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Encyclopedia > Tibetan Buddhism

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Buddhism
Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ...



Image File history File links Lotus-buddha. ...

History
The History of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ...

Timeline· Buddhist councils
563 BCE: Siddhārtha Gautama, Buddha-to-be, is born in Lumbini, Ancient India. ... // Main article: First Buddhist council Ananda reciting the Sutta Pitaka According to the scriptures of all Buddhist schools, the first Buddhist Council was held soon after the nirvana of the Buddha under the patronage of king Ajatasatru, and presided by the monk Mahakasyapa, at Rajagaha (todays Rajgir). ...

Foundations
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ...

Four Noble Truths
Noble Eightfold Path
Buddhist Precepts
Nirvana · Three Jewels
The Four Noble Truths (Pali: Cattāri ariyasaccāni, Sanskrit: Catvāri āryasatyāni, Chinese: Sìshèngdì, Thai: อริยสัจสี่, Ariyasaj Sii) are one of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings. ... Eightfold Path redirects here. ... Śīla (Sanskrit) or sīla (Pāli) is usually rendered into English as behavioral discipline, morality, or ethics. ... Symbol of the triratna, as seen in the Sanchi stupa, 1st century BCE. The Three Jewels, also rendered as Three Treasures, Three Refuges or Triple Gem are the three things that Buddhists give themselves to, and in return look toward for guidance, in the process known as taking refuge. ...

Key Concepts
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ...

Three marks of existence
Skandha · Cosmology
Samsara · Rebirth · Dharma
Dependent Origination · Karma
According to the Buddhist tradition, all phenomena (dharmas) are marked by three characteristics, sometimes referred to as the Dharma seals, that is dukkha (suffering), anicca (impermanence), and anatta (non-Self). ... The skandhas (Sanskrit: Pāli: Khandha; literally: heap or bundle) are the five constituents or aggregates through which the functioning and experience of an individual is created according to Buddhist phenomenology. ... Buddhist cosmology is the description of the shape and evolution of the universe according to the canonical Buddhist scriptures and commentaries. ... For other uses, see Samsara (disambiguation). ... Rebirth in Buddhism is the doctrine that the consciousness of a person (as conventionally regarded), upon the death or dissolution of the aggregates (skandhas) which make up that person, becomes one of the contributing causes for the arising of a new group of skandhas which may again be conventionally considered... Dharma (Sanskrit: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pāli: धम्म) in Buddhism has two primary meanings: the teachings of the Buddha which lead to enlightenment the constituent factors of the experienced world In East Asia, the character for Dharma is 法, pronounced fǎ in Mandarin and hō in Japanese. ... The doctrine of Pratītyasamutpāda (Sanskrit: ) or Paticcasamuppāda, Pali: ; Tibetan: ; Chinese: ) Dependent Arising is an important part of Buddhist metaphysics. ... Karma (Sanskrit: कर्मन karman, Pāli: कमा Kamma) means action or doing; whatever one does, says, or thinks is a karma. ...

Major Figures
A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ...

Gautama Buddha
Disciples · Later Buddhists Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ...

Practices and Attainment

Buddhahood · Bodhisattva
Four Stages of Enlightenment
Paramitas · Meditation · Laity
Bodhi (Pali and Sanskrit. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... The four stages of enlightenment in Buddhism are the four degrees of approach to full enlightenment as an Arahant which a person can attain in this life. ... Pāramitā or PāramÄ« (Sanskrit and Pāli respectively): Perfection or Transcendent. In Buddhism & Jainism, the Paramitas refer to the perfection or culmination of certain practices. ... Buddhist meditation encompasses a variety of meditation techniques that develop mindfulness, concentration, tranquility and insight. ... In canonical Buddhism, householder refers to a particular strata of society whose individuals are typified by having a home life and family. ...

Countries/Regions
Buddhism - Percentage by country The percentage of Buddhist population of each country was taken from the US State Departments International Religious Freedom Report 2004 [1]. Other sources used were CIA Factbook [2] and adherents. ... Buddhist beliefs and practices vary according to region. ...

Bhutan · Cambodia · China
India · Indonesia · Japan
Korea · Laos · Malaysia
Mongolia · Myanmar · Nepal
Singapore · Sri Lanka
Thailand · Tibet · Vietnam
Western countries The grounds of Koreas Buryeongsa Temple. ... Buddhism in Myanmar is predominantly of the Theravada tradition or the southern school. ... The Indo-Greek king Menander (155-130 BCE) is the first Western historical figure documented to have converted to Buddhism. ...

Branches

Theravāda · Mahāyāna
Vajrayāna
Early and Pre-sectarian Theravada (Pāli: theravāda (cf Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda); literally, the Teaching of the Elders, or the Ancient Teaching) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Vajrayāna Buddhism (Also known as Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayana, Mantrayana, Mantranaya, Esoteric Buddhism, Diamond Vehicle, or 金剛乘 Jingangcheng in Chinese; however, these terms are not always regarded as equivalent: one scholar[1] speaks of the tantra divisions of some editions of the Kangyur as including Sravakayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana texts) is... Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ... The term pre-sectarian Buddhism is used to refer to the Buddhism that existed before the various subsects of Buddhism came into being. ...

Texts
Chinese Song Period Maha-prajna-paramita Sutra Page The texts can be categorized in a number of ways, but the most fundamental division is that between canonical and non-canonical texts. ...

Pali Canon · Mahayana Sutras
Tibetan Canon Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Mahayana Sutras Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of... The Tibetan Buddhist canon is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various sects of Tibetan Buddhism. ...

Comparative Studies
Culture · List of topics
Portal: Buddhism
The cultural elements of Buddhism vary by region and include: Buddhist cuisine Buddhist art Buddharupa Art and architecture of Japan Greco-Buddhism Tibetan Buddhist sacred art Buddhist music Buddhist chant Shomyo Categories: Buddhism-related stubs ... Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The following is a List of Buddhist topics: A Abhidharma Ahimsa Ajahn Ajahn Chah Ajanta Aksobhya Alexandra David-Néel...

Image File history File links Dharma_wheel. ...

