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Encyclopedia > Tibetan people
Tibetans
Tibetan Nomad in 1950.
Tibetan Nomad in 1950.
Total population

between 5 and 10 million Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of Tibet Tibet (claimed by Flag of the People's Republic of China People's Republic of China), Flag of Nepal Nepal, Flag of Bhutan Bhutan, Flag of India India, Flag of the United States United States
Language(s)
Tibetan
Religion(s)
Predominantly Tibetan Buddhism, Bön
Related ethnic groups

The Tibetan people are a people indigenous to Tibet and surrounding areas stretching from Central Asia in the West to Myanmar and China in the East. Image File history File links Flag_of_Tibet. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nepal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bhutan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... Bön[1] (Tibetan: བོན་; Wylie: bon; Lhasa dialect IPA: [) is the oldest spiritual tradition of Tibet. ... This article is about the geographical region of greater Kashmir. ... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people... The Balti are a people of Tibetan descent with some Dardic admixture whose population of 300,000 is found in Pakistani-controlled Baltistan (a former district of Ladakh); and in Kargil and Leh districts of Ladakh, a region in Indian-controlled Jammu & Kashmir. ... The Burig, or Purik, are another group of Tibetan Muslims who live south of the Balti in Kashmir. ... , Uttarakhand (Hindi: उत्तराखंड), known as Uttaranchal from 2000 to 2006, became the 27th state of the Republic of India on November 9, 2000. ... , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ... Selected ethnic groups of Nepal; Bhotia, Sherpa, Thakali Gurung Kiranti, Rai, Limbu Newari Pahari Tamang For other uses of the word Sherpa, see Sherpa (disambiguation). ... The Tamang (also known as Murmi) are one of the several ethnic groups living in Nepal descended from Tibeto-Burman origins. ... The Thakali ethnolinguistic group originated from the Thak Khola region of Mustang district in the Dhaulagiri zone of Nepal. ... Magar is an Sino-Tibetan ethnic group of Nepal and northern India whose homeland extends from the western and southern edges of the Dhaulagiri section of the high Himalayas range south to the prominent Mahabharat foothill range and eastward into the Gandaki basin. ... Selected ethnic groups of Nepal; Bhotia, Sherpa, Thakali Gurung Kiranti, Rai, Limbu Newari Pahari Tamang The Gurung is an ethnic group from the Central region of Nepal. ... The Bhutias are people of Tibetan origin, who migrated to Sikkim, India and Bhutan some time after the 15th century. ... The Lepcha (population: 50,000) are the aboriginal inhabitants of present day Sikkim. ... The Bhotiya are an ethno-linguistic group of people living in the trans-Himalayan region that divides India from Tibet. ... , Arunachal Pradesh   (Hindi:   ) is the easternmost state of India. ... Two Sherdukpen Couples The Sherdukpen are an ethnic group related to both the Aka and Monpa. ... The Monpa (Chinese: 门巴族, ménbàzú, Tibetan: མོན་པ།) are an ethnic group of Tibetan descent in the Indian territory of Arunachal Pradesh, with a population of 50,000, centered in the districts of Tawang and West Kameng. ... The Memba population of 3,500 is centered around Tuting and Geling, near the Siang river in the West Siang and Upper Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh not very far from the Tibetan border. ... The Aka, also known as Hrusso, are found in the Thrinzo area in West Kameng and East Kameng of the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh. ... Khoa redirects here. ... Miji lady The Miji, who are also known as Sajolang or Damai, inhabit in the districts of West Kameng and East Kameng in Arunachal Pradesh. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Yunan redirects here. ... The Qiang people (羌族; Pinyin: qiāng zú) are an ethnic group. ... The Nakhi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are an ethnic group inhabiting the foothills of the Himalayas in the northwestern part of Yunnan Province, as well as the southwestern part of Sichuan Province in China. ... The Mosuo (also spelled Moso) (Chinese: 摩梭; pinyin: Mósuō) are a small ethnic group living in the Yunnan Province in China, south of Sichuan Province. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw Largest city Yangon Official languages Burmese Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Than Shwe  -  Prime Minister Soe Win  -  Acting Prime Minister Thein Sein Establishment  -  Bagan 849–1287   -  Taungoo Dynasty 1486–1752   -  Konbaung Dynasty 1752–1885   -  Colonial rule...


