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Encyclopedia > Tick
Tick

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Arachnida
Order: Acarina
Suborder: Parasitiformes
Superfamily: Ixodoidea
Families

Ixodidae - Hard ticks
Argasidae - Soft ticks
Nuttalliellidae - ????? ticks Download high resolution version (640x766, 97 KB)Adult deer tick from http://www. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Orders Acarina Amblypygi Araneae Opiliones Palpigradi Pseudoscorpionida Ricinulei Schizomida Scorpiones Solifugae Uropygi The arachnids, Arachnida, are a class of invertebrate animals in the subphylum Chelicerata. ... Suborders Acariformes Parasitiformes Opilioacariformes Acarina or acari is an order of arachnids that consists of mites and ticks. ... Superfamilies Mesostigmata Ixodida Holothyrida Parasitiformes is a suborder consisting mostly of ticks. ... A male Ixodes ricinus tick (smaller) copulating with a female tick (larger) Ixodid or hard ticks are ticks of the family Ixodae. ... A male Ixodes ricinus tick (smaller) copulating with a female tick (larger) Ixodid or hard ticks are ticks of the family Ixodae. ... Argasid or cuddly ticks are ticks of the family Argasidamiousomousoan. ... Families Ixodidae - Hard ticks Argasidae - Soft ticks Tick is the common name for the small wingless arachnids that, along with mites, comprise the order Acarina. ... Nuttalliellidae is a family of ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) which contains only one species, Nuttalliella namaqua Bedford, 1931. ...

Wikispecies has information related to:

Tick is the common name for the small arachnids that, along with other mites, constitute the order Acarina. Ticks are ectoparasites (external parasites), living by hematophagy on the blood of mammals, birds, and occasionally reptiles and amphibians. Ticks are important vectors of a number of diseases, including Lyme disease. GFDL Wikispecies logo File links The following pages link to this file: Solanaceae Species Asterias Homo (genus) Human Wikipedia:Template messages/Links Wikipedia:Template messages/All Homo floresiensis User talk:Tuneguru Template:Wikispecies Categories: GFDL images ... Wikispecies is a sister project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that anybody can edit with a great potential use to students and researchers. ... Extant orders Acarina Amblypygi Araneae Opiliones Palpigradi Pseudoscorpionida Ricinulei Schizomida Solifugae Uropygi Wikispecies has information related to: Arachnida Arachnids are a class (Arachnida) of joint-legged invertebrate animals in the subphylum Chelicerata. ... Look up mite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... A parasite is an organism that lives in or on the living tissue of a host organism at the expense of that host. ... An Anopheles stephensi mosquito obtaining a blood meal from a human host through its pointed proboscis. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... who cares though]] island species, have also lost the ability to fly. ... Subclasses Anapsida Diapsida Synonyms Reptilia Laurenti, 1768 Reptiles are tetrapods and amniotes, animals whose embryos are surrounded by an amniotic membrane, and members of the class Sauropsida. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... Lyme disease (Borreliosis) is a bacterial infection with a spirochete from the species complex Borrelia burgdorferi, which is most often acquired from the bite of an infected Ixodes, or black-legged, tick, also known as a deer tick. ...

Contents

Characteristics

The major families of ticks include the Ixodidae or hard ticks, which have thick outer shells made of chitin, and Argasidae or soft ticks, which have a membraneous outer surface. A third family, Nuttalliellidae, contains one rare African species, Nuttalliella namaqua. Soft ticks typically live in crevices and emerge briefly to feed, while hard ticks will attach themselves to the skin of a host for long periods of time. Ticks, like most other arachnids, typically have eight legs but may have six depending on their developmental stage. Tick bites look like mosquito bites, but can also sometimes bruise or resemble a bullseye. Structure of the chitin molecule, showing two of the N-Acetylglucosamine units that repeat to form long chains in beta-1,4 linkage. ... Nuttalliellidae is a family of ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) which contains only one species, Nuttalliella namaqua Bedford, 1931. ... Diversity 41 genera Genera See text. ...


Classification

Family:


Genus: A male Ixodes ricinus tick (smaller) copulating with a female tick (larger) Ixodid or hard ticks are ticks of the family Ixodae. ...

  • Amblyomma

Species: Amblyomma is a genus of tick. ...

