structure is of a graphite/epoxy composite material. From front to back, it contains the crew cabin, oxidiser tank, fuel casing, and rocket nozzle. The craft has short, wide wings, with a span of 5 m and a chord of 3 m. There are large vertical tailbooms mounted on the end of each wing, with horizontal stabilisers protruding from the tailbooms. It has gear for horizontal landings. In human spaceflight, a pilot is someone who directly controls the operation of a spacecraft while located within the same craft. ... A Soyuz rocket, at Baikanur launch pad. ... Aerodynamics is a branch of fluid dynamics concerned with the study of gas flows, first analysed by George Cayley in the 1800s. ... Runway 13R/31L of El Dorado International Airport, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia. ... The metre, or meter (U.S.), is a measure of length. ... Graphite (named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1789, from the Greek γραφειν: to draw/write, for its use in pencils) is one of the allotropes of carbon. ... Epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks) when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in the United... Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties and which remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. ...


The overall mass of the fully-fuelled craft is 3600 kg, of which approximately 270 kg is fuel and 1400 kg is oxidiser. Thus the dry mass is 2000 kg. [dubious ] The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. It was assigned to the United States in 1889 and is periodically recertified and traceable to the primary international standard, The Kilogram, held at the Bureau International des Poids et...


Originally the nozzle protruded from the back, but this turned out to be aerodynamically disadvantageous. In June 2004, between flights 14P and 15P, a fairing was added, smoothly extending the fuselage shape to meet the flared end of the nozzle. On flight 15P the new fairing overheated, due to being black on the inside and facing a hot, black nozzle. The fairing softened, and the lower part crumpled inwards during boost. Following that flight the interior of the fairing was painted white, and some small stiffening ribs were added. 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flight 14P of SpaceShipOne was its third powered flight, which occurred on May 13, 2004. ... Flight 15P of SpaceShipOne was the first privately-funded human spaceflight. ...


The craft has a single unsteerable and unthrottleable hybrid rocket motor, a cold gas reaction control system, and aerodynamic control surfaces. All can be controlled manually. See the separate section below concerning the rocket engine. A hybrid rocket propulsion system comprises propellants of two different states of matter, the most common configuration being a rocket engine composed of a solid propellant lining a combustion chamber into which a liquid or gaseous propellant is injected so as to undergo a strong exothermic reaction to produce hot... A reaction control system (abbreviated RCS) is a subsystem of a spacecraft. ...


The reaction control system is the only way to control spacecraft attitude outside the atmosphere. It consists of three sets of thrusters: there are thrusters at each wingtip to control roll, at the top and bottom of the nose to control pitch, and at the sides of the fuselage to control yaw. All thrusters have redundant backups, so there are twelve thrusters in all.


The aerodynamic control surfaces are designed to operate in two distinct flight regimes, subsonic and supersonic. The supersonic flight regime is of primary interest during the boost phase of a flight, and the subsonic mode when gliding. There are separate upper and lower rudders, and elevons. These are controlled using aviation-style stick and pedals. In supersonic mode the trim tabs are controlled electrically, whereas the subsonic mode uses mechanical cable-and-rod linkage. Aviation refers to flying using aircraft, machines designed by humans for atmospheric flight. ...


The wings can be pneumatically tilted forwards into an aerodynamically-stable high-drag "feathered" shape. This removes most of the need to actively control attitude during the early part of reentry: Scaled Composites refer to this as "care-free reentry". One of the early test flights actually performed re-entry inverted, demonstrating the flexibility and inherent stability of Burt Rutan's "shuttlecock" design. An object falling through a gas or liquid experiences a force in direction opposite to its motion. ... Elbert Leander Burt Rutan (born June 17, 1943 in Estacada, Oregon) is an American aerospace engineer noted for his originality in designing light, strong, unusual-looking, energy-efficient aircraft. ...


This feathered reentry mode is inherently far safer than the behaviour at similar speeds of the only comparable craft previously built, the Space Shuttle. The Shuttle undergoes enormous aerodynamic stresses and must be precisely steered in order to remain in a stable glide. (Although this is an interesting comparison of behaviour, it is not an entirely fair comparison of design concepts: the Shuttle starts reentry at much higher speed than SpaceShipOne, and so has some very different requirements.) NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ...


An early design called for a permanently shuttlecock-like shape, with a ring of feather-like stabilising fins. This would have made the spacecraft incapable of landing independently, requiring mid-air retrieval. This was deemed too risky, and the hybrid final design manages to incorporate the feathering capability into a craft that can land in a conventional manner. The tiltable rear sections of the wings and the tailbooms are collectively referred to as "the feather". A shuttlecock with a plastic skirt Shuttlecocks with feather skirts A shuttlecock is a high-drag projectile used in the sport of badminton. ... Two feathers Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ... A helicopter with a long hook can catch a parachuting object in mid-air, as seen here in a practice run for the planned retrieval of Genesis. ...