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Tibetan Buddhism[1] is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and the Himalayan regions, which include northern Nepal, Bhutan, India (Arunachal Pradesh, Ladakh and Sikkim), Mongolia, Russia (Kalmykia, Buryatia and Tuva) and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). It includes the teachings of the three vehicles (or yanas in Sanskrit) of Buddhism: Hinayana, Mahayana, and Vajrayana. Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... , Arunachal Pradesh   (Hindi:   ) is the easternmost state of India. ... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people... , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: ; Kalmyk: Хальмг Таңһч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Buryat Republic (Russian: ; Buryat: Буряад Республика) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Tyva Republic IPA: (Russian: IPA: ; Tuvan: ), or Tuva (), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Heilongjiang (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江省; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江省; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Heilungkiang) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ... For the city, see Jilin City. ... Yana is a Sanskrit word with a range of meanings including nouns such as vehicle, journey, and path; and verbs such as going, moving, riding, and marching. ... Hinayana (Sanskrit: inferior vehicle; Chinese:小乘, Xiǎoshèng; Japanese: Shōjō) is a term coined by the Mahayana, which appeared publicly around the 1st century CE. There are differing views on the use and meaning of the term, both among scholars and within Buddhism. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Vajrayāna Buddhism (Also known as Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayana, Mantrayana, Mantranaya, Esoteric Buddhism, Diamond Vehicle, or 金剛乘 Jingangcheng in Chinese; however, these terms are not always regarded as equivalent: one scholar[1] speaks of the tantra divisions of some editions of the Kangyur as including Sravakayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana texts) is...


The occupation of Tibet by People's Republic of China began in 1950 and led to armed conflicts in late 1950's. The failed rebellion resulted in the Tibetan diaspora, which in turn eventually led to the spread of Tibetan Buddhism to many Western countries, where the tradition has gained great popularity.


Verhaegen (2002: p.28) frames the political and economical dynamic within the evolving context of Tibetan Buddhism:

Being politically involved from its very beginning in Tibet, Tibetan Buddhism's various schools and sub-sects, in order to further their own interests, had become allied with the hereditary nobility. The aristocratic families, seeking power, influence, and support, increasingly became the secular arms of the monasteries and sects they supported. In time, as the monasteries became increasingly economic and political entities, their power often eclipsed that of their patrons.[2][3]

Contents

Introduction

Founder of Tibetan Buddhism: Guru Rinpoche - Padmasambhava
Founder of Tibetan Buddhism: Guru Rinpoche - Padmasambhava

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... A picture I, John Hill, took in 2004 at the new Urgyen Sanag Choling Gompa (dedicated by H.H. The Dalai Lama on 8 June, 2004), near Kulu, H.P., India. ... A picture I, John Hill, took in 2004 at the new Urgyen Sanag Choling Gompa (dedicated by H.H. The Dalai Lama on 8 June, 2004), near Kulu, H.P., India. ... Guru Rinpoche - Padmasambhava statue - near Kullu, India Guru Rinpoche, the patron saint of Sikkim. ...

The Buddha Ideal

Tibetan Buddhism is a Mahayana tradition. Its ideal goal in spiritual development is to achieve the enlightenment of Buddhahood in order to most efficiently help all other sentient beings attain this state.[4]. Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ...


Buddhahood is sometimes partially defined as a state of omniscience[5]


When, in Buddhahood, one is freed from all mental obscurations, one is said to attain a state of continuous bliss, mixed with a simultaneous cognition of emptiness, the true nature of reality[6]. In this state, all limitations on one's ability to help other living beings are removed[7].


There are said to be countless beings who have attained Buddhahood[8]. Buddhas spontaneously, naturally and continuously perform activities to benefit all sentient beings[9]. However it is believed that sentient beings' karmas[10] limit the ability of the Buddhas to help them. Thus, although Buddhas possess no limitation from their side on their ability to help others, sentient beings continue to experience suffering as a result of the limitations of their own former negative actions[11]. For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ...


Native Tibetan Developments

Some have emphasised minor Tibetan innovations such as the system of incarnate lamas dating from the last two centuries [12], but such genuine innovations have been few[13]. True to its roots in the Pala system of India, however, Tibetans carried on a tradition of eclectic accumulation and systematisation of diverse Buddhist elements and evolved their synthesis into an art-form. Prominent among these achievements are the Stages of the Path and motivational training.


Stages of the Path (lamrim, lam-rim)

Atisha's Bodhipathapradipa (byang-chhub lam-gyi sgron-ma)


Motivational Training (lojong)Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; refs with no name must have content

lineages of motivational training

origins in sutra, [[Bodhicaryavatara]], etc Kadampa, prominent exponents The Kadampa (Bka-gdams-pa) Tradition was a Tibetan Mahayana Buddhist school. ...


features of motivational training

method of motivational training

Vajrayana

Main article: Vajrayana

Tibetan Mahayana Buddhism encompasses Vajrayana. It is said that Vajrayana practice is the fastest method for attaining Buddhahood, however this is only the case for advanced practitioners who have a solid and reliable grounding in the preliminary practices (which may be categorized as renunciation, Bodhicitta and Wisdom, specifically, the wisdom realizing emptiness). For practitioners who are not qualified, Vajrayana practice can be very dangerous, and will only lead to increased ego problems and more suffering if it is not practiced with the pure motivation of Bodhicitta. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Vajrayāna Buddhism (Also known as Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayana, Mantrayana, Mantranaya, Esoteric Buddhism, Diamond Vehicle, or 金剛乘 Jingangcheng in Chinese; however, these terms are not always regarded as equivalent: one scholar[1] speaks of the tantra divisions of some editions of the Kangyur as including Sravakayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana texts) is... Vajrayāna Buddhism (Also known as Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayana, Mantrayana, Mantranaya, Esoteric Buddhism, Diamond Vehicle, or 金剛乘 Jingangcheng in Chinese; however, these terms are not always regarded as equivalent: one scholar[1] speaks of the tantra divisions of some editions of the Kangyur as including Sravakayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana texts) is...


Even for the qualified advanced practitioner, a specific Vajrayana practice should only ever be followed on the basis of receiving the appropriate initiation (also known as an empowerment) from a lama who is fully qualified to give that initiation.


Schools of Tibetan Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism has four main traditions (the suffix pa is comparable to "er" in English):

  • Kagyu(pa), Oral Lineage. This contains one major subsect and one minor subsect. The first, the Dagpo Kagyu, encompasses those Kagyu schools that trace back to Gampopa. In turn, the Dagpo Kagyu consists of four major sub-sects: the Karma Kagyu, headed by a Karmapa, the Tsalpa Kagyu, the Barom Kagyu, and Pagtru Kagyu. There are further eight minor sub-sects, all of which trace their root to Pagtru Kagyu. Among the eight sub-sects the most notable of are the Drikung Kagyu and the Drukpa Kagyu. The once-obscure Shangpa Kagyu, which was famously represented by the 20th century teacher Kalu Rinpoche, traces its history back to the Indian master Niguma, sister of Kagyu lineage holder Naropa. This is an oral tradition which is very much concerned with the experiential dimension of meditation. Its most famous exponent was Milarepa, an eleventh century mystic.
  • Sakya(pa), Grey Earth, headed by the Sakya Trizin, founded by Khon Konchog Gyalpo, a disciple of the great translator Drokmi Lotsawa. Sakya Pandita 1182–1251CE was the great grandson of Khon Konchog Gyalpo. This school very much represents the scholarly tradition.
  • Gelug(pa), Way of Virtue, also known casually as Yellow Hat, whose spiritual head is the Ganden Tripa and whose temporal, the Dalai Lama. Successive Dalai Lamas ruled Tibet from the mid-17th to mid-20th centuries. This order was founded in the 14th to 15th century by Je Tsongkhapa, based on the foundations of the Kadampa tradition. Tsongkhapa was renowned for both his scholasticism and his virtue. The Dalai Lama belongs to the Gelugpa school, and is regarded as the embodiment of the Bodhisattva of Compassion[1].