  • Amblyomma americanum - Lone Star Tick


Genus: Amblyomma americanum is a species of tick in the genus Amblyomma. ...

  • Anocentor


Genus:

  • Boophilus (5 species)

Species:

  • Boophilus annulatus


Genus:

  • Dermacentor (30 species)

Species:

  • Dermacentor albipictus
  • Dermacentor andersoni - Rocky Mountain wood tick
  • Dermacentor auratus
  • Dermacentor circumgutattus
  • Dermacentor halli
  • Dermacentor hunteri
  • Dermacentor marginatus
  • Dermacentor nitens
  • Dermacentor occidentali
  • Dermacentor parumapterus
  • Dermacentor reticulatus - marsh tick or ornate cow tick
  • Dermacentor silvarum
  • Dermacentor variabilis - American dog tick or the wood tick or the eastern wood tick


Genus: Dermacentor variabilis, also known as the American dog tick, is a species of tick that is known to carry bacteria responsible for several diseases in humans, including Rocky Mountain spotted fever. ...

  • Haemaphysalinae

Species:

  • Haemaphysalis punctata


Subfamily:

  • Hyalomminae

Genus:

  • Hyalomma

Species:

  • Hyalomma lusitanicum


Genus:

Species: Species Ixodes holocyclus Ixodes scapularis Ixodes pacificus Ixodes ricinus Ixodes is a genus of hard-bodied ticks (family Ixodidae). ...


Subfamily: Binomial name Ixodes holocyclus , The Paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus, is one of about 75 species of Australian tick fauna and is considered the most medically important. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Ixodes ricinus, known as the sheep tick or castor bean tick is a hard-bodied tick (family Ixodidae) of Europe. ... Binomial name Ixodes scapularis Say, 1821 Ixodes scapularis, known as the deer tick or black-legged tick is a hard-bodied tick (family Ixodidae) of the eastern United States. ...

  • Rhipicephalinae (~75 species)

Genus:

  • Rhipicephalus

Species:

  • Rhipicephalus bursa
  • Rhipicephalus camicas
  • Rhipicephalus evertsi
  • Rhipicephalus pravus
  • Rhipicephalus pumilio
  • Rhipicephalus pusillus
  • Rhipicephalus rossicus
  • Rhipicephalus sanguineus
  • Rhipicephalus turanicus


Family:

Genus: Ornithodorinae Argasid or cuddly ticks are ticks of the family Argasidamiousomousoan. ...


Genus: Argasinae


Family:

Genus: Nuttalliellidae is a family of ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) which contains only one species, Nuttalliella namaqua Bedford, 1931. ...

Species: Binomial name Nuttalliella namaqua Bedford, 1931 Nuttalliella namaqua is a tick found in southern Africa from Tanzania to Namibia and South Africa, which is placed in its own family, Nuttalliellidae. ...

Binomial name Nuttalliella namaqua Bedford, 1931 Nuttalliella namaqua is a tick found in southern Africa from Tanzania to Namibia and South Africa, which is placed in its own family, Nuttalliellidae. ...

Ticks as disease vectors

Carios kelleyi, a species of soft tick.
See main article: Tick-borne disease

Ticks are second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human disease, both infectious and toxic.[1] Image File history File links Soft tick, carios kelleyi. ... Image File history File links Soft tick, carios kelleyi. ... Tick-borne diseases are diseases or illnesses transmitted by ticks. ... Diversity 41 genera Genera See text. ... In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ...


Hard ticks can transmit human diseases such as relapsing fever, Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, equine encephalitis, Colorado tick fever, and several forms of ehrlichiosis. Additionally, they are responsible for transmitting livestock and pet diseases, including babesiosis, anaplasmosis and cytauxzoonosis. Lyme disease (Borreliosis) is a bacterial infection with a spirochete from the species complex Borrelia burgdorferi, which is most often acquired from the bite of an infected Ixodes, or black-legged, tick, also known as a deer tick. ... Binomial name Rickettsia rickettsii Wolbach, 1919 Wikispecies has information related to: Ixodidae Wikispecies has information related to: Rickettsia Rocky Mountain spotted fever is the most severe and most frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States, and has been diagnosed throughout the Americas. ... Tularemia (also known as rabbit fever) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. ... Equine encephalitis may be caused by several viruses: Eastern equine encephalitis virus Western equine encephalitis virus Venezualan equine encephalitis virus This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... In medicine Colorado Tick Fever is an illness caused by a virus of the Reovirus family carried by small mammals, such as ground squirrels, porcupines, and chipmunks, and by ticks. ... It has been suggested that Ehrlickiosis be merged into this article or section. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... It has been suggested that Residential pets be merged into this article or section. ... Babesiosis is a parasitic disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia, which belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa. ... Anaplasmosis is a rickettsial parasite of ruminants. ... Cytauxzoonosis is a mostly fatal tick-borne disease in domestic cats. ...


