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Encyclopedia > Tibetan script
Tibetian
Type: Abugida
Languages: Tibetan
Dzongkha
Ladakhi
Time period: 650 to the present
ISO 15924 code: Tibt
Image:Example.of.complex.text.rendering.svg This page contains Indic text. Without rendering support, you may see irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts. More...

The Tibetan script is an abugida of Indic origin used to write the Tibetan language as well as the Dzongkha language, Ladakhi language and sometimes the Balti language. The printed form of the script is called uchen script (Tibetan: དབུ་ཅན་; Wylie: dbu-can; "with a head") while the hand-written cursive form used in everyday writing is called umé script (Tibetan: དབུ་མེད་; Wylie: dbu-med; "headless"). Besides Tibet, the writing system is also used in Bhutan and in parts of India and Nepal. An abugida or alphasyllabary is a writing system composed of signs (graphemes) denoting consonants with an inherent following vowel, which are consistently modified to indicate other vowels (or, in some cases, the lack of a vowel). ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... Dzongkha is the national language of the Kingdom of Bhutan. ... The Ladakhi language is the predominant language in the Ladakh region of the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. ... Events Arab conquest of Persia, establishment of Islam as state religion Hindu empire in Sumatra Croats and Serbs occupy Bosnia Khazars conquer Great Bulgarian Empire in southern Russia building of St. ... For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of sounds and the human voice. ... Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... This is a concise version of the International Phonetic Alphabet for English sounds. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Image File history File links Example. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria. ... An abugida or alphasyllabary is a writing system composed of signs (graphemes) denoting consonants with an inherent following vowel, which are consistently modified to indicate other vowels (or, in some cases, the lack of a vowel). ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... Dzongkha is the national language of the Kingdom of Bhutan. ... The Ladakhi language is the predominant language in the Ladakh region of the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. ... Balti is a language spoken in Baltistan, in what is now part of the Pakistan-controlled Northern Areas of Jammu & Kashmir State. ... Uchen script (Tibetan: དབྕ་ཅན་; Wylie: dbu-can; IPA: utɕɛ̃; variant spellings include ucen, u-cen, u-chen, ucan, u-can, uchan, u-chan, and ucän) is the printed script of the Tibetan alphabet. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... The Wylie transliteration scheme is a method for transliterating the Tibetan script using the keys on a typical English language typewriter. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... The Wylie transliteration scheme is a method for transliterating the Tibetan script using the keys on a typical English language typewriter. ...


The script is romanized in a variety of ways, this article employs the Wylie transliteration system. The Wylie transliteration scheme is a method for transliterating the Tibetan script using the keys on a typical English language typewriter. ...

Contents

History

History of the Alphabet

Middle Bronze Age 19–15th c. BC
The history of the alphabet begins in Ancient Egypt, more than a millennium into the history of writing. ... The Middle Bronze Age alphabets are two similar but undeciphered scripts, dated to be from the Middle Bronze Age (2000-1500 BCE), and believed to be ancestral to nearly all modern alphabets: the Proto-Sinaitic script discovered in the winter of 1904-1905 by William Flinders Petrie, and dated to...

Meroitic 3rd c. BC
Complete genealogy
Polychrome text left of center is the primary mantra of Tibetan Buddhism, Om Mani Padme Hum. Monochrome text right of center reads "Om Vajrasattva Hum", an invocation to the embodiement of primeval wisdom.
Polychrome text left of center is the primary mantra of Tibetan Buddhism, Om Mani Padme Hum. Monochrome text right of center reads "Om Vajrasattva Hum", an invocation to the embodiement of primeval wisdom.