See Tibetan Buddhist canon for texts recognized as scripture and commentary. Guru Rinpoche - Padmasambhava statue - near Kullu, India The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism (the other three being the Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug). ... Guru Rinpoche - Padmasambhava statue - near Kullu, India Guru Rinpoche, the patron saint of Sikkim. ... The Kagyu (Tibetan: བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་; Wylie: Bka-brgyud) school, also known as the Oral Lineage and the Spotless Practice Lineage school, is one of four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism, the other three being Nyingma (Rnying-ma), Sakya (Sa-skya), and Gelug (Dge-lugs). ... Gampopa or Dakpo Rinpoche (1016-1053) was the formost student of the Tibetan Buddhist teacher Milarepa. ... Karma Kagyu is the largest lineage of the Kagyu school, one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. ... The 16th Karmapa, Rangjung Rigpe Dorje (1924 - 1981) The Karmapa (officially His Holiness the Gyalwa Karmapa) is the head of the Karma Kagyu, the largest sub-school of the Kagyupa (Tib. ... Drigung Kagyu or Drikung Kagyu or is one of the eight minor lineages of the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism. ... The Drukpa is a major sect within the Kagyupa school of Tibetan Buddhism. ... The Shangpa Kagyu is a relatively obscure sub-sect of the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism. ... Kyabje Dorje Chang Kalu Rinpoche, usually called Kalu Rinpoche (1905 - May 10, 1989) was a Buddhist meditation master, scholar and teacher. ... Naropa (Tibetan; Sanskrit: Nadaprada, 1016-1100) was an Indian Buddhist mystic and monk, the pupil of Tilopa and brother, or some sources say partner, of Niguma. ... Sakya is one of four major schools (Nyingma, Sakya, Kagyu and Gelug) in Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana). ... The 41st Sakya Trizin Sakya Trizin is the head of the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism The spiritual leadership of the Sakya school is controlled by the descendants of the Köhn family, who around 750 got into contact with Buddhism and who were taught by Padmasambhava. ... Sakya Pandita (1182--1251) was a Tibetan sprititual leader and Buddhistscholar and the fourth of the Five Venerable Supreme Sakya Masters of Tibet. ... The Geluk (dge lugs) School was founded by Tsongkhapa (1357-1419), Tibets best known religious reformer and arguably its greatest philosopher. ... The Ganden Tripa (Holder of the Ganden Throne; Wylie: Dga-ldan Khri-pa) is the title of the spiritual leader of the Gelug (Dge-lugs) school of Tibetan Buddhism, the school which controlled central Tibet from the mid-1600s until 1950. ... This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Je Tsongkhapa (Tsong-kha-pa) in the fifth vison of Khedrub Jey (Mkhas-grub) Tsongkhapa (Tibetan: ཙོང་ཁ་པ་; Wylie: Tsong-kha-pa) (1357 - 1419) , whose name means The Man from Onion Valley, was the founder of the Geluk (Dge-lugs) school of Tibetan Buddhism. ... The Kadampa (Bka-gdams-pa) Tradition was a Tibetan Mahayana Buddhist school. ... The Tibetan Buddhist canon is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various sects of Tibetan Buddhism. ...


Red Hat and Yellow Hat Sects, Ka'ma and Sarma traditions

The schools are sometimes divided into the "Old Translation", or Nyingma, and "New Translation" (Sarma) traditions, with the Kagyu, Sakya and Kadam/Gelug among the latter. They are also sometimes classified as "Red Hat" and "Yellow Hat" schools, with the Nyingma, Kagyu and Sakya among the former and the Gelug comprising the latter. The terms "Old Translation" and "New Translation" particularly relate to translations and lineages of various Tantric texts. Guru Rinpoche - Padmasambhava statue - near Kullu, India The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism (the other three being the Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug). ... In Tibetan Buddhism, the Sarma (new translation) schools include the three newest of the four main schools, comprising: Kagyu Sakya Kadam/Geluk The Nyingma school is the sole Kama, or old translation, school. ... In Tibetan Buddhism, the Red Hat sects or schools include the three oldest of the four main schools, to wit: Nyingma Sakya Kagyu The newer Gelugpa school is known as the Yellow Hat Sect. This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Bön and other movements

Besides the above main schools, there are a number of minor ones like Jonang. The Jonangpa were suppressed by the rival Gelukpa in the 1600s and were once thought extinct, but are now known to survive in Eastern Tibet. The Jonang or Jonangpa school of Tibetan Buddhism was founded in the early 14th century by Sherab Gyeltsen, a monk trained in the Sakyapa school. ... The Jonang or Jonangpa school of Tibetan Buddhism was founded in the early 14th century by Sherab Gyeltsen, a monk trained in the Sakyapa school. ... The Geluk (dge lugs) School was founded by Tsongkhapa (1357-1419), Tibets best known religious reformer and arguably its greatest philosopher. ... Situation of the east Tibetan region of Kham Kham (Wylie transliteration: Khams; Tibetan: ཁམས; Simplified Chinese: 康; Pinyin: Kāng) province is one of several provinces comprising traditional Tibet (the others are Amdo and Ü-Tsang). ...


There is also an ecumenical movement known as Rime (alternative spelling:Rimed). The word ecumenical comes from a Greek word that means pertaining to the whole world. ... The Rimé movement (Wylie: Ris-Med) is a Buddhist school of thought founded in Eastern Tibet during the late 19th century largely by Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo and Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Thaye, the latter of whom is often respected as the founder proper. ...