The landing gear consists of two widely-separated main wheels and a nose skid. These are deployed using springs, assisted by gravity. Once deployed, they cannot be retracted inflight.


The spacecraft is incapable of independent takeoff from the ground. It requires a launch aircraft to carry it to launch altitude for an air launch. A Boeing X-43 being air launched from under the wing of a B-52 Stratofortress. ...


The parts of the craft that experience the greatest heating, such as the leading edges of the wings, have about 6.5 kg of ablative thermal protection material applied. The main ingredient of this material was accidentally leaked to Air and Space. If it flew with no thermal protection, the spacecraft would survive reentry but would be damaged.


There is an acknowledged "known deficiency" with the spacecraft's aerodynamic design that makes it susceptible to roll excursions. This has been seen on SpaceShipOne flight 15P where wind shear caused a large roll immediately after ignition, and SpaceShipOne flight 16P where circumstances not yet fully understood caused multiple rapid rolls. This flaw is not considered dangerous, but in both of these flights led to the achievement of a much lower altitude than expected. The details of the flaw are not public. Flight dynamics is the study of orientation of air and space vehicles and how to control the critical flight parameters, typically named pitch, roll and yaw. ... Flight 15P of SpaceShipOne was the first privately-funded human spaceflight. ... Flight 16P of SpaceShipOne was a spaceflight in the Tier One program that took place on September 29, 2004. ...


Navigation

The core of the spacecraft avionics is the System Navigation Unit (SNU). Together with the Flight Director Display (FDD), it comprises the Flight Navigation Unit. The unit was developed jointly by Fundamental Technology Systems and Scaled Composites. The onboard electronics used for piloting an aircraft are called avionics (AVI-ation electr-ONICS). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Scaled Composites (often abbreviated as Scaled) was founded in 1982 in Mojave, California by famous aircraft designer Burt Rutan out of what used to be the Rutan Aircraft Factory. ...


The SNU is a GPS-based inertial navigation system, which processes spacecraft sensor data and subsystem health data. It downlinks telemetry data by radio to mission control. Over fifty GPS satellites such as this NAVSTAR have been launched since 1978. ...


The FDD display data from the SNU on a colour LCD. It has several distinct display modes for different phases of flight, including the boost phase, coast, reentry, and gliding. The FDD is particularly important to the pilot during the boost and coast phase in order to "turn the corner" and null rates caused by asymmetric thrust. A mix of commercial and bespoke software is used in the FDD. LCD redirects here. ...


Cabin

The spacecraft cabin, designed to hold three humans, is shaped as a short cylinder, diameter 1.5 m, with a pointed forward end. The pilot sits towards the front, and two passengers can be seated behind. The metre, or meter (U.S.), is a measure of length. ... In human spaceflight, a pilot is someone who directly controls the operation of a spacecraft while located within the same craft. ...


The cabin is pressurised, maintaining a sea level breathable atmosphere. Oxygen is introduced to the cabin from a bottle, and carbon dioxide and water vapour are removed by absorbers. The occupants do not wear spacesuits or breathing masks, because the cabin has been designed to maintain pressure in the face of faults: all windows and seals are doubled. For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Apollo 15 space suit A spacesuit is a complex system of garments, equipment, and environmental systems designed to keep a person alive and comfortable in the harsh environment of outer space. ...


The cabin has sixteen round double-pane windows, positioned to provide a view of the horizon at all stages of flight. The windows are small compared to the gaps between them, but there are sufficiently many for human occupants to patch together a moderately good view.


The nose section can be removed, and there is also a hatch below the rear windows on the left side. Crew ingress and egress is possible by either route.


Launch aircraft

Tier One's launch aircraft, Scaled Composites model 318, known as White Knight, is designed to take off and land horizontally and attain an altitude of about 15 km, all while carrying the Tier One spacecraft in a parasite aircraft configuration. Its propulsion is by twin turbojets: afterburning J-85-GE-5 engines, rated at 15.6 kN thrust each. SpaceShipOne and White Knight during a captive carry test flight The Scaled Composites Model 318 White Knight is a jet-powered carrier aircraft used to launch the SpaceShipOne experimental spacecraft. ... An example of a parasite aircraft is the Boeing X-43 being dropped from under the wing of a B-52 Stratofortress. ... Turbojets are the simplest and oldest kind of general purpose jet engine. ...


It has the same cabin, avionics, and trim system as SpaceShipOne. This means it can flight-qualify almost all components of SpaceShipOne. It also has a high thrust-to-weight ratio and large speed brakes. These features combined allow it to be used as a high-fidelity moving platform flight simulator for SpaceShipOne. White Knight is also equipped with a trim system which (when activated) causes it to have the same glide profile as SpaceShipOne; this allows the pilots to practice for landing SpaceShipOne. The same pilots fly White Knight as fly SpaceShipOne. The onboard electronics used for piloting an aircraft are called avionics (AVI-ation electr-ONICS). ... Interior cockpit of a modern flight simulator A flight simulator is a system that tries to replicate, or simulate, the experience of flying an aircraft as closely and realistically as possible. ...