The creation of the Tibetan script is attritubeted to Thonmi Sambhota in the mid-7th century. Thonmi Sambhota was one of the ministers of Songtsen Gampo who was the 33rd king of Tibet.   The Proto-Canaanite alphabet is an abjad of twenty-plus acrophonic glyphs, which is found in Levantine texts of the Late Bronze Age (from ca. ... The Phoenician alphabet dates from around 1400 BC and is related to the Proto-Canaanite alphabet. ... The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet is an offshoot of the Phoenician alphabet used to write the Hebrew language from about the 10th century BCE until it began to fall out of use in the 5th century BCE with the adoption of the Aramaic alphabet as a writing system for Hebrew and... The Aramaic alphabet is an abjad alphabet designed for writing the Aramaic language. ... BrāhmÄ« refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria. ...   This article or section uses Khmer characters which may be rendered as boxes or other nonsensical symbols. ... Javanese script is the script that Javanese is originally written in (not to be confused with Javascript, which is a programming language). ... This article is mainly about Hebrew letters. ... 11th century book in Syriac Serto. ... The Nabatean alphabet is a consonantal alphabet (abjad) that was used by the Nabateans in the 2nd century BC. Important inscriptions are found in Petra. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Avestan alphabet was created in the 3rd century AD for writing the hymns of Zarathustra (a. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Younger Futhark inscription on the Vaksala Runestone The Runic alphabets are a set of related alphabets using letters known as runes, formerly used to write Germanic languages, mainly in Scandinavia and the British Isles, but before Christianization also on the European Continent. ...   Note: This article contains special characters. ...   The Gothic alphabet is an alphabetic writing system attributed by Philostorgius to Wulfila, used exclusively for writing the ancient Gothic language. ... Tablet inscribed with the Glagolitic alphabet The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavonic alphabet. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced , also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages—Belarusian, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... The Samaritan alphabet is a direct descendant of the paleo-Hebrew variety of the Phoenician alphabet, the more commonly known Hebrew alphabet having been adapted from the Aramaic alphabet under the Persian Empire. ... Photograph of Botorrita 1 (both sides), 1st century BC. The Iberian scripts (or Iberian alphabet) are two scripts (or two styles of the same script) found on the Iberian peninsula, the Northeast and South Iberian script. ... The ancient South Arabian alphabet (also known as musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in ca. ...   Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Meroitic script is an alphabet of Egyptian (Hieroglyphic) origin used in Kingdom of Meroë. Some scholars, e. ... Nearly all the segmental scripts (alphabets, but see below for more precise terminology) used around the globe were apparently derived from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet. ... Image File history File links Om Mani Padme Hum (on the left in different colors) and Om Vajrasattva Hum (on the right all in red), written in Tibetan on a rock at the Potala Palace. ... Image File history File links Om Mani Padme Hum (on the left in different colors) and Om Vajrasattva Hum (on the right all in red), written in Tibetan on a rock at the Potala Palace. ... In Tibet, many Buddhists carve mantras into rocks as a form of devotion. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... Om Mani Padme Hum, written in Tibetan, on a rock outside the Potala Palace in Tibet. ... Thonmi Sambhota is the traditional inventor of the Tibetan script in the 7th C. AD. However, he is not mentioned in any Old Tibetan texts. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... A statue of Emperor Srong-rtsan Sgam-po in his meditation cave at Yerpa Songtsen Gampo (སྲོང་བཙན་སྒམ་པོ་ Wylie: Srong-btsan Sgam-po) (604–650 CE) was the thirty-third king of the Yarlung Dynasty of Tibet. ...


The form of the letters is based on an Indic alphabet of that period, but which specific Indic script inspired the Tibetan alphabet remains controversial. Vintage German letter balance for home use Look up letter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas used in South Asia and Southeast Asia. ...


Although the Tibetan script is assumed to accurately reflect the pronunciation of Tibetan at the time of its invention, in all modern dialects, in particular Lhasa, the pronuncation and spelling differ significantly, due to phonetic change. This is why some people are in favour of transliterating Tibetan "as it is pronounced". One thus often sees Kagyu instead of Bka'-rgyud. The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ...


Description

The number plate of a car registered in Jammu and Kashmir, in Roman and Tibetan scripts.
The number plate of a car registered in Jammu and Kashmir, in Roman and Tibetan scripts.

The Tibetan script has 30 consonants, which are deemed to possess an inherent sound a. The vowels are a, i, u, e, o. As in other Indic scripts, each consonant letter includes an inherent a, and the other vowels are indicated by marks; thus ཀ ka, ཀི ki, ཀུ ku, ཀེ ke, ཀོ ko. Old Tibetan included a gigu 'verso' of uncertain meaning. There is no distinction between long and short vowels in written Tibetan, except in loanwords, especially transcribed from the Sanskrit. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1163 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tibetan script User:Deeptrivia/Album Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1163 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tibetan script User:Deeptrivia/Album Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Jammu and Kashmir   (IPA: , Kashmiri: جۄم تٕہ کٔشِیر ज्वम त॒ कॅशीर, Urdu:جموں Ùˆ کشمیر, Hindi:जम्मू और कश्मीर) (often abbreviated as Kashmir), is the northern-most state of Republic of India, lying mostly in the Himalayan mountains. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...


Syllables are separated by a tseg ་; since many Tibetan words are monosyllabic, this mark often functions almost as a space. Spaces are not used to divide words. A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ...


Although some Tibetan dialects are tonal, because the language had no tone at the time of the scripts invention, tones are not written. However, since tones developed from segmental features they can ususlly be correctly predicted by the spelling of Tibetan words. Tone refers to the use of pitch in language to distinguish words. ...