Soft ticks transmit relapsing fever spirochetes such as Borrelia turicatae, Borrelia parkeri and Borrelia hermsii. Families Spirochaetaceae Brachyspiraceae    Brachyspira    Serpulina Leptospiraceae    Leptospira    Leptonema Spirochaetes is a phylum of distinctive Gram-negative bacteria, which have long, helically coiled cells. ...


Generally, tick-borne diseases correspond to a specific tick-host combination, and are limited in their geographical extent. For example, nearly 90% of all Lyme disease(caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi bacterium) cases have been reported in the Northeastern part of the US; [2] only specific deer ticks carry that disease.[3] According to the Rhode Island Department of Health, roughly 70% of people who develop Lyme disease in that part of North America catch it from ticks in their own yard. [4] Tick-borne diseases are diseases or illnesses transmitted by ticks. ... Lyme disease (Borreliosis) is a bacterial infection with a spirochete from the species complex Borrelia burgdorferi, which is most often acquired from the bite of an infected Ixodes, or black-legged, tick, also known as a deer tick. ... “RI” redirects here. ...


The West Coast, although originally identified by A.C.Steere as a focus of Lyme disease, has traditionally been viewed as having minimal tick infection rates. In the past, it was believed that the role of the Western Fence Lizard in the California tick life cycle produced adult tick infection rates of only 2-3%. However, a landmark study in 2003 published in The Journal of Medical Entomology by the San Jose State Entomology Department found that the minimum infection rates of the microbe Borrelia burgdorferi in the tick Ixodes pacifica were much higher in Santa Cruz County, up to 17.8% in The Forest of Nisene Marks State Park. This completely transformed traditionally held views of Lyme disease in California as a minimal risk and instead raised the specter of rampant misdiagnosis as the reason for the lower case numbers. Rick Vetter of UC Riverside has shown in published work that tick-induced Lyme disease rashes in California are often misidentified as brown recluse spider bites, when, in fact, brown recluse spiders have never been documented in California. Binomial name Sceloporus occidentalis Baird and Girard, 1852 The Western Fence Lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) is the common lizard of much of California. ... Redwood trees in the Forest of Nisene Marks. ... A brown recluse spider The brown recluse spider is a venomous spider of the family Sicariidae and the genus and species Loxosceles reclusa. ...


Habitat and Behavior

Ticks are blood-feeding parasites that are often found in tall grass and shrubs where they will wait to attach to a passing host. Physical contact is the only method of transportation for ticks. Ticks do not jump or fly, although they may drop from their perch and fall onto a host. Cut grass growing on in the Hudson River Park Tall grass growing wild at Lyme Park Grass covered house in Iceland. ...


Changes in temperature and day length are some of the factors signaling a tick to seek a host. Ticks can detect heat emitted or carbon dioxide respired from a nearby host. They will generally drop off the animal when full, but this may take several days. Ticks have a harpoon-like structure in their mouth area, known as a hypostome, that allows them to anchor themselves firmly in place while feeding. The hypostome has a series of barbs angled back, which is why they are so difficult to remove once they have penetrated a host. A hypostome (also called the maxilla, radula, labium or Unterkiefer), is a calcified harpoon-like structure near the mouth area of certain parasitic arthropods including ticks, that allows them to anchor themselves firmly in place on a host mammal while sucking blood. ...


