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Encyclopedia > Tibet
Cultural/historical Tibet (highlighted) depicted with various competing territorial claims.
  Tibet Autonomous Region within the People's Republic of China
  Historic Tibet as claimed by Tibetan exile groups
  Tibetan areas as designated by the People's Republic of China
  Chinese-controlled areas claimed by India as part of Aksai Chin
  Indian-controlled areas claimed by China as part of Tibet
  Other areas historically within Tibetan cultural sphere

Tibet is a plateau region in Central Asia and the home to the indigenous Tibetan people. With an average elevation of 4,900 metres (16,000 ft.), it is the highest region on Earth and is commonly referred to as the "Roof of the World." Geographically, UNESCO and Encyclopædia Britannica[1] consider Tibet to be part of Central Asia, while several academic organizations consider it part of South Asia. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... This article is about the administrative region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Tibet can refer to The historical Tibet, The Tibet Autonomous Region, a Peoples Republic of Chinas region The Tibetan Plateau, a geographical region Tibet can also refer to Tibet (comics), a Belgian comic book creator Category: ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Green_Square. ... Image File history File links Solid_yellow. ... This article is about the administrative region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Solid_orange. ... Image File history File links Solid_yellow. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Solid_orange. ... Image File history File links Green_Square. ... Image File history File links Solid_yellow. ... Image File history File links Green_Square. ... China - India western border showing Aksai Chin Aksai Chin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , Hindi: अकसाई चिन) is a region located at the juncture of China, Pakistan, and India. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province and Sichuan Province of China lie on the Tibetan Plateau. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Tibetan people are a people indigenous to Tibet and surrounding areas stretching from Central Asia in the West to Myanmar and China in the East. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...


The region was unified in the seventh century by King Songtsän Gampo. In the 13th century Tibet became a part of Mongol-ruled Chinese empire and four centuries later Tibet was further incorporated into the Chinese Empire in the Qing Dynasty.[2] The Dalai Lama lineage was established in 1578, and rose to political power during the times of the 5th Dalai Lama (1617-1682)[3]. In 1653, the "Dalai Lama" became an official title, as it is recognized by the Qing government. In 1751 the emperor of Qing Dynasty decreed that the Dalai Lama and the Qing Amban should exercise power jointly. [4] Between the 17th century and 1951, the Dalai Lama and his regents were the predominant political power administering religious and administrative authority[5] over large parts of Tibet from the traditional capital Lhasa. A statue of King Songtsän Gampo in his meditation cave at Yerpa Songtsen Gampo, Song-btsan-sgam-po or Songtsän Gampo, or Tsrong-tsong Gompo (སྲོང་བཙན་སྒམ་པོ་ Wylie: Srong-btsan Sgam-po) (died 650 CE) was the first emperor of a unified Tibet. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Lozang Gyatso, the Great Fifth Dalai Lama, (1617-1682), is one of only two Dalai Lamas formally titled Great. He initiated the construction of the fabulous Potala Palace in Lhasa, Tibet. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... The Ambans were imperial administrators of Qing China in Tibet. ... For other uses, see Lhasa (disambiguation). ...


In 1912 the 13th Dalai Lama unilaterally declared separation from China.[2] but two years later the Tibetans accepted nominal subordination to China.[6] From 1912 to 1950, Tibet possessed de facto independence,[7] although no nation has ever recognized Tibet as independent[8][9]. In 1951, under Chinese military pressure, Beijing and the Tibetan government signed an agreement reintegrating Tibet.[10] In the failure of a CIA funded rebellion in 1959, the 14th Dalai Lama fled into exile in India.[11] The Dalai Lama believes that in order for it to modernize, Tibet must remain within the People's Republic of China, although he also wants China to give "a full guarantee of preservation of Tibetan culture." [12] The 13th Dalai Lama Thubten Gyatso (Tibetan: ཐུབ་བསྟན་རྒྱ་མཚོ་) (born February 12, 1876; died December 17, 1933), also spelled Thupten Gyatso, was the 13th Dalai Lama of Tibet. ... Look up De facto independence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet, the official name of a document in which delegates of the Dalai Lama reached an agreement with the new Peoples Republic of China, which regarded Tibet as part of its territory. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... (Redirected from 14th Dalai Lama) Tenzin Gyatso is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ...