The Government of Tibet in Exile claims that the number of Tibetans has fallen from 6,330,567 to 5.4 million since 1959 [4], while the government of the People's Republic of China claims that the number of Tibetans has risen from 2.7 million to 5.4 million since 1954 [5]. The SIL Ethnologue documents an additional 125,000 Tibetan exiles living in India, 60,000 in Nepal, and 4,000 in Bhutan. Official language Tibetan Headquarters Dharamsala Head of State (Dalai Lama) Tenzin Gyatso National Anthem Tibetan National Anthem, (Link) The Government of Tibet in Exile, officially named the Central Tibetan Administration (CTA) of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, is a theocratic government-like entity headed by Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ...


Tibetan exile groups estimate the death toll in Tibet since the invasion of the People's Liberation Army in 1950 to be 1,200,000.[1] Peoples Liberation Army redirects here. ...

Contents

Physical adaptation to high altitudes

Ethnolinguistic Groups of Tibetan language, 1967 (See entire map, which includes a key)
Ethnolinguistic Groups of Tibetan language, 1967 ( See entire map, which includes a key)
Ethnic Tibetan autonomous entities set up by the People's Republic of China. Opponents of the PRC dispute the actual level of autonomy.
Ethnic Tibetan autonomous entities set up by the People's Republic of China. Opponents of the PRC dispute the actual level of autonomy.
A Tibetan girl in Aba, Sichuan Province, China.
A Tibetan girl in Aba, Sichuan Province, China.

The ability of Tibetans to function normally in the oxygen-deficient atmosphere at high altitudes - frequently above 4,400 metres (14,000 ft), has often puzzled observers. Recent research shows that, although Tibetans living at high altitudes have no more oxygen in their blood than other people, they have 10 times more nitric oxide (NO) and double the forearm blood flow of low-altitude dwellers. Nitric oxide causes dilation of blood vessels allowing blood to flow more freely to the extremities and aids the release of oxygen to tissues. This may also help explain the typical rosy cheeks of high-altitude dwellers. What is not yet known is whether the high levels of nitric oxide are due to a genetic mutation or whether people from lower altitudes would gradually adapt similarly after living for prolonged periods at high altitudes.[2][3][4][5] Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3031x2544, 959 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Tibet Autonomous Region + Tibetan Autonomous Prefectures + Tibetan Autonomous Counties Base map is Image:China administrative. ... Tibet Autonomous Region + Tibetan Autonomous Prefectures + Tibetan Autonomous Counties Base map is Image:China administrative. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 577 pixel Image in higher resolution (850 × 613 pixel, file size: 77 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tibetan people User... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 577 pixel Image in higher resolution (850 × 613 pixel, file size: 77 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tibetan people User...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ...


Origins

Chinese and "proto-Tibeto-Burman" may have split sometime before 4000 BC, when the Chinese began growing millet in the Yellow River valley while the Tibeto-Burmans remained nomads; Tibet split from Burma circa 500. The Tibetan language is a member of the Tibeto-Burman branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.


Very little is known about the origins of the Tibetan people. Some argue[attribution needed] that Tibetans share a genetic background with Mongols, although it is clear that other main influences do exist. Some[attribution needed] anthropologists have suggested a Central Asian or Indo-Scythian component, and others a Southeast Asian component; both are credible given Tibet's geographic location. The romantic claim that American Hopi and Tibetans are close cousins is not likely to find support in genetic studies, although strong cultural similarities may be found between the two groups. Some light has been shed on their origins, however, by one genetic study: Su, Bing, et al. (2000), in which it was indicated that Tibetan Y-chromosomes had multiple origins, one from Central Asia while the other from East Asia. Central Asia is a region of Asia. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Moki redirects here. ...