Population control

The blacklegged or deer tick (Ixodes scapularis) is dependent on the white-tailed deer for successful reproduction. Larval and nymph stages (immature ticks that cannot reproduce) of the deer tick feed on birds and small mammals. The adult female tick needs a large 3 day blood meal from the deer before she can reproduce and lay her 2000 or more eggs. Deer are the primary host for the adult deer tick and are key to the reproductive success of the tick [5]. By reducing the deer population back to healthy levels of 8 to 10 per square mile (from the current levels of 60 or more deer per square mile in the worst affected areas of the country) the tick numbers can be brought down to very low levels, perhaps too few to spread tick-borne diseases. See the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station and Connecticut Department of Public Health joint publication "Tick Management Handbook" [6] for more details of the tick's life cycle and dependence on deer.


Numerous studies have shown that abundance and distribution of deer ticks are correlated with deer densities. [5][7][8][9] For example when the deer population was reduced by 74% at a 248-acre study site in Bridgeport, CT, the number of nymphal ticks collected at the site decreased by 92% [5]. Furthermore, the relationship between deer abundance, tick abundance, and human cases of Lyme disease was well documented in the Mumford Cove Community in Groton, CT, from 1996 to 2004. The deer population in Mumford Cove was reduced from about 77 deer per square mile to about 10 deer per square mile after 2 years of controlled hunting. After the initial reduction the deer population was maintained at low levels. Reducing deer densities to 10 deer per square mile was adequate to reduce by more than 90% the risk of humans contracting Lyme disease in Mumford Cove. (DEP Wildlife Division: Managing Urban Deer in Connecticut 2nd edition June 2007) Deer population management must serve as the main tool in any long-term strategy to reduce human incidences of Lyme disease. [10]


A method of reducing deer tick (Ixodes scapularis/dammini) populations - Damminix [2] - may be cited. It consists of biodegradable cardboard tubes stuffed with permethrin-treated cotton and works in the following way: Mice collect the cotton for lining their nests. The pesticide on the cotton kills any immature ticks that are feeding on the mice. It is important to put the tubes where mice will find them, such as in dense, dark brush or at the base of a log; mice are unlikely to gather the cotton from an open lawn. Best results are obtained with regular applications early in the spring and again in late summer. The more neighbors who also use Damminix, the better. Damminix appears to help control tick populations, particularly in the year following initial use. Note that it is not effective on the West Coast. See [3] UMM Patient Education Link. Permethrin is a common synthetic chemical, widely used as an insecticide and acaricide and as an insect repellent. ...


A potential alternative to Damminix's permethrin is fipronil. It is used in the Maxforce Tick Management system, in which fipronil is painted onto rodents visiting the plastic baitboxes. see[4]. This system is no longer generally available for sale by Bayer. In 2005, there were selective reports of grey squirrels "chewing" into some Maxforce TMS boxes in areas of the northeastern United States, compromising the child resistant box. Due to this problem, the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) asked that all similarly designed TMS boxes applied in 2006 be covered with a protective shroud capable of preventing squirrel damage. The Maxforce TMS system remains registered by the federal EPA for its continued use. A metal shroud has been developed and is reportedly in use to eliminate any potential squirrel damage to the plastic box. This shroud reportedly satisfies the EPA's mandate to protect the boxes from such damage and is recommended by Bayer Environmental Science. Availability however outside of Connecticut , New York, New Jersey and Rhode Island may be minimal. Fipronil is the active ingredient in Frontline, a topical flea control commonly used on dogs and cats. ...


Also, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention offers advice on reducing ticks around your home; see [5].


The parasitic Ichneumon wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri has long been investigated for its potential to control tick populations. It lays its eggs into ticks; the hatching wasps kill its host. Families Braconidae Ichneumonidae The Ichneumon wasps are insects classified in the parasitica group of the suborder Apocrita within the Order Hymenoptera. ... Binomial name Ixodiphagus hookeri Howard, 1907 The Ichneumon wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri lays its eggs into ticks. ...


Another "natural" form of control for ticks is the Guineafowl. They consume mass quantities of ticks. Just 2 birds can clear 2 acres in a single year. However they can be quite noisy, and employers of this method should be prepared for complaints from neighbors. Genera Agelastes Numida Guttera Acryllium The guineafowl are a family of birds in the same order as the pheasants, turkeys and other game birds. ...