The aircraft's distinctive shape features long, thin wings, in a flattened "W" shape, with a wingspan of 25 m, dual tailplanes, and four wheels (front and rear at each side). The rear wheels retract, but the front ones, which are steerable, are permanently deployed, with small fairings, referred to as "spats", in front. Another way to look at the overall shape is as two conventional planes, with very thin fuselages, side-by-side and joined together at their wingtips, with the cockpit and engines mounted at the point of joining. The metre, or meter (U.S.), is a measure of length. ...


Although White Knight was developed for certain roles in the Tier One program, it is a very capable aircraft in its own right. Scaled Composites describe it as a "high-altitude research aircraft".


Hybrid rocket motor

Tier One uses a hybrid rocket motor supplied by SpaceDev, with solid hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB, or rubber) fuel and liquid nitrous oxide oxidiser. It generates 88 kN thrust, and can burn for about 87 s. A hybrid rocket propulsion system comprises propellants of two different states of matter, the most common configuration being a rocket engine composed of a solid propellant lining a combustion chamber into which a liquid or gaseous propellant is injected so as to undergo a strong exothermic reaction to produce hot... Rotating magnetic field as a sum of magnetic vectors from 3 phase coils An electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. ... SpaceDev is an innovative publicly traded space development company in the aerospace industry, now most prominent for its spaceflight and microsatellite work. ... Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) is a polymer of butadiene terminated at each end with a hydroxyl functional group. ... Latex being collected from a tapped rubber tree Rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a milky colloidal suspension (known as latex) in the sap of several varieties of plants. ... Fuel is any material that is capable of releasing energy when its chemical or physical structure is changed or converted. ... R-phrases S-phrases Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... An oxidizing agent is a substance that oxidizes another substance in electrochemistry or redox chemical reactions in general. ... The kilonewton, symbol kN, is an SI unit of force. ... Look up second in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The physical layout of the engine is novel. The oxidiser tank is a primary structural component, and is the only part of the engine that is structurally connected to the spacecraft: the tank is in fact an integral part of the spacecraft fuselage. The tank is a short cylinder of diameter approximately 1.5 m, with domed ends, and is the forwardmost part of the engine. The fuel casing is a narrow cylinder cantilevered to the tank, pointing backwards. The cantilevered design means that a variety of motor sizes can be accommodated without changing the interface or other components. The nozzle is a simple extension of the fuel casing; the casing and nozzle are actually a single component, referred to as the CTN (case, throat, and nozzle). Burt Rutan has applied for a patent on this engine configuration. A right circular cylinder An elliptic cylinder In mathematics, a cylinder is a quadric surface, with the following equation in Cartesian coordinates: This equation is for an elliptic cylinder, a generalization of the ordinary, circular cylinder (a = b). ... The metre, or meter (U.S.), is a measure of length. ... The cantilevered beam (green) projects from its supports (blue), balanced by the structure (red block), which supports the load (red arrow). ... Rocket Nozzle A nozzle is a mechanical device designed to control the characteristics of a fluid flow as it exits from an enclosed chamber into some medium. ... Elbert Leander Burt Rutan (born June 17, 1943 in Estacada, Oregon) is an American aerospace engineer noted for his originality in designing light, strong, unusual-looking, energy-efficient aircraft. ... A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state to a patentee (the inventor or assignee) for a fixed period of time in exchange for the regulated, public disclosure of certain details of a device, method, process or composition of matter (substance) (known as an invention) which...


There is considerable use of composite materials in the engine design. The oxidiser tank consists of a composite liner with graphite/epoxy over-wrap and titanium interface flanges. The CTN uses a high-temperature composite insulator with a graphite/epoxy structure. Incorporating the solid fuel (and hence the main part of the engine) and the ablative nozzle into this single bonded component minimizes the possible leak paths. Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties and which remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. ... Graphite (named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1789, from the Greek γραφειν: to draw/write, for its use in pencils) is one of the allotropes of carbon. ... Epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks) when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in the United... General Name, Symbol, Number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Atomic mass 47. ... Ablation is defined as the removal of material from the surface of an object by vaporization, chipping, or other erosive processes. ...


The oxidiser tank and CTN are bolted together at the main valve bulkhead, which is integrated into the tank. There are O-rings at the interface to prevent leakage; this is the main potential leak path in the engine. The ignition system, main control valve, and injector are mounted on the valve bulkhead, inside the tank. Slosh baffles are also mounted on this bulkhead. Because the oxidiser is stored under pressure, no pump is required. Typical O-ring and application An O-ring is a loop of elastomer with a round (o-shaped) cross-section used as a mechanical seal. ...