Traditional explanation

Tibetans traditionally explain their own origins as rooted in the marriage of a monkey and a mountain ogress[citation needed]. Tibetans who display compassion, moderation, intelligence, and wisdom are said to take after their fathers, while Tibetans who are "red-faced, fond of sinful pursuits, and very stubborn" are said to take after their mothers[citation needed]. This article is about the mythological creature. ...


Notable features

Tibetans have a legendary ability to survive extremes of altitude and cold, an ability no doubt conditioned by the extreme environment of the Tibetan plateau. Recently, scientists have sought to isolate the cultural and genetic factors behind this adaptability [6]. Among their findings was a gene which improves oxygen saturation in hemoglobin and the fact that Tibetan children grow faster than other children to the age of five (presumably as a defense against heat loss since larger bodies have a more favorable volume to surface ratio). The Tibet Paleolithic Project is studying the Stone Age colonization of the plateau, hoping to gain insight into human adaptability in general and the cultural strategies the Tibetans developed as they learned to survive in this harsh environment. Structure of hemoglobin. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ...


Religion

Three monks chanting in Lhasa, 1993.
Three monks chanting in Lhasa, 1993.
A prayer wheel with chorten in background.
A prayer wheel with chorten in background.

Most Tibetans generally observe Tibetan Buddhism and a collection of native traditions known as Bön (also absorbed into mainstream Tibetan Buddhism). The Tibetan Muslims are also known as the Kache. Image File history File links I took this photo myself in 1993 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links I took this photo myself in 1993 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 553 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tibetan people User:Deeptrivia/Album Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 553 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tibetan people User:Deeptrivia/Album Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... Bön[1] (Tibetan: བོན་; Wylie: bon; Lhasa dialect IPA: [) is the oldest spiritual tradition of Tibet. ... The Tibetan Muslims, also known as the Kachee (Kache), form a small minority in Tibet. ... The Tibetan Muslims, also known as the Kachee (Kache), form a small minority in Tibet. ...


Legend said that the 28th king of Tibet, Lhatotori Nyentsen, dreamed of a sacred treasure falling from heaven, which contained a Buddhist sutra, mantras, and religious objects. However, because the modern Tibetan script was not introduced to the people, no one knew what was written on the sutra upon the first look. Buddhism did not take root in Tibet until the reign of Songtsen Gampo, who married two Buddhist princesses, Brikhuti and Wencheng. It then gained popularity when Padmasambhava, widely known as Guru Rinpoche, visited Tibet at the invitation of the 38th Tibetan king, Trisong Deutson. Sūtra (sex) (Sanskrit) or Sutta (Pāli) literally means a rope or thread that holds things together, and more metaphorically refers to an aphorism (or line, rule, formula), or a collection of such aphorisms in the form of a manual. ... In Tibet, many Buddhists carve mantras into rocks as a form of devotion. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... A statue of Emperor Srong-rtsan Sgam-po in his meditation cave at Yerpa Songtsen Gampo (སྲོང་བཙན་སྒམ་པོ་ Wylie: Srong-btsan Sgam-po) (604–650 CE) was the thirty-third king of the Yarlung Dynasty of Tibet. ... Guru Rinpoche - Padmasambhava statue - near Kullu, India Guru Rinpoche, the patron saint of Sikkim. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Trisong Detsen (Wylie Khri-srong lDe-btsan) was the 38th King of Tibet, ruling from 755 until 797. ...


Today, one can see Tibetans placing Mani stones all over. Tibetan lamas, both Buddhist and Bön, play a major role in the lives of the Tibetan people, conducting religious ceremonies and taking care of the monasteries. Pilgrims plant their prayer flags onto the sacred grounds as a symbol of good luck. Mani stones in Ladakh, India. ... Not to be confused with Llama. ... Prayer Flags are typically related to Tibet and linked to Tibetan Buddhism, but their origin lies in the Tibetan pre-Buddhist tradition of Bön, just as the the so-called Wind Horse which is often found on them. ...