The Bön religion, which predated Buddhism in Tibet, has now been formally honoured by the Dalai Lama as the fifth religious tradition of Tibet. Bön practitioners honour Tonpa Shenrab Miwoche as their founder instead of Shakyamuni Buddha. Bön[1] (Tibetan: བོན་; Wylie: bon; Lhasa dialect IPA: [) is the oldest spiritual tradition of Tibet. ... THE LIFE OF TONPA SHENRAB The founder of the Bon religion, the Lord Shenrab Miwo, was one of three brothers, Dagpa, Salba and Shepa. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ...


Study of tenet systems in Tibetan Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhists practise one or more understandings of the true nature of reality, the emptiness of all things. Emptiness is propounded according to four classical Indian schools of philosophical tenets.


Two belong to the older Hinayana path (Skt. for Lesser Vehicle, Tib. theg dman). (Hinayana is sometimes referred to as Śravakayāna (Skt. Vehicle of Hearers) because "lesser" may be considered derogatory): Hinayana (Sanskrit: inferior vehicle; Chinese:小乘, Xiǎoshèng; Japanese: Shōjō) is a term coined by the Mahayana, which appeared publicly around the 1st century CE. There are differing views on the use and meaning of the term, both among scholars and within Buddhism. ... Hinayana (Sanskrit: inferior vehicle; Chinese:小乘, Xiǎoshèng; Japanese: Shōjō) is a term coined by the Mahayana, which appeared publicly around the 1st century CE. There are differing views on the use and meaning of the term, both among scholars and within Buddhism. ... Śravakayāna is a term used by some Mahayana Buddhists to describe one hypothetical path to enlightenment: the vehicle of hearers [i. ...

  • Vaibhasika (Tib. bye-brag smra-ba)
  • Sautrantika (Tib. mdo-sde-pa)

The primary source for the former is the Abhidharmakosha by Vasubandhu and commentaries. The Abhidharmakosha is also an important source for the Sautrantikas. Dignaga and Dharmakirti are the most prominent exponents. The Sautrāntika school of Buddhism split from the Sarvāstivādins sometime between 50 BCE and c. ... Abhidharma-koÅ›a (the compendium of Abhidharma) is a key text in verse written in Sanskrit by Vasubandhu. ... Vasubandhu (Sanskrit. ... Abhidharma-koÅ›a (the compendium of Abhidharma) is a key text in verse written in Sanskrit by Vasubandhu. ... Dignāga (5th century AD), was an Indian scholar and one of the Buddhist founders of Indian philosophical logic. ... Dharmakirti (circa 7th century), was an Indian scholar and one of the Buddhist founders of Indian philosophical logic. ...


The other two are Mahayana (Skt. Greater Vehicle) (Tib. theg-chen): Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ...

Yogacarin base their views on texts from Maitreya, Asanga and Vasubandhu, Madhyamikas on Nagarjuna and Aryadeva. There is a further classification of Madhyamaka into Svatantrika-Madhyamaka and Prasangika-Madhyamaka. The former stems from Bhavaviveka, Santaraksita and Kamalashila, and the latter from Buddhapalita and Chandrakirti. Yogācāra (Sanskrit: yoga practice), also spelled yogāchāra, is an influential school of philosophy and psychology that developed in Indian Mahayana Buddhism starting sometime in the fourth to fifth centuries C.E., also commonly known as consciousness-only or mind-only (Sanskrit: cittamātra) (although scholars increasingly... Yogācāra (Sanskrit: yoga practice), also spelled yogāchāra, is an influential school of philosophy and psychology that developed in Indian Mahayana Buddhism starting sometime in the fourth to fifth centuries C.E., also commonly known as Consciousness-only (Sanskrit: Chittamatra). ... Madhyamaka (Also known as Åšunyavada) is a Buddhist Mahayāna tradition popularized by Nāgārjuna and AÅ›vaghoá¹£a. ... This article is about the Buddhist bodhisattva Maitreya. ... Asanga (also called Aryasanga), born around 300 C.E., was a great exponent of the Yogacara. ... Vasubandhu (Sanskrit. ... For other uses, see Nagarjuna (disambiguation). ... Aryadeva (3rd Century CE), was a disciple of Nagarjuna and author of several important Mahayana Madhyamaka Buddhist texts. ... Bhavaviveka was the founder of the Svatantrika tradition of the Madhyamaka school of Buddhism. ... Buddhapalita (470–550), was a commentator on the works of Nagarjuna and Aryadeva, his works were mildly criticised by his contemporary Bhavaviveka, and then he was vigorously defended by the later Candrakirti, whose terms differentiating the two scholars led to the rise of the Prasaá¹…gika and Svatantrika schools of... Candrakīrti (born approx. ...


The tenet system is used in the monasteries and colleges to teach Buddhist philosophy in a systematic and progressive fashion, each philosophical view being more subtle than its predecessor. Therefore the four schools can be seen as a gradual path from a rather easy-to-grasp, "realistic" philosophical point of view, to more and more complex and subtle views on the ultimate nature of reality, that is on emptiness and dependent arising, culminating in the philosophy of the Madhyamikas, which is widely believed to present the most sophisticated point of view[2]. For other uses, see Emptiness (disambiguation). ... Dependent Origination (Sanskrit: pratītya-samutpāda, Pali: paticca samuppada) The doctrine of pratitya-samutpada is Buddhisms primary contribution to metaphysics. ...


Monasticism

Lamayuru monastery.
Lamayuru monastery.

Although there were many householder-yogis in Tibet, monasticism was the foundation of Buddhism in Tibet. There were thousands of monasteries in Tibet, and nearly all were ransacked and destroyed by the Chinese communists, mainly during the cultural revolution. Most of the major ones have been at least partially re-established. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 3. ... Lamayuru monastery Sacred festival (Tsechu) at Lamayuru monastery Lamayuru is a Tibetan Buddhist Gompa in Kargil District, Western Ladakh, situated on the Srinagar - Kargil - Leh road 15km east of the the Fatu La pass, at a height of 3510m. ... In canonical Buddhism, householder refers to a particular strata of society whose individuals are typified by having a home life and family. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Buddhist monastery near Tibet A monastery is the habitation of monks. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ...


In Mongolia during the 1920s, approximately one third of the male population were monks, though many lived outside monasteries. These monasteries were largely dismantled during Communist rule, but many have been reestablished during the Buddhist revival in Mongolia which followed the fall of Communism.


Monasteries generally adhere to one particular school. Some of the major centers in each tradition are as follows:


Nyingma

The Nyingma lineage is said to have "six mother monasteries," although the composition of the six has changed over time:

Also of note is Dorje Drak (English: Indestructible Rock) monastery was one of the primary Nyingma monasteries in Tibet. ... Dzogchen Monastery is one of the six great monasteries of the Nyingma tradition, the original Buddhist tradition in Tibet. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Palyul is one of the six mother monasteries of the Nyingma tradition of Tibetan Buddhism. ... Shechen Monastery, Kham Tibet Shechen Monastery in eastern Tibet was the heart of a network of nearly a hundred and sixty monasteries. ...