Contents

Definitions of Tibet

Flag of Tibet used intermittently between 1912 and 1950. This version was introduced by the 13th Dalai Lama in 1912. The flag is outlawed in the People's Republic of China.
Flag of Tibet used intermittently between 1912 and 1950. This version was introduced by the 13th Dalai Lama in 1912. The flag is outlawed in the People's Republic of China.

When the People's Republic of China (PRC) refers to Tibet, it means the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR): a province-level entity which, according to the territorial claims of the PRC, includes Arunachal Pradesh. The TAR covers the Dalai Lama's former domain, consisting of Ü-Tsang and western Kham, while Amdo and eastern Kham are part of Qinghai, Gansu, Yunnan, and Sichuan.[13] Image File history File links Flag_of_Tibet. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tibet. ... Flag Ratio: 2:3 The flag of Tibet was introduced in 1912 by the 13th Dalai Lama, who united the army flags of various provinces to design the present one. ... This article is about the administrative region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... A province, in the context of China, is a translation of sheng (省 shÄ›ng), which is an administrative division of China. ... , Arunachal Pradesh   (Hindi:   ) is the easternmost state of India. ... This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Yunan redirects here. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ...


When the Government of Tibet in Exile and the Tibetan refugee community abroad refer to Tibet, they mean the areas consisting of the traditional provinces of Amdo, Kham, and Ü-Tsang, but excluding Sikkim, Bhutan, and Ladakh that have also formed part of the Tibetan cultural sphere.[13] Official language Tibetan Headquarters Dharamsala, India Head of State Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama Head of Government Professor Venerable Samdhong Rinpoche National Anthem Tibetan National Anthem, (Link) The Central Tibetan Administration (CTA), officially the Central Tibetan Administration of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, is a government in exile headed by... Situation of the east Tibetan region of Amdo Amdo (Tibetan: ཨ༌མདོ, Chinese: 安多, Pinyin: Ä€nduō) is one of the three former provinces of Tibet, the other two being Ãœ-Tsang and Kham; it is also the place from which Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, comes from. ... Situation of the east Tibetan region of Kham Kham (Tibetan: ཁམས; Wylie transliteration: Khams; Simplified Chinese: 康; Pinyin: Kāng), also referred to as the Kingdom of Kham, is one of the three traditional provinces claimed by the Tibetan government-in-exile and the International Tibetan Independence Movement. ... Ãœ-Tsang (Wylie transliteration: Dbus-gtsang, Tibetan: དབུསགཙང་ Simplified Chinese: 卫藏; Traditional Chinese: 衛藏; pinyin: ), or Tsang-Ãœ, is one of the traditional provinces of Tibet, the others being Amdo and Kham. ... , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people...


The difference in definition is a major source of dispute. The distribution of Amdo and eastern Kham into surrounding provinces was initiated by the Yongzheng Emperor during the 18th century and has been continuously maintained by successive Chinese governments. The Yongzheng Emperor (born Yinzhen 胤禛 December 13, 1678 - October 8, 1735) was the fourth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the third Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1722 to 1735. ...


Name

Himalayas
Himalayas

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 637 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tibet Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 637 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tibet Metadata This...

In English

The English word Tibet, like the word for Tibet in most European languages, is derived from the Arabic word Tubbat.[14] This word is derived via Persian from the Turkic word Töbäd (plural of Töbän), meaning "the heights".[15][16] In Medieval Chinese, 吐蕃 (pronounced tǔfān), is derived from the same Turkic word.[15] 吐蕃 was pronounced /t'o-bwǝn/ in Medieval times. Arabic redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ...


The exact derivation of the name is, however, unclear. Some scholars believe that the named derived from that of a people who lived in the region of northeastern Tibet and were referred to as Töbüt or Tübüt. This was the form adapted by the Muslim writers who rendered it Tübbett, Tibbat, etc., from as early as the 9th century, and it then entered European languages from the reports of the medieval European accounts of Piano-Carpini, Rubruck, Marco Polo and the Capuchin monk Francesco della Penna.[17] John of Plano Carpinis famous journey—his route is shown in Dark blue (railroad track style). ... William of Rubruck (also William of Rubruk, Willem van Ruysbroeck, Guillaume de Rubrouck, Willielmus de Rubruquis, born c. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (OFM Cap) is an order of friars in the Roman Catholic Church, among the chief offshoots of the Franciscans. ... Francesco Orazio Olivieri della Penna (1680—July 20, 1745) was a Capuchin missionary to Tibet who became prefect of the Tibetan Mission. ...