The prayer wheel is a means of chanting the mantra by revolving the object several times in a clockwise direction. It is widely seen among Tibetan people. In order not to desecrate religious artifacts such as Stupas, mani stones, and Gompas, Tibetan Buddhists walk around them in a clockwise direction, although the reverse direction is true for Bön. Tibetan Buddhists chant the prayer "Om mani padme hum", while the practitioners of Bön chant "Om matri muye sale du". Prayer wheels at Nechung Chok, Lhasa. ... The Great Stupa at Sanchi. ... Gompas are Buddhist temples, located in Tibet, Ladakh (India), Nepal, and Bhutan. ... Bön[1] (Tibetan: བོན་; Wylie: bon; Lhasa dialect IPA: [) is the oldest spiritual tradition of Tibet. ... Om Mani Padme Hum, written in Tibetan, on a rock outside the Potala Palace in Tibet. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Tibet

Tibet boasts a rich culture. Tibetan festivals such as Losar, Shoton, Linka (festival), and the Bathing Festival are deeply rooted in indigenous religion and also contain foreign influences. Each person takes part in the Bathing Festival three times: at birth, at marriage, and at death. It is traditionally believed that people should not bathe casually, but only on the most important occasions. Tibetan women demonstrating use of the butter churn at the Field Museum The Tibetan civilization boasts a rich culture. ... Losar (Tibetan: ལོ་གསར་; Wylie: lo gsar) is the Tibetan word for new year. ...


Art

Tibetan art is deeply religious in nature, from the exquisitely detailed statues found in Gompas to wooden carvings and the intricate designs of the Thangka paintings. Tibetan art can be found in almost every object and every aspect of daily life. Tibetan art refers to the art of Tibet and other present and former Himalayan kingdoms (Bhutan, Ladakh, Nepal, and Sikkim). ... Gompas are Buddhist temples, located in Tibet, Ladakh (India), Nepal, and Bhutan. ... A Thangka is a painted or embroidered Tibetan banner which was hung in a monastery or a family altar and carried by lamas in ceremonial processions. ...


Thangka paintings, a syncretism of Indian scroll-painting with Nepalese and Kashmiri painting, appeared in Tibet around the 8th century. Rectangular and painted on cotton or linen, they usually depict traditional motifs including religious, astrological, and theological subjects, and sometimes the Mandala. To ensure that the image will not fade, organic and mineral pigments are added, and the painting is framed in colorful silk broadcades. A Thangka is a painted or embroidered Tibetan banner which was hung in a monastery or a family altar and carried by lamas in ceremonial processions. ... For the film, see Mandala (film). ...


Drama

The Tibetan folk opera, known as Ache lhamo, which literally means "sister goddess" or "celestial sister," is a combination of dances, chants and songs. The repertoire is drawn from Buddhist stories and Tibetan history.


Tibetan opera was founded in the fourteenth century by Thangthong Gyalpo, a lama and a bridge builder. Gyalpo, and seven girls he recruited, organized the first performance to raise funds for building bridges, which would facilitate transportation in Tibet. The tradition continued uninterrupted for nearly seven hundred years, and performances are held on various festive occasions such as the Lingka and Shoton festival. The performance is usually a drama, held on a barren stage that combines dances, chants, and songs. Colorful masks are sometimes worn to identify a character, with red symbolizing a king and yellow indicating deities and lamas. The performance starts with a stage purification and blessings. A narrator then sings a summary of the story, and the performance begins. Another ritual blessing is conducted at the end of the play. There are also many historical myths/epics written by high lamas about the reincarnation of a "chosen one" who will do great things. This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ...


Architecture

Ladakh landscape is full of chörtens.
Ladakh landscape is full of chörtens.

The most unusual feature of Tibetan architecture is that many of the houses and monasteries are built on elevated, sunny sites facing the south. They are often made out a mixture of rocks, wood, cement and earth. Little fuel is available for heating or lighting, so flat roofs are built to conserve heat, and multiple windows are constructed to let in sunlight. Walls are usually sloped inwards at 10 degrees as a precaution against frequent earthquakes in the mountainous area. Tibetan homes and buildings are white-washed on the outside, and beautifully decorated inside. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1148 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tibetan people User:Deeptrivia/Album Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1148 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tibetan people User:Deeptrivia/Album Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... A stupa in Tibet A stupa (from the Sanskrit) is a type of Buddhist structure found across the Indian subcontinent and Asia. ...