A view of Samye from above Wikimedia Commons has multimedia related to: Samye Categories: Buddhism-related stubs | Tibet | Buddhist temples ... Guru Rinpoche - Padmasambhava statue - near Kullu, India Guru Rinpoche, the patron saint of Sikkim. ... Shantarakshita was an Indian sage, abbot of Nalanda University, a great center of Buddhist scholarship. ...

Kagyu

Many Kagyu monasteries are in Kham, eastern Tibet. Tsurphu, one of the most important, is in central Tibet, as is Ralung. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1818x1204, 856 KB) Lamas at the Rumtek monastery in Sikkim. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1818x1204, 856 KB) Lamas at the Rumtek monastery in Sikkim. ... Categories: Buddhism-related stubs | Buddhist terms ... Rumtek monastery Rumtek (Tibetan: རུམ་ཐེག་དགོན་པ་, Wylie: Rum-theg dGon-pa), also called the Dharmachakra Centre, is a Tibetan Buddhist monastery located in the Indian state of Sikkim near the capital Gangtok. ... , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ...

Palpung Monastery is a Buddhist temple in Tibet and is the seat of the Tai Situpa and Jamgon Kongtrul Palpung is characterized by a number of rock paintings of Buddha and shrines Categories: | ... In Tibetan Buddhism the Tai Situpa is one of the oldest lineages of tulkus (reincarnated lamas) in the Kagyu school. ... Jamgon Kongtrul is a Tibetan Buddhist lama and tulku. ... Ralung Monastery, located in the Tsang region of western Tibet, is the traditional seat of the Drukpa Kagyu order of Tibetan Buddhism. ... The Gyalwang Drukpa is the head of the Drukpa branch of the Kagyupa school of Tibetan Buddhism. ... Surmang Monastery is actually a complex of nine monasteries founded about 600 years ago in Kham, eastern Tibet. ... The Trungpa tülkus are a line of incarnate Tibetan lamas who traditionally head Surmang monastery (complex) in Kham (Eastern Tibet). ... Tsurphu (mTshur phu)is the seat of the Karmapas in the Tolung area of Central Tibet in the Dowo Lung valley,70 km from Lhasa. ... The Karmapa is the title given to the head of the Karma Kagyu (Bka rgyud), one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. ...

Sakya

Sakya Monastery is an important old Buddhist monastery of the Sakya school 128 kilometres west of Shigatse in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. ... The 41st Sakya Trizin Sakya Trizin is the head of the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism The spiritual leadership of the Sakya school is controlled by the descendants of the Köhn family, who around 750 got into contact with Buddhism and who were taught by Padmasambhava. ...

Gelug

The three most important centers of the Gelugpa lineage are Ganden, Sera and Drepung Monasteries.

Ganden monastery Ganden Monastery is one of the great three Gelukpa university monasteries of Tibet, located on Wangbur Mountain, Tagtse County, 47 kilometers from Lhasa. ... The Ganden Tripa (Holder of the Ganden Throne; Wylie: Dga-ldan Khri-pa) is the title of the spiritual leader of the Gelug (Dge-lugs) school of Tibetan Buddhism, the school which controlled central Tibet from the mid-1600s until 1950. ... Drepung monastery Drepung Monastery (Tibetan: འབྲས་སྤུངས་; Wylie: Bras-spungs; ZWPY: Zhaibung) is one of the great three Gelukpa university monasteries of Tibet. ... This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ... Sera Monastery is one of the great three Gelukpa university monasteries of Tibet. ... Tashilhunpo Monastery The Thanka Wall overlooking the monastery Tashilhunpo Monastery (Tibetan: བཀྲ་ཤིས་ལྷུན་པོ་), built in 1447, is a historic and culturally important monastery in Shigatse, Tibet. ... Khedrup Je, the 1st Panchen Lama The Panchen Lama (often transliterated as Pänchen Lama) or the Panchen Erdeni, is the one of the two highest ranking lamas (together with the Dalai Lama) in the Gelugpa (Dge-lugs-pa) sect of Tibetan Buddhism (the sect which controlled Tibet from the... The Jokhang Temple, home of the most venerated statue in Tibet a golden roof cylinder The Jokhang, also called the Jokhang Temple or the Jokhang Monastery, is a famous Buddhist temple in Lhasa, Tibet. ... A statue of Emperor Srong-rtsan Sgam-po in his meditation cave at Yerpa Songtsen Gampo (སྲོང་བཙན་སྒམ་པོ་ Wylie: Srong-btsan Sgam-po) (604–650 CE) was the thirty-third king of the Yarlung Dynasty of Tibet. ...

History of Tibetan Buddhism

According to a Tibetan legendary tradition, Buddhist scriptures (among them the Karandavyuha Sutra) and relics (among them the Cintamani) arrived in southern Tibet during the reign of Lha Thothori Nyantsen, the 28th "king of Tibet" (fifth century), who was probably just a local chief in the Yarlung valley. The tale is miraculous (the objects fell from the sky on the roof of the king's palace), but it may have an historical background (arrival of Buddhist missionaries).[3] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... King Lha Thothori Nyantsen was 28th King of Tibet, ruling during the second century CE. During his reign, Buddhism became the state religion of Tibet. ...


The earliest well-documented influence of Buddhism in Tibet dates from the reign of king Songtsän Gampo, who died in 650. He married a Chinese Buddhist princess, Wencheng. According to a Tibetan legendary tradition, he also married a Nepalese Buddhist princess, Bhrikuti; but Bhrikuti, who bears the name of a goddess, is not mentioned in reliable sources. Songtsän Gampo founded the first Buddhist temples. By the second half of the 8th century he was already regarded as an embodiment of the bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara.[4] A statue of King Songtsän Gampo in his meditation cave at Yerpa Songtsen Gampo, Song-btsan-sgam-po or Songtsän Gampo, or Tsrong-tsong Gompo (སྲོང་བཙན་སྒམ་པོ་ Wylie: Srong-btsan Sgam-po) (died 650 CE) was the first emperor of a unified Tibet. ... The Chinese Princess Wencheng (Tibetan: Mung-chang Kungco, (Traditional Chinese: 文成公主, pinyin: Wénchéng GōngzhÇ”) (d. ... Bhrikuti (also Bhrikuti devi) was a princess of the Licchavi kingdom of Nepal during the 7th century. ...