PRC scholars favor the theory that "Tibet" is derived from tǔfān.[14][18] PRC is a common abbreviation for: Peoples Republic of China Palestinian Red Crescent Popular Resistance Committees This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


In Tibetan

Tibetans call their homeland (བོད་), pronounced [pʰøʔ] in Lhasa dialect. It is first attested in the geography of Ptolemy as βαται (batai)[19]. In Nepal, Tibet is known as Bhot.[citation needed] For other uses, see Lhasa (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ...


In Chinese

The Chinese name for Tibet, 西藏 (Xīzàng), is a phonetic transliteration derived from the region called Tsang (western Ü-Tsang). The Chinese name originated during the Qing Dynasty of China, ca. 1700. It can be broken down into 西 ("west"), and “zàng” 藏 (from Ü-Tsang, but also literally “Buddhist scripture,” “storage” or "treasure"[20]). The pre-1700s historic Chinese term for Tibet was "吐蕃". In modern Standard Mandarin, the first character is pronounced . The second character is normally pronounced fān; in the context of references to Tibet, most authorities say that it should be pronounced (making the word "Tubo"), while some authorities make no distinction between the general pronunciation and that in the Tibetan context, making the word "Tufan".[21] Its reconstructed Medieval Chinese pronunciation is /t'obwǝn/, which comes from the Turkic word for “heights” which is also the origin of the English term Tibet.[15][16] When expressing themselves in Chinese, many exiled Tibetans, including the Dalai Lama's government in Dharamsala, now use the term 吐博 Tǔbó. Although the second character is not historically accurate, it has the correct pronunciation (whereas ambiguity attends the pronunciation of 蕃), and thus 吐博 is deemed by some to be a more appropriate way to write Tibet in Chinese. Look up 曾 in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ãœ-Tsang (Wylie transliteration: Dbus-gtsang, Tibetan: དབུསགཙང་ Simplified Chinese: 卫藏; Traditional Chinese: 衛藏; pinyin: ), or Tsang-Ãœ, is one of the traditional provinces of Tibet, the others being Amdo and Kham. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Ãœ-Tsang (Wylie transliteration: Dbus-gtsang, Tibetan: དབུསགཙང་ Simplified Chinese: 卫藏; Traditional Chinese: 衛藏; pinyin: ), or Tsang-Ãœ, is one of the traditional provinces of Tibet, the others being Amdo and Kham. ... Map of eastern China and Taiwan, showing the historic distribution of Mandarin Chinese in light brown. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Dharamshala redirects here. ...

Pastoral nomads camping near Namtso in 2005
Pastoral nomads camping near Namtso in 2005

The government of the People's Republic of China equates Tibet with the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR). As such, the name Xīzàng is equated with the TAR. In order to refer to non-TAR Tibetan areas, or to all of cultural Tibet, the term 藏区 Zàngqū (literally, "ethnic Tibetan areas") is used. However, Chinese-language versions of pro-Tibetan independence websites, such as the Free Tibet Campaign, the Voice of Tibet, and Tibet Net use 西藏 (“Xīzàng”), not 藏区 ("Zàngqū"), to mean historic Tibet. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x650, 89 KB) Photographer: Philipp Roelli (2005) File links The following pages link to this file: Nomad Namtso Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x650, 89 KB) Photographer: Philipp Roelli (2005) File links The following pages link to this file: Nomad Namtso Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Tashi Dor monastery overlooking the lake Pastoral nomads camping near Namtso (2005) Namtso (officially: Nam Co; Mongolian: Tengri Nor; “Heavenly Lake”; ) is a mountain lake at the border between Damxung County of Lhasa Prefecture and Baingoin County of Nagqu Prefecture in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, approximately 112 km... This article is about the administrative region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Free Tibet Campaign is an organisation based in London that is dedicated to establishing the right of Tibetans to determine their own government. ...