Standing at 117 meters in height and 360 meters in width, the Potala Palace is considered the most important example of Tibetan architecture. Formerly the residence of the Dalai Lama, it contains over a thousand rooms within thirteen stories and houses portraits of the past Dalai Lamas and statues of the Buddha. It is divided between the outer White Palace, which serves as the administrative quarters, and the inner Red Quarters, which houses the assembly hall of the Lamas, chapels, 10,000 shrines, and a vast library of Buddhist scriptures. The Potala Palace (Tibetan: པོ་ཏ་ལ; Wylie: Po ta la) is located in Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ...


Medicine

Tibetan medicine is one of the oldest forms in the world. It utilizes up to two thousand types of plants, forty animal species, and fifty minerals. One of the key figures in its development was the renowned eighth century physician Yutok Yonten Gonpo, who produced the Four Medical Tantras integrating material from the medical traditions of Persia, India and China. The tantras contained a total of 156 chapters in the form of Thangkas, which tell about the archaic Tibetan medicine and the essences of medicines in other places. Tibetan medicine is a centuries-old traditional medical system that employs a complex approach to diagnosis, incorporating techniques such as pulse analysis and urinalysis, and utilizes behavior and dietary modification, medicines composed of natural materials (e. ...


Yutok Yonten Gonpo's descendant, Yuthok Sarma Yonten Gonpo, further consolidated the tradition by adding eighteen medical works. One of his books includes paintings depicting the resetting of a broken bone. In addition, he compiled a set of anatomical pictures of internal organs.


Cuisine

The Cuisine of Tibet reflect the rich heritage of the country and people's adaptation to high altitude and religious culinary restricitions. The most important crop is barley. Dough made from barley flour, called tsampa, is the staple food of Tibet. This is either rolled into noodles or made into steamed dumplings called momos. Meat dishes are likely to be yak, goat, or mutton, often dried, or cooked into a spicy stew with potatoes. Mustard seed is cultivated in Tibet, and therefore features heavily in its cuisine. Yak yoghurt, butter and cheese are frequently eaten, and well-prepared yoghurt is considered something of a prestige item. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Tsampa (Tibetan: rtsam pa) is a Tibetan staple foodstuff, particularly prominent in the central part of the country. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... This page has been successfully copied to the Wikibooks Cookbook using the Import tool. ... This article is about the food. ... For other uses, see Yak (disambiguation). ... This article is about the domestic species. ... Mutton may refer to either: The meat of a sheep In parts of Asia, the meat of a goat Category: ... Beef Stew A stew is a common dish made of vegetables (particularly potatoes or beans), meat, poultry, or seafood cooked in some sort of broth or sauce. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Mustard seeds are small, about 1mm in diameter. ... Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt (see spelling below), is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ...


Life cycles

Elderly pilgrim, Tsurphu Monastery, 1993
Elderly pilgrim, Tsurphu Monastery, 1993

There is a strong belief amongst Tibetans in reincarnation, including the Buddhist concept of Bardo during post-mortem. Religious ceremonies relating to birth and death are conducted at appropriate times, many stemming from rituals of the ancient Bön religion, though they have been changed over time to accommodate more prevalent Buddhist practise. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 366 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (511 × 837 pixel, file size: 73 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photo myself in 1993. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 366 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (511 × 837 pixel, file size: 73 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photo myself in 1993. ... Tsurphu (mTshur phu)is the seat of the Karmapas in the Tolung area of Central Tibet in the Dowo Lung valley,70 km from Lhasa. ... This article is about the theological concept. ... The Tibetan word Bardo means literally intermediate state - also translated as transitional state or in-between state. In Sanskrit the concept has the name antarabhāva. ... Bön[1] (Tibetan: བོན་; Wylie: bon; Lhasa dialect IPA: [) is the oldest spiritual tradition of Tibet. ...