The successors of Songtsän Gampo seem to have been less enthusiastic about the propagation of Buddhism. But in the 8th century, emperor Trisong Detsen (755-797) established Buddhism as the official religion of the state.[5] He invited Indian Buddhist scholars to his court. In his age the famous tantric mystic Padmasambhava arrived in Tibet according to the Tibetan tradition. It was Padmasambhava (more commonly known in the region as Guru Rinpoche) who merged tantric Buddhism with the local Bön religion to form what we now recognize as Tibetan Buddhism. In addition to writing a number of important scriptures (some of which he hid for future tertons to find), Padmasambhava established the Nyingma school from which all schools of Tibetan Buddhism are derived. Trisong Detsän (Tibetan: ཁྲི་སྲོང་ལྡེ་བཙན་; Wylie: Khri-srong Lde-btsan; ZWPY: Chisong Dêzän) was the 38th King of Tibet, ruling from 755 until 797. ... Guru Rinpoche - Padmasambhava statue - near Kullu, India Guru Rinpoche, the patron saint of Sikkim. ... In Tibetan Buddhism, a tertön is someone who discovers a terma, or hidden text. ... Guru Rinpoche - Padmasambhava statue - near Kullu, India The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism (the other three being the Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug). ...


Tibetan Buddhism exerted a strong influence from the 11th century AD among the peoples of Central Asia, especially in Mongolia and Manchuria. It was adopted as an official state religion by the Mongol Yuan dynasty and the Manchu Qing dynasty that ruled China. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ...


Transmission of Ch'an to the Nyingmapa

Chinese Ch'an Buddhism was introduced to the Nyingmapa in three principal streams: the teachings of Master Kim, Kim Ho-shang, (Chin ho shang) 金和尚 transmitted by Sang Shi[6] in c750 CE; the lineage of Master Wu Chu, 無住 of the Pao T'ang School was transmitted within Tibet by Ye shes dbang po; and the teaching from Mo Ho Yen, 和尚摩訶衍 (Tibetan: Hwa shang Mahayana) that were a synthesis of the Northern School of Ch'an and the Pao T'ang School.[7] Chán is a major school of Chinese Mahāyāna Buddhism. ... The Nyingma tradition is one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. ... Mo-ho-yen (Traditional Chinese: 摩訶衍; Pinyin: MóhÄ“yÇŽn) was a Chinese Buddhist monk active in the late 8th century CE. After teaching in the area of Dunhuang he was invited by King Trisong Detsen of Tibet to settle at Samye Monastery. ...


Tibetan King Khri srong lde btsan (742–797) invited the Ch’an master Mo-ho-yen (whose name consists of the same Chinese characters used to transliterate “Mahayana”) to transmit the Dharma at Samye Monastery. Mo-ho-yen had been disseminating Dharma in the Tun-huang locale, but, according to Tibetan sources, lost an important philosophical debate on the nature of emptiness from the Indian master Kamalashila, and the king declared Kamalashila's philosophy should form the basis for Tibetan Buddhism.[8] However, a Chinese source says their side won, and some scholars conclude that the entire episode is fictitious.[9] Trisong Detsän (Tibetan: ཁྲི་སྲོང་ལྡེ་བཙན་; Wylie: Khri-srong Lde-btsan; ZWPY: Chisong Dêzän) was the 38th King of Tibet, ruling from 755 until 797. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ...


Tibetan Buddhism in the contemporary world

The statue of Buddha in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Today, Tibetan Buddhism is adhered to widely in the Tibetan Plateau, Nepal, Bhutan, Mongolia, Kalmykia (on the north-west shore of the Caspian), Siberia (central Russia, specifically Buryatia and Chita Oblast), and the Russian Far East (concentrated in Tyva). The Indian regions of Sikkim and Ladakh, both formerly independent kingdoms, are also home to significant Tibetan Buddhist populations. In the wake of the Tibetan diaspora, Tibetan Buddhism has gained adherents in the West and throughout the world; there are estimated to be tens of thousands of practitioners in Europe and the Americas. Celebrity Tibetan Buddhism practitioners include Richard Gere, Adam Yauch, Jet Li, Allen Ginsberg; Philip Glass, and Steven Seagal (who has been proclaimed a tulku).[10] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 593 pixelsFull resolution (972 × 720 pixel, file size: 46 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photographer Gantuya. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 593 pixelsFull resolution (972 × 720 pixel, file size: 46 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photographer Gantuya. ... Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province and Sichuan Province of China lie on the Tibetan Plateau. ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: ; Kalmyk: Хальмг Таңһч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... The Buryat Republic (Russian: ; Buryat: Буряад Республика) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: ; IPA: ) is a term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ... Tuva or Tyva (Russian: Республика Тыва [Тува], Respublika Tyva [Tuva]) (pop. ... , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people... Richard Tiffany Gere[1] (born August 31, 1949) is a Golden Globe- and Screen Actors Guild Award-winning American actor. ... Adam Nathaniel Yauch, pronounced Yauk, also known as MCA and Nathaniel Hornblower, is a founding member of hip-hop trio the Beastie Boys. ... Jet Li (Simplified Chinese: 李连杰; Traditional Chinese: 李連杰; pinyin: Lǐ Liánjié; born April 26, 1963) is a Chinese martial artist, actor, Wushu champion, and international film star. ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet. ... Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is a three-times Academy Award-nominated American composer. ... Steven Seagal (born April 10, 1951) is an American action movie actor, producer, writer, director, martial artist, singer-songwriter, spiritualist and activist. ... In Tibetan Buddhism, a tulku is the reincarnation of a lama or other spiritually significant figure. ...


See also

This article refers to the primordial state as considered in Tibetan Buddhism and Bon. ... Mahāmudrā (Sanskrit: great seal or great symbol), (Tibetan: Chagchen, Wylie: phyag chen, contraction of Chagya Chenpo, Wylie: phyag rgya chen po), is a Buddhist method of direct introduction to the nature and essence of Mind (or Buddha-nature) and the practice of stabilizing the accompanying transcendental realization. ... Tibetan medicine is a centuries-old traditional medical system that employs a complex approach to diagnosis, incorporating techniques such as pulse analysis and urinalysis, and utilizes behavior and dietary modification, medicines composed of natural materials (e. ...