Topical (drops/dust) flea/tick medicines need to be used with care. Phenothrin (85.7%) in combination with Methopren was a popular topical flea/tick therapy for felines. Phenothrin kills adult fleas and ticks. Methoprene is an insect growth regulator that interrupts the insect's life cycle by killing the eggs. However, the US EPA has made at least one manufacturer of these products (Hartz Mountain Corp., Secaucus, New Jersey, USA), withdraw some products and include strong cautionary statements on others, warning of adverse reactions (http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/factsheets/flea-tick-drops.htm). Phenothrin is a synthetic pyrethroid that kills adult fleas and ticks. ...


Removal

To remove a tick use a small set of tweezers: grab the head, pulling slowly and steadily.[6]. There are a number of manufacturers that have produced tweezers specifically for tick removal. Crushing or irritating the tick (by heat or chemicals) should be avoided, because these methods may cause it to regurgitate its stomach contents into the skin, increasing the possibility of infection of the host.[7] Lyme disease found in deer ticks cannot be transmitted once the body is removed even if the mouthparts break off and are still in the skin. Prompt removal is important; infection generally takes an extended period of time, over 24 hours for Lyme disease.


An alternate method used by fishermen that does not risk squeezing the tick's thorax uses 18 inches of fine weight fishing line. The line is tied in a simple overhand knot that is tightened slowly around the tick's head. If the line is pressed against the skin while gently pulling, the knot will tighten around the tick's head. Slowly pulling the ends of the line will then dislodge the tick from the bite site with a reduced chance of leaving the head attached. This method also works with sewing thread. The overhand knot is a type of knot. ...


It is commonly claimed that petroleum jelly placed on the tick will clogs the animal's breathing passages and cause it to de-attach itself. However, many medical authorities advise against this and other "smothering" approaches as ticks only breathe a few times per hour and feeding may thus continue for some time, and because these approaches may irritate the tick to the point of regurgitation of bacteria into the bloodstream.[8];[9];[10];[11];[12]


Example species

Male tick size comparison to a match.
Male tick size comparison to a match.
Engorged deer tick attached to back of toddler's head. Adult thumb shown for scale.
  • Ixodes scapularis (formerly Ixodes dammini), known as the black-legged tick or deer tick, is common to the eastern part of North America and is known for spreading Lyme disease.
  • Ixodes pacificus, the Western black-legged tick, lives in the western part of North America and is responsible for spreading Lyme disease and the more deadly Rocky Mountain spotted fever. It tends to prefer livestock as its adult host.
  • In some parts of Europe, tick-borne meningoencephalitis is a common viral infection.
Ixodes ricinus
Ixodes ricinus
  • Australian tick fauna consists of approximately 75 species, the majority of which fall into the Ixodidae, hard tick, family. The most medically important tick is the Paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus. It is found in a 20-kilometre band that follows the eastern coastline of Australia. As this is where much of the human population resides in New South Wales, encounters with these parasites are relatively common. Although most cases of tick bite are uneventful, some can result in life threatening illnesses including paralysis, tick typhus and severe allergic reactions.[11]

Tick male size comparison This image shows a comparison between the size of a tick male and the size of a matchstick head. ... Tick male size comparison This image shows a comparison between the size of a tick male and the size of a matchstick head. ... Dermacentor variabilis, also known as the American dog tick, is a species of tick that is known to carry bacteria responsible for several diseases in humans, including Rocky Mountain spotted fever. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Binomial name Rickettsia rickettsii Wolbach, 1919 Wikispecies has information related to: Ixodidae Wikispecies has information related to: Rickettsia Rocky Mountain spotted fever is the most severe and most frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States, and has been diagnosed throughout the Americas. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1098 × 1098 pixel, file size: 631 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Deer Tick engorged after attaching to back of toddlers head in California. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1098 × 1098 pixel, file size: 631 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Deer Tick engorged after attaching to back of toddlers head in California. ... Binomial name Ixodes scapularis Say, 1821 Ixodes scapularis, known as the deer tick or black-legged tick is a hard-bodied tick (family Ixodidae) of the eastern United States. ... “Fawn” redirects here. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Lyme disease (Borreliosis) is a bacterial infection with a spirochete from the species complex Borrelia burgdorferi, which is most often acquired from the bite of an infected Ixodes, or black-legged, tick, also known as a deer tick. ... Binomial name Rickettsia rickettsii Wolbach, 1919 Wikispecies has information related to: Ixodidae Wikispecies has information related to: Rickettsia Rocky Mountain spotted fever is the most severe and most frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States, and has been diagnosed throughout the Americas. ... Tick-borne meningoencephalitis or Tick-borne encephalitis is a tick-borne viral infection of the central nervous system affecting humans as well as most other mammals. ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus (from the Latin noun virus, meaning toxin or poison) is a microscopic particle (ranging in size from 20 - 300 nm) that can infect the... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1182x1407, 212 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tick ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1182x1407, 212 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tick ... Binomial name Ixodes holocyclus The paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus, is one of about 75 species of Australian tick fauna and is considered the most medically important. ... Capital Sydney Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Professor Marie Bashir Premier Morris Iemma (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 50  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $305,437 (1st)  - Product per capita  $45,153/person (4th) Population (End of March 2006)  - Population  6,817,100 (1st)  - Density  8. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ...