During the birth ceremony of Pangsai, relatives come together for celebration and ritual. Gifts are presented to the parents and infant, including food, clothing, and white khada scarves. A pancake feast may also be prepared for the visitors. It is the usual custom that a high-ranking lama is also present to name the baby. A khata, (also khada, khatag or khatak; or from Chinese, hada (哈达)) is a traditional ceremonial scarf given in Tibet. ...


At death, Tibetans are given either cremated or given a "sky burial", which is believed to take the spirit of the dead safely to heaven. Before the sky burial, the body is wrapped in a white cloth and kept in the house for up to seven days while lamas chant sutras to alleviate the punishments for sins committed while alive. A red jar containing tsampa dough mixed with blood and other food products is decorated with a white khada and hung at the door of the house. The friends of the deceased also mourn, bringing pots of wine a day before the removal of the body. A khata, (also khada, khatag or khatak; or from Chinese, hada (哈达)) is a traditional ceremonial scarf given in Tibet. ...


On the day of the funeral, a sky-funeral master arrives to carry the deceased body up to the burial ground, with friends and a lama following closely behind. The master rips open the body of the deceased, then calls for the vultures to devour it. The skeleton is hammered into pieces as finely as possible for the vultures to eat. Sometimes flour is added at the end to mix the bone with the flesh. At a good sky funeral the whole body (including the bones) are eaten by the vultures. This means that the deceased was a pure person. The skull is kept at the site.


Tibetans believe that the vultures have the power to bring the spirit of the body to heaven. In the event that the vultures do not eat the body, or devour only a portion of it, It is believed that the person committed serious sins and is doomed to a tenure in one of the hells. If the vultures devour every part of the body or at least the majority of it, however, the soul continues on into a purer rebirth. Beliefs as to whether or not the soul rises into Nirvana differ depending on the local religious school of Buddhism and region.[citation needed] This article is about the Buddhist concept. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ...


Clothing

Most Tibetans wear their hair long, although in recent times due to the Chinese influence, some men do crop their hair short. The women plait their hair into two queues, the girls into a single queue. Actor Jet Li wearing the Imperial Queue hairstyle in a movie The queue (or cue) was a specific hairstyle worn by the Manchus of central Manchuria and later the Chinese, in China. ...


Because of Tibet's cold weather, the men and women wear thick long dresses (chuba's). The men wear a shorter version with pants underneath. The style of the clothing varies between regions. Nomads often wear thick sheepskin chuba's.


Marriage customs

Polyandry is practiced in some parts of Tibet, where a woman may marry brothers. This is usually done to avoid division of property and provide financial security. However, monogamy is more common throughout Tibet. Marriages are sometimes arranged by the parents, if the son or daughter has not picked their own partner by a certain age.


Since the late nineteenth century, the Chinese presence in Eastern Tibet has increased, however mixed marriages between Tibetans and Chinese are still not very common. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

The history of Tibetans in the United States is relatively short, as the remote kingdom of Tibet for centuries had few relations with other countries. ... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people... The Balti are a people of Tibetan descent with some Dardic admixture whose population of 300,000 is found in Pakistani-controlled Baltistan (a former district of Ladakh); and in Kargil and Leh districts of Ladakh, a region in Indian-controlled Jammu & Kashmir. ... The Burig, or Purik, are another group of Tibetan Muslims who live south of the Balti in Kashmir. ... The Monpa (Chinese: 门巴族, ménbàzú, Tibetan: མོན་པ།) are an ethnic group of Tibetan descent in the Indian territory of Arunachal Pradesh, with a population of 50,000, centered in the districts of Tawang and West Kameng. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Source List and Detailed Death Tolls for the Twentieth Century Hemoclysm
  2. ^ "Special Blood allows Tibetans to live the high life." New Scientist. 3 November 2007, p. 19.
  3. ^ "Elevated nitric oxide in blood is key to high altitude function for Tibetans."[1]
  4. ^ "Tibetans Get Their Blood Flowing"[2]
  5. ^ "Nitric oxide and cardiopulmonary hemodynamics in Tibetan highlanders."[3]

References

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ...