References

  1. ^ Avalokitesvara, Chenrezig
  2. ^ Sopa & Hopkins (1977), 67-69; Hopkins (1996). Non-Tibetan scholars have suggested that historically, Madhyamika predates Cittamatra: cf. Conze (1993).
  3. ^ Studholme, Alexander: The Origins of Om Manipadme Hum, Albany, NY 2002, p. 14.
  4. ^ Macdonald, Alexander: Religion in Tibet at the time of Srong-btsan sgam-po: myth as history, in: The History of Tibet, ed. Alex McKay, Vol. 1, London 2003, p. 354-363 (for the queens see p. 355); Dargyay, Eva: Srong-btsan sgam-po of Tibet: Bodhisattva and king, in: The History of Tibet, ed. Alex McKay, Vol. 1, London 2003, p. 364-378 (for the queens see p. 373).
  5. ^ Beckwith, C.I.: The revolt of 755 in Tibet, in: The History of Tibet, ed. Alex McKay, Vol. 1, London 2003, p. 273-285 (discusses the political background and the motives of the ruler).
  6. ^ Sang Shi later became an abbot of Samye Monastery.
  7. ^ Barber, A. W.(1990). The Unifying of Rdzogs Pa Chen Po and Ch'an. Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal. Vol.3, 04.1990. PP.301-317. Source: [1] (accessed: October 20, 2007).
  8. ^ Yamaguchi, Zuihō (undated). The Core Elements of Indian Buddhism Introduced into Tibet: A Contrast with Japanese Buddhism. Source: [2] (accessed: October 20, 2007)
  9. ^ Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism (Volume One), page 70
  10. ^ Steven Seagal - "The Action Lama"

Avalokitesvara with a 1,000 arms, part of the Dazu Stone Carvings at Mount Baoding, Dazu County, Chongqing, China. ... In Mahayana Buddhism, Avalokitesvara or Avalokiteshvara is a bodhisattva who embodies the compassion of all Buddhas. ... A view of Samye from above Wikimedia Commons has multimedia related to: Samye Categories: Buddhism-related stubs | Tibet | Buddhist temples ...

Further reading

Introductory books
  • Wallace, B. Alan (October 25, 1993). Tibetan Buddhism From the Ground Up: A Practical Approach for Modern Life. Wisdom Publications. ISBN-10: 0861710754, ISBN-13: 978-0861710751
  • Yeshe, Lama Thubten (2001). "The Essence of Tibetan Buddhism". Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive. ISBN 1-891868-08-X
Other books
  • Coleman, Graham, ed. (1993). A Handbook of Tibetan Culture. Boston: Shambhala Publications, Inc.. ISBN 1-57062-002-4.
  • Conze, Edward (1993). A Short History of Buddhism. Oneworld. 
  • Dhargyey, Geshe Ngawang; ed. Alexander Berzin, based on oral trans. by Sharpa Tulku (3rd edn, 1978). Tibetan Tradition of Mental Development. Dharmsala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives.  [A pithy lam-rim by a geshe appointed in 1973 by His Holiness the Dalai Lama as head of the translation team at the Tibetan Library.]
  • Dhargyey, Geshe Ngawang; ed. Alexander Berzin, based on oral trans. by Sharpa Tulku (1982). An Anthology of Well-Spoken Advice on the Graded Paths of the Mind (in 2 vols). Dharmsala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives. ISBN 8186470298.  [A more extensive lam-rim by a geshe appointed in 1973 by His Holiness the Dalai Lama as head of the translation team at the Tibetan Library. The language of this publication is very different from that of the 1978 work by the same lama due to widespread changes in choice of English terminology by the translators.]
  • Hopkins, Jeffrey (1996). Meditation on Emptiness. Boston: Wisdom. ISBN 0861711106.  [Definitive treatment of emptiness according to the Prasangika-Madhyamika school.]
  • Lati Rinpoche; trans. & ed.: Elizabeth Napper (1980). Mind in Tibetan Buddhism: Oral Commentary on Ge-shay Jam-bel-sam-pel’s “Presentation of Awareness and Knowledge Composite of All the Important Points Opener of the Eye of New Intelligence. Valois, NY: Snow Lion. ISBN 0937938025. 
  • Pabongka Rinpoche; Ed. Trijang Rinpoche, transl. Michael Richards (Revised edition, 1993). Liberation in the Palm of Your Hand. Wisdom. ISBN 0861715004.  [This famous lam-rim text was written from notes on an extended discourse by the Gelugpa geshe, Pabongka Rinpoche in 1921 and translated through extensive consultation with Achok Rinpoche (Library of Tibetan Works and Archives).]
  • Ringu Tulku. The Ri-Me Philosophy of Jamgon Kongtrul the Great: A Study of the Buddhist Lineages of Tibet. Shambhala. ISBN 1-59030-286-9. 
  • Smith, E. Gene (2001). Among Tibetan Texts: History and Literature of the Himalayan Plateau. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-179-3
  • Sopa, Geshe Lhundup; Jeffrey Hopkins (1977). Practice and Theory of Tibetan Buddhism. New Delhi: B.I. Publications. ISBN 0091256216.  [Part Two of this book, ‘’Theory: Systems of Tenets’’ is an annotated translation of ‘’Precious Garland of Tenets (Grub-mtha’ rin-chhen phreng-ba)’’ by Kön-chok-jik-may-wang-po (1728-1791).]
  • Tsong-kha-pa; the Lamrim Chenmo Translation Committee; Joshua Cutler, ed. in chief; Guy Newland, ed. (2000). The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment, Volume I. Canada: Snow Lion. ISBN 1559391529. 
  • Tsong-kha-pa; the Lamrim Chenmo Translation Committee; Joshua Cutler, ed. in chief; Guy Newland, ed. (2002). The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment, Volume II. Canada: Snow Lion. ISBN 1559391685. 
  • Tsong-kha-pa; the Lamrim Chenmo Translation Committee; Joshua Cutler, ed. in chief; Guy Newland, ed. (2004). The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment, Volume III. Canada: Snow Lion. ISBN 1559391669. 

Eberhart (Edward) Julius Dietrich Conze (1904 - 1979) was born in London of mixed German, French, and NetherlandsDutch ancestry. ... Pabongka Rinpoche, Jampa Tenzin Trinlay Gyatso, (1878-1941) was one of the great Gelug lamas of the modern era of Tibetan Buddhism. ...