ཀ ka [ká] ཁ kha [kʰá] ག ga [ɡà/kʰà] ང nga [ŋà]
ཅ ca [tɕá] ཆ cha [tɕʰá] ཇ ja [dʑà/tɕʰà] ཉ nya [ɲà]
ཏ ta [tá] ཐ tha [tʰá] ད da [dà/tʰà] ན na [nà]
པ pa [pá] ཕ pha [pʰá] བ ba [bà/pʰà] མ ma [mà]
ཙ tsa [tsá] ཚ tsha [tsʰá] ཛ dza [dzà/tsʰà] ཝ wa [wà]
ཞ zha [ʑà] ཟ za [zà] འ 'a [ʔà] ཡ ya [jà]
ར ra [rà] ལ la [là] ཤ sha [ɕá] ས sa [sá]
ཧ ha [há] ཨ a [ʔá]

The h or apostrophe (’) usually signifies aspiration, but in the case of zh and sh it signifies palatalization and the single letter h represents a voiceless glottal fricative. Look up apostrophe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some obstruents. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ...


Old Tibetan had no letter w, which was instead a digraph for 'w.


Consonantal Variations

  • The Sanskrit "cerebral" (retroflex) consonants are represented by the letters ta, tha, da, na, and sha turned vertically to give ཊ ṭa (Ta), ཋ ṭha (Tha), ཌ ḍa (Da), ཎ ṇa (Na), and ཥ ṣa (Sa).
  • As in other Indic scripts, clustered consonants are often stacked vertically. Unfortunately, some fonts and applications do not support this behavior for Tibetan, so these examples may not display properly; you might have to download a font such as Tibetan Machine Uni.
    • W, r, and y change form when they are beneath another consonant; thus ཀྭ kwa; ཀྲ kra; ཀྱ kya. R also changes form when it is above most other consonants; thus རྐ rka. An exception is the cluster རྙ rnya.

Retroflex consonants are articulated with the tip of the tongue curled up and back so the bottom of the tip touches the roof of the mouth. ...

Tibetan in Unicode

The Unicode Tibetan block is U+0F00 – U+0FFF. It includes letters, digits and various punctuation marks and special symbols used in religious texts (you will need Unicode fonts covering this block installed to view the table properly in your web browser): Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... An example of a web browser (Mozilla Firefox running under Microsoft Windows). ...

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
F00  
F10  
F20  
F30   ༿
F40   གྷ ཌྷ
F50   དྷ བྷ ཛྷ
F60   ཀྵ
F70   ཱི ཱུ ྲྀ ླྀ ཿ
F80   ཱྀ
F90   ྒྷ ྜྷ
FA0   ྡྷ ྦྷ ྫྷ
FB0   ྐྵ ྿
FC0  
FD0  
FE0  
FF0   ࿿

See also

The Peoples Republic of Chinas Tibetan Pinyin (Chinese: ; pinyin: Zàngwén Pīnyīn; Tibetan: བོད་ཡིག་གི་སྒྲ་སྦྱོར་) is the official transcription system for the Tibetan language in China. ... The THDL Simplified Phonetic Transcription of Standard Tibetan (or THDL Phonetic Transcription for short) is a system for the phonetic rendering of the Tibetan language. ...

External links

  • The Tibetan Alphabet
  • Description of the design of each letter.
  • Tibetan Calligraphy - how to write the Tibetan script.
  • Jomolhari Font - Unicode compatible. Download
  • 2 fonts - not Unicode compatible.
  • 2 fonts: 1 Macintosh, not Unicode compatible.
  • Origins of tibetan calligraphy: History of tibetan script and guide to tibetan script.
  • Omniglot's Guide to the Tibetan writing system
  • Tibetan & Himalayan Digital Library - articles on Unicode font issues; free cross-platform OpenType font - Unicode compatible.
  • free Tibetan fonts project.
  • Tibetan writing course.
  • Elements of The Tibetan writing system.
  • Introduction to Tibetan Orthography, at Kuro5hin

  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Tibetan script (2643 words)
The Tibetan script is an abugida of Indic origin used to write the Tibetan language as well as the Dzongkha language, Ladakhi language and sometimes the Balti language.
Although the Tibetan script is assumed to accurately reflect the pronunciation of Tibetan at the time of its invention, in all modern dialects, in particular Lhasa, the pronuncation and spelling differ significantly, due to phonetic change.
Tibetan refers to several distinct spoken dialects that are frequently mutually incomprehensible but who have over the centuries maintained a common literary tradition, much like Latin before speakers of Romance languages developed their own vernacular literatures.
Tibetan script - Biocrawler (676 words)
Although the Tibetan script accurately reflects the pronunciation of the Tibetan at the time of its invention.
Although some Tibetan dialects are tonal, because the language had no tone at the time of the scripts invention, tones are nor written.
Besides Tibetan, the Dzongkha language is written in the Tibetan script.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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