References

  1. ^ Edlow, Jonathon A. (2005). Tick-Borne Diseases. Emergency Medicine - Infectious Diseases. www.emedicine.com. Retrieved on 2006-03-14.
  2. ^ Lyme Disease. Lyme Disease. Rhode Island Department of Health. Retrieved on 2006-03-14.
  3. ^ Ticks and Lyme. Lyme Disease. Rhode Island Department of Health. Retrieved on 2006-03-14.
  4. ^ Lyme Disease: Keeping Your Yard Tick-Free. Lyme Disease. Rhode Island Department of Health. Retrieved on 2006-03-14.
  5. ^ a b c Stafford K.C. 2004. Tick management handbook: an integrated guide for homeowners, pest control operators, and public health officials for the prevention of tick-associated disease. The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
  6. ^ [1] p. 46, "Deer Reduction"
  7. ^ Rand, P.W., et al. 2004. Abundance of Ixodes scapularis (acari:Ixodidae) after complete removal of deer from an isolated offshore island, endemc for Lyme disease. Journal of Medical Entomology 41:779-784
  8. ^ Walter, W.D., et al. 2002. Evaluation of immunocontraception in a free-ranging suburban white-tailed deer herd. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30:186-192
  9. ^ Wilson, M.L., et al. 1990. Microgeographic distribution of immature "Ixodes dammini" ticks correlated with deer. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 4:151-159
  10. ^ Telford SR 1993 Forum: perspectives on the environmental management of ticks and Lyme disease. pp164-167 in Howard S. Ginsberg, Ecology and environmental management of Lyme disease. New Brunswick, N.J. Rutgers University Press
  11. ^ Ticks. Department of Medical Entomology, University of Sydney (2003). Retrieved on 2006-03-14.
  • Muma, Walter: Lyme Disease: Nature Class - March 1997.
  • Stafford, Kirby C. III: Tick Bite Prevention, Connecticut Department of Public Health, Feb. 1999.
  • Fivaz, B., T. Petney, and I. Horak. 1993. Tick Vector Biology: Medical and Veterinary Aspects. Springer. ISBN 0-387-54045-8.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikispecies has information related to:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... GFDL Wikispecies logo File links The following pages link to this file: Solanaceae Species Asterias Homo (genus) Human Wikipedia:Template messages/Links Wikipedia:Template messages/All Homo floresiensis User talk:Tuneguru Template:Wikispecies Categories: GFDL images ... Wikispecies is a sister project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that anybody can edit with a great potential use to students and researchers. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Tick - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1682 words)
Ticks are ectoparasites (external parasites), living by hematophagy on the blood of mammals, birds, and occasionally reptiles and amphibians.
Ticks are blood-sucking parasites that are often found in tall grass, where they will rest themselves at the tip of a blade so as to attach themselves to a passing animal or human.
The deer (or fl-legged) tick, and the related western fl-legged tick, are the primary known transmitters of Lyme disease in the United States.
Tick - MSN Encarta (462 words)
Tick, common name for members of a group of large mitelike arachnids parasitic on mammals, birds, and reptiles.
Ticks are found in most parts of the world but are generally limited to those habitats frequented by their hosts—namely, woods, tall grass, and shrubby vegetation—where they climb onto plants and wait to jump on a passing host.
Ticks are actually a specialized group of mites and share many features with other mites.
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