External links

The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... The Geluk (dge lugs) School was founded by Tsongkhapa (1357-1419), Tibets best known religious reformer and arguably its greatest philosopher. ... The Kagyu (Tibetan: བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་; Wylie: Bka-brgyud) school, also known as the Oral Lineage and the Spotless Practice Lineage school, is one of four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism, the other three being Nyingma (Rnying-ma), Sakya (Sa-skya), and Gelug (Dge-lugs). ... Guru Rinpoche - Padmasambhava statue - near Kullu, India The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism (the other three being the Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug). ... Sakya is one of four major schools (Nyingma, Sakya, Kagyu and Gelug) in Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana). ... The Jonang or Jonangpa school of Tibetan Buddhism was founded in the early 14th century by Sherab Gyeltsen, a monk trained in the Sakyapa school. ... The Kadampa (Bka-gdams-pa) Tradition was a Tibetan Mahayana Buddhist school. ... The Rimé movement is a Buddhist school of thought founded in Eastern Tibet during the late 19th century largely by Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo and Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Thaye, the latter of whom is often respected as the founder proper. ... Vajrayāna Buddhism (Also known as Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayana, Mantrayana, Mantranaya, Esoteric Buddhism, Diamond Vehicle, or 金剛乘 Jingangcheng in Chinese; however, these terms are not always regarded as equivalent: one scholar[1] speaks of the tantra divisions of some editions of the Kangyur as including Sravakayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana texts) is... For other uses, see Lhasa (disambiguation). ... Guru Rinpoche - Padmasambhava statue - near Kullu, India Guru Rinpoche, the patron saint of Sikkim. ... Bön[1] (Tibetan: བོན་; Wylie: bon; Lhasa dialect IPA: [) is the oldest spiritual tradition of Tibet. ... This article refers to the primordial state as considered in Tibetan Buddhism and Bon. ... This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ... Khedrup Je, the 1st Panchen Lama The Panchen Lama (often transliterated as Pänchen Lama) or the Panchen Erdeni, is the one of the two highest ranking lamas (together with the Dalai Lama) in the Gelugpa (Dge-lugs-pa) sect of Tibetan Buddhism (the sect which controlled Tibet from the... Not to be confused with Llama. ... In Tibetan Buddhism, a tulku is the reincarnation of a lama or other spiritually significant figure. ... In Tibetan Buddhism, a tertön is someone who discovers a terma, or hidden text. ... Wikimedia Commons has multimedia related to: Jokhang Categories: Buddhism-related stubs | Buddhist temples ... Ganden monastery Ganden Monastery is one of the great three Gelukpa university monasteries of Tibet, located on Wangbur Mountain, Tagtse County, 47 kilometers from Lhasa. ... Sera Monastery is one of the great three Gelukpa university monasteries of Tibet. ... Je Tsongkhapa (Tsong-kha-pa) in the fifth vison of Khedrub Jey (Mkhas-grub) Tsongkhapa (Tibetan: ཙོང་ཁ་པ་; Wylie: Tsong-kha-pa) (1357 - 1419) , whose name means The Man from Onion Valley, was the founder of the Geluk (Dge-lugs) school of Tibetan Buddhism. ... A Thangka is a painted or embroidered Tibetan banner which was hung in a monastery or a family altar and carried by lamas in ceremonial processions. ... Drepung monastery Drepung Monastery (Tibetan: འབྲས་སྤུངས་; Wylie: Bras-spungs; ZWPY: Zhaibung) is one of the great three Gelukpa university monasteries of Tibet. ... Ramoche Temple (Tibetan: ར་མོ་ཆེ་དགོན་པ་; Wylie: Ra-mo-che Dgon-pa; Lhasa dialect IPA: [) is a Buddhist monastery is considered the most important temple in Lhasa after the Potala. ... Sanga (Sangha) Monastery - front view. ... Kalachakra [1] thangka from Sera Monastery (private collection). ... Tashilhunpo Monastery The Thanka Wall overlooking the monastery Tashilhunpo Monastery, built in 1447, is a historic and culturally important monestary in Shigatse, Tibet. ... Drepung monastery Drepung Monastery (Tibetan: འབྲས་སྤུངས་; Wylie: Bras-spungs; ZWPY: Zhaibung) is one of the great three Gelukpa university monasteries of Tibet. ... Mahāmudrā (Sanskrit: great seal or great symbol), (Tibetan: Chagchen, Wylie: phyag chen, contraction of Chagya Chenpo, Wylie: phyag rgya chen po), is a Buddhist method of direct introduction to the nature and essence of Mind (or Buddha-nature) and the practice of stabilizing the accompanying transcendental realization. ... Trisong Detsän (Tibetan: ཁྲི་སྲོང་ལྡེ་བཙན་; Wylie: Khri-srong Lde-btsan; ZWPY: Chisong Dêzän) was the 38th King of Tibet, ruling from 755 until 797. ... Rinpoche (Pronunciation: rin-po-shay) is a Tibetan Buddhist religio-/theological title. ... The Drukpa is a major sect within the Kagyupa school of Tibetan Buddhism. ... Dorje Shugden is a deity of Tibetan Buddhism whose precise nature — enlightened tutelary deity (Yidam) or bound protector (Dharmapala) or an evil and malevolent force[1] (Rakshasa) — is disputed among adherents of Tibetan Buddhism, especially its Gelug sect. ... The Kulayarāja Tantra (Tibetan phonetically: Kunjed Gyalpo, Tibetan: ཀུན་བྱེད་རྒྱལ་པོའི་རྒྱུད་; Wylie: Kun-byed Rgyal-poi Rgyud; English translation: All-Creating King) is a Buddhist Tantra preserved in Tibetan which centres upon the direct teachings of the primordial, ultimate Buddha (Adibuddha), Samantabhadra. ... Yogācāra (Sanskrit: yoga practice), also spelled yogāchāra, is an influential school of philosophy and psychology that developed in Indian Mahayana Buddhism starting sometime in the fourth to fifth centuries C.E., also commonly known as consciousness-only or mind-only (Sanskrit: cittamātra) (although scholars increasingly... The Great Stupa at Sanchi. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1818x1204, 856 KB) Lamas at the Rumtek monastery in Sikkim. ...

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Tibetan Buddhism - ReligionFacts (2694 words)
Tibetan Buddhism (sometimes called Lamaism) is the form of Mahayana Buddhism that developed in Tibet and the surrounding Himalayan region beginning in the 7th century CE.
Tibetan Buddhism is most well-known to the world through the office of the Dalai Lama, the exiled spiritual and political leader of Tibet and the winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989.
Tibetan Buddhism spread to the West in the second half of the 20th century as many Tibetan leaders were exiled from their homeland.
Tibetan Buddhism, the mongolian religion (2058 words)
Before the Tibetans were converted to Buddhism, their original religious belief was known as Bon, a faith similar to Boe of the Mongols.
Although at that time Tibetan Buddhism was only the religious faith of the Mongolian imperial clan and the people of the higher class, it had begun to greatly influence the thought of many Mongols.
Buddhism mainly developed among the Khalkha Mongols on the north of the Gobi because of the knowledge of Buddhism there and its political links--that is the prestige it had among the household of the First Jebtsundamba Khutughru, who were members of the "Golden descendants" of Chinggis Khan.
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