The tank liner and the fuel casing are built in-house by Scaled Composites. The tank over-wrap is supplied by Thiokol. The ablative nozzle is supplied by AAE Aerospace. The oxidiser fill, vent, and dump system is supplied by Environmental Aeroscience Corporation. The remaining components — the ignition system, main control valve, injector, tank bulkheads, electronic controls, and solid fuel casting — are supplied by SpaceDev. Scaled Composites (often abbreviated as Scaled) was founded in 1982 in Mojave, California by famous aircraft designer Burt Rutan out of what used to be the Rutan Aircraft Factory. ... A Trident C-4 FBM launches and fires its Thiokol solid rocket first stage Thiokol (variously Thiokol Chemical Company, Morton-Thiokol Inc. ... SpaceDev is an innovative publicly traded space development company in the aerospace industry, now most prominent for its spaceflight and microsatellite work. ...


The CTN must be replaced between firings. This is the only part of the craft, other than the fuel and oxidiser themselves, that must be replaced.


The solid fuel is cast with four holes. This has the disadvantage that it is possible for chunks of fuel between the holes to become detached during a burn and obstruct the flow of oxidiser and exhaust. Such situations tend to rapidly self-correct.


The oxidiser tank is filled and vented through its forward bulkhead, on the opposite side of the tank from the fuel and the rest of the engine. This improves safety. It is filled to a pressure of 4.8 MPa at room temperature. Bulkhead may refer to the following: Bulkhead (partition), a wall within the hull of a ship, vehicle or container Bulkhead (barrier) Bulkhead line See also: Flatcar Bulkhead Category: ... MPA is a TLA (three-letter acronym) that may mean: Macedonian Press Agency Marine Protected Area Maritime Patrol Aircraft Maryland and Pennsylvania Railroad (AAR reporting mark MPA) Master of Public Administration Master of Public Affairs Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics Metropolitan Police Authority Mid-atlantic Pagan Alliance Motion Picture Association...


The nozzle has an expansion ratio of 25:1, which is optimised for the upper part of the atmosphere. A different nozzle, with an expansion ratio of 10:1, is used for test firing on the ground. The nozzles are black on the outside, but for aerodynamic testing, red dummy nozzles are used instead.


The rocket is not throttleable. Once lit, the burn can be aborted, but the power output cannot otherwise be controlled. The thrust in fact varies, for two reasons. Firstly, as the pressure in the oxidiser tank decreases, the flow rate reduces, reducing thrust. Secondly, in the late stages of a burn the oxidiser tank contains a mixture of liquid and gaseous oxidiser, and the power output of the engine varies greatly depending on whether it's using liquid or gaseous oxidiser at a particular moment. (The liquid, being far denser, allows a greater burn rate.)


Both the fuel and oxidiser can be stored without special precautions, and they do not burn when brought together without a significant source of heat. This makes the rocket far safer than conventional liquid or solid rockets. It is also relatively non-polluting: the combustion products are water vapor, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, nitrogen, and some carbon monoxide.


The engine was upgraded in September 2004, between flights 15P and 16P. The upgrade increased the oxidiser tank size, to provide greater thrust in the early part of the burn, allow a longer burn, and delay the onset of the variable thrust phase at the end of the burn. Prior to the upgrade the engine generated 76 kN thrust and could burn for 76 s. After the upgrade it was capable of 88 kN thrust and an 87 s burn. 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flight 15P of SpaceShipOne was the first privately-funded human spaceflight. ... Flight 16P of SpaceShipOne was a spaceflight in the Tier One program that took place on September 29, 2004. ... The kilonewton, symbol kN, is an SI unit of force. ... The kilonewton, symbol kN, is an SI unit of force. ...


Flight profile

SpaceShipOne takes off from the ground, attached to White Knight in a parasite configuration, and under White Knight's power. The combination of SpaceShipOne and White Knight can take off, land, and fly under jet power to high altitude. A captive carry flight is one where the two craft land together without launching SpaceShipOne; this is one of the main abort modes available. An example of a parasite aircraft is the Boeing X-43 being dropped from under the wing of a B-52 Stratofortress. ... SpaceShipOne is carried beneath White Knight during a captive carry flight to test SpaceShipOnes aerodynamic and avionic performance. ...


For launch, the combined craft flies to an altitude of around 14 km, which takes about an hour. SpaceShipOne is then drop-released, and briefly glides unpowered. Rocket ignition may take place immediately, or may be delayed. If the rocket is never lit then SpaceShipOne can glide down to the ground. This is another major abort mode, in addition to being flown deliberately in glide tests.