External links

The following is a list of ethnic groups in China. ... The Achang (阿昌族), also known as the Ngacang (their own name) or Maingtha (Burmese name) are an ethnic group. ... Bamileke languages (ISO 639 alpha-3, bai) Bye - k thx bai Baccalaureus in Arte Ingeniaria Band Aid (band) BAI - Soviet early armoured car, predecessor of BA-6 Bai, a Chinese ethnic group, and their Bai language Banco Africano de Investimentos, in Angola BAI the official name of ferry company Brittany... The Blang (布朗族 : BùlÇŽng Zú) (also spelled Bulong) people are an ethnic group. ... The Bonan (also Baoan) people (保安族; pinyin: bÇŽoān zú) are an ethnic group living in Gansu and Qinghai provinces in northwestern China. ... Buyei minority Shitou village, west Guizhou The Buyei (also spelled Puyi, Bouyei and Buyi; self called: Buxqyaix, IPA: [], or Puzhong, Burao, Puman; Chinese: 布依族; Pinyin: BùyÄ«zú) are an ethnic group living in southern China. ... The Dai (or the Thai peoples of China) is the officially recognized name of an ethnic group living in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture and the Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture (both in southern Yunnan Province of China), and also in Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, and Myanmar. ... The Daur people (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; the former name Dahur is considered derogatory) are an ethnic group. ... The Deang (德昂族 : Déáng Zú) (also spelled Deang) people are an ethnic group. ... The Derung people (also spelled Drung or Dulong; own name in IPA: [tɯɹɯŋ]; Chinese: 独龙族, Pinyin: Dúlóngzú) are an ethnic group. ... Dong Minority Bridge, Chenyang, Guangxi, China. ... The Dongxiang people (autonym: Sarta or Santa (撒尔塔); Simplified Chinese: 东乡族 Traditional Chinese︰東鄉族; Pinyin: Dōngxiāngzú) are one of 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Evenks or Evenki (obsolete: Tungus or Tunguz, autonym: Эвэнки, Evenki) are a nomadic Tungusic people of Northern Asia. ... Total population 2006: 458,000 (CIP 2006) 2004: 454,600 (CIP 2004) Homelands in Taiwan Mountainous terrain running in five ranges from the northern to the southern tip of the island Narrow eastern plains Orchid Island (Lán YÇ”) Languages 14 living Formosan languages. ... The Gelao people (own name: Klau, Chinese: 仡佬族 Gēlǎozú) are an ethnic group. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Typical daily attire of ethnic Hani in China. ... The Nanai people (self name нани; tr. ... The Hui (回) ethnic group is unrelated to the Hui (å¾½) dialects. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The Jingpo or Kachin people (Chinese: 景颇族 Jǐngpōzú; own names: Jingpo, Tsaiva, Lechi) are an ethnic group who largely inhabit northern Myanmar (Kachin State). ... The Jino (also spelled Jinuo) people (Chinese: 基诺族 JÄ«nuòzú; own name: tÉ•yno or kino) are an ethnic group. ... Languages Kazakh (and/or languages in country of residence) Religions Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар []; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia, and... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ... Lahu girls The Lahu people (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; own names: Ladhulsi or Kawzhawd; Vietnamese: La Hủ) are an ethnic group of Southeast Asia. ... Languages Lhoba, Tibetan Religions Animism Tibetan Buddhist (primarily in Tibet) An entry was temporarily removed here. ... Li (黎; pinyin Lí:李) or Hlai is a minority Chinese ethnic group. ... It has been suggested that Lisu Church be merged into this article or section. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... The Maonan (self name: Anan meaning local people) people are an ethnic group. ... The Hmong, also known as Miao (Chinese: 苗: Miáo; Vietnamese: Mẹo or Hmông; Thai: ม้ง (mong) or แม้ว (maew)), are an Asian ethnic group whose homeland is in the mountainous regions of southern China (especially Guizhou) that cross into northern Southeast Asia (northern Vietnam and Laos). ... The Monpa (Chinese: 门巴族, ménbàzú, Tibetan: མོན་པ།) are an ethnic group of Tibetan descent in the Indian territory of Arunachal Pradesh, with a population of 50,000, centered in the districts of Tawang and West Kameng. ... Ethnic Mongols in China (Chinese: 蒙古族) are citizens of the Peoples Republic of China who are ethnic Mongols. ... The Mulao (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; own name: Mulam) people are an ethnic group. ... The Nakhi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are an ethnic group inhabiting the foothills of the Himalayas in the northwestern part of Yunnan Province, as well as the southwestern part of Sichuan Province in China. ... The Nu people (Chinese: ; pinyin: Nùzú) are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Oroqen people(鄂伦春族) are an ethnic group in northern China. ... The Pumi people (Chinese: 普米族 Pǔmǐzú, own name: /phʐẽmi/) are an ethnic group. ... The Qiang people (羌族; Pinyin: qiāng zú) are an ethnic group. ... The Salar people (Chinese: 撒拉族, Pinyin: Sālāzú) are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The She (畲) people are an ethnic group. ... The Shui people (Chinese: ; pinyin: Shuǐzú) are an ethnic group living in the Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan areas of southwestern China. ... Tajiks in China (Chinese: 塔吉克族, Pinyin: ) are one of the 56 nationalities officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Chinese Tatars (塔塔尔族 TÇŽtÇŽÄ›rzú) form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Tu (土) people are an ethnic group. ... The Tujia (土家族) are an ethnic group numbering about 8 million, living in the Wuling Mountains of Chinas Hunan and Hubei provinces. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... The Va nationality (also spelled Wa; Chinese: 佤族 WÇŽzú; own names: Va, Ava, Parauk, i. ... The Xibe ( Sibe; Chinese, 錫伯 XÄ«bó) are an ethnic group living mostly in northeast China and Xinjiang. ... This article is about the Yao ethnic group in Asia. ... The Yi people (own name in the Liangshan dialect: ꆈꌠ, official transcription: Nuosu, IPA: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; the older name Lolo is now considered derogatory in China, though used officially in Vietnam as Lô Lô and in Thailand as Lolo) are a modern ethnic group in China, Vietnam, and Thailand. ... The Yugur people are an ethnic group. ... The Zhuang (Simplified Chinese: 壮族; Traditional Chinese: 壯族; Hanyu Pinyin: ; own name: BouчcueÅ‹ÑŒ/Bouxcuengh) are an ethnic group of people who mostly live in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. ... Undistinguished ethnic groups in China (未识别民族: Wèi Shíbié Mínzú; sometimes translated as Undistinguished nationalities) are ethnic groups in the Peoples Republic of China that have not been officially recognised as individual ethnic groups. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tibetan Mass Movement - TYC (1346 words)
Although the Tibetan people did not agree to the terms of the agreement, His Holiness the Dalai Lama, the political and spiritual leader of the Tibetan people, saw the agreement as a necessary compromise to reconcile with the PRC government in order to avoid continued violence.
The failure of these demonstrations to achieve all of their goals is due in large part to the lack of voluntary participation by the Tibetan people on a massive scale.
Thus, as the Tibetan nation is on the verge of extinction and Tibetans everywhere face many hardships, it is time for all Tibetans to come together and participate in a massive public movement in order to bring the Tibetan struggle to a new level.
Tibetan Institute of Performing Arts (1214 words)
The Tibetan furred robe is very bulky and said to have enough room to accommodate a five or six-year old child in winter.
Tibetan people like to be richly bejewelled, and regard dress and adornment as the symbol of wealth and beauty.
Tibetan people make lavish use of the colours red, yellow, orange, blue, and dark green for articles of personal adornment, which also reflects the Buddhist influence, as Sakyamuni wears a yellow kasaya, Guru Rinpoche wears a red hat, and Master Tsongkhapa wears a yellow hat.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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