The rocket engine is ignited while the spacecraft is gliding. Once under power, it is raised into a 65° climb, which is further steepened in the higher part of the trajectory. The maximum possible burn duration is about 80 s. The maximum possible acceleration is about 4 g. Look up second in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The nominal acceleration due to gravity at sea level on the Earths surface, also known as standard gravity, is defined as exactly 9. ...


By the end of the burn the craft is flying upwards at some multiple of the speed of sound, up to about 900 m/s and Mach 3.5, and it continues to coast upwards unpowered (ie ballistically). If the burn was long enough then it will exceed an altitude of 100 km, at which height the atmosphere presents no appreciable resistance, and the craft experiences free fall for a few minutes. Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... An F/A-18 Hornet breaking the sound barrier. ... Ballistics (gr. ... Astronauts on the International Space Station display an example of weightlessness. ...


While at apogee the wings are reconfigured into high-drag mode. As the craft falls back it achieves high speeds comparable to those achieved on the way up; when it subsequently reenters the atmosphere it decelerates violently, up to about 5 g. At some altitude between 10 km and 20 km it reconfigures into low-drag glider mode, and glides down to a landing in about 20 minutes. This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ...


White Knight takes longer to descend, and typically lands a few minutes after SpaceShipOne.


Mission control

In addition to an office-based mission control, Tier One has a mobile mission control center. This is relatively small, built into a large road-going truck. It bears the Scaled Composites logo, but no other overt indication of its link to Tier One. The vehicle performs a combination of support functions:

  • telemetry monitoring and recording
  • telecommunications
  • auxiliary environment control for White Knight and SpaceShipOne

This control center is used to support both rocket motor ground tests and all flight tests of White Knight and SpaceShipOne. Its primary function is to monitor and record test data, and to this end it is equipped with computers and radio communication gear. SpaceShipOne's avionics displays are duplicated in mission control. Telemetry data is received on a Data Reduction System (DRS), which automatically directs radio antennae to point at the craft being monitored. The telemetry system has a range of about 280 km. Telemetry is a technology that allows the remote measurement and reporting of information of interest to the system designer or operator. ... The onboard electronics used for piloting an aircraft are called avionics (AVI-ation electr-ONICS). ...


The control center is equipped to communicate with Scaled Composites' offices, as well as the aircraft and spacecraft.


The control center maintains a temperature-controlled atmosphere for its staff, and can be hooked up to provide temperature control for the White Knight and SpaceShipOne cabins. The physical structure of mission control also provides easier access to the White Knight cabin.


Nitrous oxide delivery

Unlike the solid fuel, the nitrous oxide oxidiser is handled as a bulk commodity and pumped into the spacecraft's oxidiser tank in the field. Tier One therefore has a mobile delivery system for nitrous oxide, which they call MONODS (mobile nitrous oxide delivery system). R-phrases S-phrases Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... An oxidizing agent is a substance that oxidizes another substance in electrochemistry or redox chemical reactions in general. ...


MONODS is built on an open trailer, which can be carried by road in conventional manner. It consists principally of a 6.5 cubic metre tank, a temperature control unit, and a generator to power the temperature control unit. The nitrous oxide is stored at room temperature, at a pressure of 4.8 MPa. MPA is a TLA (three-letter acronym) that may mean: Macedonian Press Agency Marine Protected Area Maritime Patrol Aircraft Maryland and Pennsylvania Railroad (AAR reporting mark MPA) Master of Public Administration Master of Public Affairs Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics Metropolitan Police Authority Mid-atlantic Pagan Alliance Motion Picture Association...


MONODS is refilled from a commercial supplier, which uses 50 cubic metre tankers and delivers the nitrous oxide at about -17°C (0°F) and 2.0 MPa. MONODS heats the nitrous oxide to room temperature, increasing its pressure.


Propulsion testing

Tier One has a mobile thrust test stand, known as the Test Stand Trailer (TST). The advantage of making it mobile is that all the mounting and instrumentation work can be done in the hangar, so that at the test site all that needs to be done is to fill the oxidiser tank (from MONODS) and conduct the firing.


The test stand replicates the essential structural components of the spacecraft. It has an oxidiser tank and associated fittings identical to the one used in flight. This means that the motor test also automatically performs appropriate vibration, stress, and heat tests of the spacecraft structure. The crew cabin, however, is not replicated. Oscillation is the variation, typically in time, of some measure as seen, for example, in a swinging pendulum. ... Stress is the internal distribution of force per unit area that balances and reacts to external loads applied to a body. ... In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is defined as energy in transit. ...


For ground-based thrust tests, a rocket nozzle with an expansion ratio of 10:1 is used, differing from the 25:1 nozzle used at altitude during actual flight. Rocket Nozzle A nozzle is a mechanical device designed to control the characteristics of a fluid flow as it exits from an enclosed chamber into some medium. ...


The test stand is instrumented to record not only thrust but also side force and temperature and strain experienced by components. Data is recorded on a computer in a bunker at the test site. The data acquisition computer is remotely controlled from mission control.


Flight simulator

The SpaceShipOne flight simulator consists of a simulator program and a cockpit. Interior cockpit of a modern flight simulator A flight simulator is a system that tries to replicate, or simulate, the experience of flying an aircraft as closely and realistically as possible. ...


The flight simulator program aims to accurately simulate SpaceShipOne's behaviour under any circumstances and in all phases of flight. Rather than having a model of SpaceShipOne's overall flight behaviour, it uses computational fluid dynamics to model the air around the craft. It calculates the aerodynamic and other forces operating on the craft, taking into account the positions of its control surfaces. This simulation is based on the computer modelling that was used during the design process and refined using data from flight tests. This yields a highly accurate image of craft behaviour, even in unanticipated modes of flight. (This is one of the first modern aircraft to be designed without wind tunnel testing.) A computer simulation of high velocity air flow around the Space Shuttle during re-entry. ... Aerodynamics is a branch of fluid dynamics concerned with the study of gas flows, first analysed by George Cayley in the 1800s. ... NASA wind tunnel with the model of a plane A wind tunnel is a research tool developed to assist with studying the effects of air moving over or around solid objects. ...


The cockpit replica is on a static base, and so cannot accurately reproduce the equilibrioceptive and accelerative aspects of flight. However, White Knight is equipped to operate as a high-fidelity moving-base simulator; see White Knight's section above. The simulator cockpit is an accurate copy of the SpaceShipOne cabin, including its avionics. It is the system of pilot plus avionics, not just the pilot, that is being simulated to. The flight simulator program drives the sensor inputs that are used by the avionics, and also drives twelve display computers which use commercial graphics software to generate high-resolution images of the outside view for the pilot. These views appear on eleven monitors and one projector screen. Stick force feedback is not simulated in real time. Simulation cockpits or simpits are environments designed to replicate an aircraft cockpit for use with home flight simulators. ... Equilibrioception or sense of balance is one of the physiological senses. ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity, and at any point on a v_t graph, it is given by the gradient of the tangent to that point In physics, acceleration (symbol: a) is defined as the rate of change (or time derivative) of velocity. ... The onboard electronics used for piloting an aircraft are called avionics (AVI-ation electr-ONICS). ...


Ground-based flight simulation is not only used for pilot training. It is also used to train ground crew, develop procedures, and test the avionics software and hardware.


History and status

According to Scaled Composites, the concept for the program originated in April 1996, preliminary development began in 1999, and full development began in April 2001. It was initially kept secret, even after White Knight first flew on August 1, 2002. The program was announced to the public on April 18, 2003, when the program was ready to flight-test SpaceShipOne. Its first flight test, SpaceShipOne flight 01C, took place on May 20, 2003. 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... SpaceShipOne and White Knight during a captive carry test flight The Scaled Composites Model 318 White Knight is a jet-powered carrier aircraft used to launch the SpaceShipOne experimental spacecraft. ... August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... SpaceShipOne is small, having a three-person cabin and short but wide wings. ... May 20 is the 140th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (141st in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After months of glide tests, the first powered flight, SpaceShipOne flight 11P, was made on December 17, 2003. Further powered tests followed, reaching increasing altitudes, culminating on June 21, 2004 with the first privately funded human spaceflight, SpaceShipOne flight 15P. Ansari X Prize competitive flights followed. SpaceShipOne flight 16P on September 29, 2004 and SpaceShipOne flight 17P on October 4, 2004 were successful competitive flights, winning the X Prize. Flight 11P of SpaceShipOne was its eighth independent flight, its first powered flight, and the first privately-funded manned flight to reach supersonic speeds. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flight 15P of SpaceShipOne was the first privately-funded human spaceflight. ... The X prize logo shows a stylised letter X representing a spacecraft trajectory and containing a starfield. ... Flight 16P of SpaceShipOne was a spaceflight in the Tier One program that took place on September 29, 2004. ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flight 17P of SpaceShipOne was a spaceflight in the Tier One program that took place on October 4, 2004. ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The program will continue making test flights, to develop the technology further, in support of the development of successor spacecraft such as the Virgin SpaceShip. The program has ruled out carrying scientific payloads, despite several requests. Virgin Galactic is a company in Richard Bransons Virgin Group, which plans to offer spaceflights to the paying public. ...


Specifications (SpaceShipOne)

General characteristics

  • Crew: one pilot
  • Length: 5 m (16.4 ft)
  • Wingspan: 5 m (16.4 ft)
  • Height:
  • Core diameter: 1.52 m (5 ft)
  • Wing area: 15 m² (49.2 ft²)
  • Empty: 1,200 kg (2,646 lbs)
  • Loaded: 3,600 kg (7,937 lbs)
  • Maximum takeoff:
  • Powerplant:
    1x N2O/HTPB SpaceDev Hybrid Solid rocket engine
    7,500 kgf (74 kN) thrust.
    Isp: 212 kgf·s/kg (2.08 kN·s/kg)
    burn time: 87 seconds

The deprecated unit kilogram-force (kgf) or kilopond (kp) is the force exerted by one kilogram of mass in standard Earth gravity (defined as exactly 9. ... The kilonewton, symbol kN, is an SI unit of force. ...

Performance

  • Maximum speed: Mach 3.09 (3,518 km/h) (2,352 mph)
  • Range: 65 km (40.4 mi)
  • Service ceiling: 112,000 m (367,454 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 25,000 m/min (82 021 ft/min)
  • Wing loading: 240 kg/m²
  • Thrust-to-Weight: 20 N/kg
    • Info from astronautix.com

Funding

The costs of development, construction, and operation of Tier One, although not publicly released, are estimated to be in the range of 20 million to 30 million US dollars, roughly two to three times the value of the Ansari X Prize award. The sole sponsor, initially secret, was revealed to be Paul Allen, a co-founder of Microsoft and the fifth richest person in the world. The revelation, on December 17, 2003, the same day as the program's first powered flight test, followed speculation that Allen was involved. The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... The X prize logo shows a stylised letter X representing a spacecraft trajectory and containing a starfield. ... Paul Gardner Allen (born January 21, 1953) is an American entrepreneur whose fortune was founded when he formed Microsoft with Bill Gates. ... Microsoft is one of few companies engaging itself in the console wars Where they are up against sony, nintendo, and of course sharps new console which may cause a threat. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Some commentators have drawn comparisons between the relative inexpense of the Tier One program and the high cost of the Space Shuttle program, though the technological difficulties of the two programs are completely different. SpaceShipOne, because it flies suborbitally, does not need to reach the high speeds of the Space Shuttle (Mach 3 vs. Mach 25), nor the same altitude (100 km suborbital vs. 400 km orbit). SpaceShipOne also does not carry the same crew (3 members vs. 7) or payload (negligible vs. 25 tons), and makes much shorter flights (a few minutes vs. several days). The SpaceShipOne program is a technical achievement more on a par with the X-15 than the Shuttle. NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ... An F/A-18 Hornet breaking the sound barrier. ... The X-15 in flight, early 1960s The North American X-15 rocket plane was perhaps the most important of the USAF/USN X-series of experimental aircraft, after only possibly the Bell X-1. ...


Inflation adjusted comparisons of the SpaceShipOne program with that of the X-15 budget, indicate that the Tier One program cost 1/100th that of the X-15 program, although the three X-15 aircraft made almost 200 test flights in their entire test program, typically exploring hypersonic flight between mach 4-7. Only a few dozen X-15 flights specificially sought to reach peak altitudes rather than achieve top speeds, though only two flights ever reached altitudes near those achieved by SpaceShipOne. On the other hand, the Tier One project also paid for construction of the White Knight mothership within its budget, while NASA had nearly free use of a pre-existing USAF B-52 bomber modified to perform drop tests of experimental aircraft of many kinds (currently in use for PegasusXL launches). B-52 can refer to the following: The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress strategic bomber aircraft A hairstyle popular in the 1950s and 1960s, named after the aircraft A rock band, The B-52s, named after the hairstyle A cocktail This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which...


Publicity

Tier One was initially developed secretly, as is Scaled Composites' policy with new programs. On April 18, 2003 the program was publicly announced, and SpaceShipOne and White Knight were demonstrated to the media at a rollout attended by between 550 and 600 people. Media interest was so intense that what had been intended as a Family and Friends Day on April 24, 2003 was turned into a second media day. April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Scaled Composites again courted publicity by announcing in advance the final test flight, SpaceShipOne flight 15P, intended to be the program's first spaceflight. About 11,000 people went to Mojave Spaceport to watch the flight, which was also televised. The flight was run as an airshow, with both the principal craft and the chase planes making takeoffs and landings in front of the crowd, and celebratory flybys when the test succeeded. The flight was not only a technical success but also an unqualified popular success, triggering intense public interest in spaceflight. Flight 15P of SpaceShipOne was the first privately-funded human spaceflight. ... Mojave Airport, storage location for commercial airliners. ... The UK Utterly Butterly wing-walking display team flying Boeing Stearman PT-17 biplanes An airshow is an event at which aviators display their flying skills and the capabilities of their flying machines to the crowd. ... A chase plane is an aircraft that chases a test aircraft. ...


Scaled Composites unsurprisingly remains very media-friendly with respect to Tier One, and more public spectacles are to be expected.


Future

The program name "Tier One" raises the question of what Tier Two will be.


In The Space Review on June 21, 2004 (the day of Tier One's first spaceflight), Rutan was quoted as stating "The spaceship is model number 316 and the White Knight is model number 318. I will be making a presentation very quick of a model number 346.". Whether this refers to a prototype orbital craft, a suborbital tour bus, or some other concept remains to be seen. The Space Review is a free online publication, published every week on Monday, with in-depth articles, essays, commentary and reviews on space exploration and development. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 2004 Rutan suggested that a ten-passenger suborbital spacecraft would make a profitable tour bus. On September 27, 2004, entrepreneur Richard Branson announced a deal with Mojave Aerospace Ventures to carry paying passengers on suborbital tourist flights, using a scaled-up version of SpaceShipOne, possibly beginning service in 2008. That same year, Burt Rutan also said "we're heading for orbit sooner than you think". 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the computer game previously called Entrepreneur, see The Corporate Machine. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... Mojave Aerospace Ventures (MAV) is a company founded by Paul Allen and Burt Rutan to handle the commercial spinoffs from the Tier One project. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


During an interview in the documentary Black Sky: The Race for Space, Rutan stated that Tier One will cover suborbital flights, Tier Two will cover orbital flights, and Tier Three will cover flights beyond Earth's orbit (including flights to the moon and other planets). In the same documentary he displayed designs for an orbital craft based on SpaceShipOne, which had a rocket roughly twice SpaceShipOne's length mounted to the ship's rear.


Commercial aspects

Main article: Mojave Aerospace Ventures Mojave Aerospace Ventures (MAV) is a company founded by Paul Allen and Burt Rutan to handle the commercial spinoffs from the Tier One project. ...


The stated objective of the Tier One program is to demonstrate suborbital human spaceflight operations at low cost. Before Burt Rutan began considering this project, there were three major barriers to the goal of affordable suborbital spaceflight:

  1. the dangers and costs of liquid propulsion fuels (they explode);
  2. the uncontrollable nature of solid fuel rocket motors (you can't turn them off);
  3. the difficulties in getting back without burning up in the atmosphere.

Rutan's design appears to provide a cost-effective solution to all three issues.


Tier One itself is not intended to carry paying passengers, and US Government permits would be required if it did intend to do so. It is a technology testbed, and it is expressly intended that the technology developed in the program will later be used in commercial spaceflights. To that end, Paul Allen and Burt Rutan created a company, Mojave Aerospace Ventures, which owns the project's intellectual property and will manage all commercial exploitation of it. Mojave Aerospace Ventures (MAV) is a company founded by Paul Allen and Burt Rutan to handle the commercial spinoffs from the Tier One project. ... In law, intellectual property (IP) is an umbrella term for various legal entitlements which attach to certain names, written and recorded media, and inventions. ...


Scaled Composites initially expressed a hope that by about 2013 it would be possible for members of the public to experience a suborbital flight for about the price of a luxury cruise. On September 25, 2004 a deal was struck with Virgin Galactic to develop the Virgin SpaceShip based on a scaled-up version of SpaceShipOne. These spacecraft will be built by The Spaceship Company. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Virgin Galactic is a company within Sir Richard Bransons Virgin Group, which plans to offer sub-orbital spaceflights and later orbital spaceflights to the paying public. ... Virgin Galactic is a company in Richard Bransons Virgin Group, which plans to offer spaceflights to the paying public. ... The Spaceship Company is a spacecraft manufacturing company formed by Burt Rutan and Richard Branson, jointly owned by Virgin Group and Scaled Composites, which will own the techology created by Scaled for Virgin Galctics Virgin SpaceShip program. ...


External links

Related content

Designation sequence: SpaceShipOne SpaceShipTwo SpaceShipThree
Related development: White Knight One White Knight Two White Knight Three
Development program: Tier One (100km) Tier 1b (140km)[1] Tier Two (orbital)
Comparable aircraft: North American X-15 & NASA X-38 & Space Shuttle
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Spaceship One

  Results from FactBites:
 
PERS - Members TIER ONE / TIER TWO PENSION PROGRAM (346 words)
As a Tier One or Tier Two member (except judge members), you contribute 6 percent of your salary, (whether paid by yourself or your employer) into the Individual Account Program (IAP).
Your membership in PERS is portable, meaning that once you become a Tier One or Tier Two member, you remain a member if you later leave one participating employer to work in another qualifying position with another participating employer.
If you are an active Tier One or Tier Two member and you have a "Break in Service," you retain your PERS membership for service before the break, but you begin to accrue OPSRP Pension Program credit for service after returning from the break (with certain exceptions).
Tier One - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4696 words)
Tier One is not itself intended to carry paying passengers, but it is envisioned that there will be commercial spinoffs, initially in space tourism.
Tier One's launch aircraft, Scaled Composites model 318, known as White Knight, is designed to take off and land horizontally and attain an altitude of about 15 km, all while carrying the Tier One spacecraft in a parasite aircraft configuration.
Tier One uses a hybrid rocket motor, with solid hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB, or rubber) fuel and liquid nitrous oxide oxidiser.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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