Some English-speakers reserve Xīzàng, the Chinese word transliterated into English, for the TAR, to keep the concept distinct from that of historic Tibet.[citation needed]


The character 藏 (zàng) has been used in transcriptions referring to Tsang as early as the Yuan Dynasty, if not earlier, though the modern term Xizang (western Tsang) was devised in the 18th century. The Chinese character 藏 (Zàng) has also been generalized to refer to all of Tibet, including other concepts related to Tibet such as the Tibetan language (藏文, Zàngwén) and the Tibetan people (藏族, Zàngzú). Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ...


Language

A Tibetan woman in Lhasa
A Tibetan woman in Lhasa

The Tibetic languages are spoken throughout the Tibetan plateau, Bhutan, and parts of Nepal and northern India. Spoken Tibetan includes numerous regional dialects which, in many cases, are not mutually intelligible. Moreover, the boundaries between Tibetan and certain other Himalayan languages are sometimes unclear. In general, the dialects of central Tibet (Ü-Tsang, including Lhasa), Kham, Amdo, and some smaller nearby areas are considered Tibetan dialects. The languages of some groups outside modern Tibet, such as Dzongkha (Bhutanese), Sikkimese, Sherpa, and Ladakhi, are more distant varieties descended from archaic Tibetan, and which bear varying degrees of similarity to modern Tibetan. Using this broader grouping of Tibetan dialects and forms, the Tibetan language "family" is spoken by approximately 6 million people across the Tibetan Plateau. Tibetan is also spoken by approximately 150,000 exiles who have fled from modern-day Tibet to India and other countries. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 682 pixel, file size: 123 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lhasa User:LucaGaluzzi... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 682 pixel, file size: 123 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lhasa User:LucaGaluzzi... For other uses, see Lhasa (disambiguation). ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... Situation of the east Tibetan region of Kham Kham (Tibetan: ཁམས; Wylie transliteration: Khams; Simplified Chinese: 康; Pinyin: Kāng), also referred to as the Kingdom of Kham, is one of the three traditional provinces claimed by the Tibetan government-in-exile and the International Tibetan Independence Movement. ... Situation of the east Tibetan region of Amdo Amdo (Tibetan: ཨ༌མདོ, Chinese: 安多, Pinyin: Ä€nduō) is one of the three former provinces of Tibet, the other two being Ãœ-Tsang and Kham; it is also the place from which Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, comes from. ... Dzongkha is the national language of the Kingdom of Bhutan. ... Sikkimese (also known as Bhutia) is a sublanguage of South Tibetan (Bhutanese-Sikkimese, Lhoke) language. ... Sherpa (ISO/DIS 639-3: xsr) is a language spoken in parts of Nepal and Sikkim mainly by the Sherpa community. ... The Ladakhi language is the predominant language in the Ladakh region of the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. ... Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province and Sichuan Province of China lie on the Tibetan Plateau. ...


The Tibetan language has its own script, which is part of the Brahmic family of scripts.[22] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, descended from the Brāhmī script of Mauryan India. ...


History

Main article: History of Tibet
Further information: History of European exploration in Tibet and Foreign relations of Tibet
Tibet in 820 in relation to the other powers
Tibet in 820 in relation to the other powers

Image File history File links Merge-arrow. ... Tibetan plateau Tibet is situated between the two ancient civilizations of China and India, but the tangled mountain ranges of the Tibetan Plateau and the towering Himalayas serve to distance it from both. ... Tibetan plateau Tibet is situated between the two ancient civilizations of China and India, but the tangled mountain ranges of the Tibetan Plateau and the towering Himalayas serve to distance it from both. ... Tibetan plateau Tibet has attracted European explorers for well over 100 years, when the country was forbidden to all foreigners. ... The Foreign relations of Tibet proceed in the first instance from the agreements which China, Russia, India and Indias overlord the British entered into regarding Tibets status. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x600, 41 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x600, 41 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Pre-History

Chinese and the "proto-Tibeto-Burman" language may have split sometime before 4000 BC, when the Chinese began growing millet in the Yellow River valley while the Tibeto-Burmans remained nomads. Tibetan split from Burman around 500 AD.[23][24] For other uses, see Millet (disambiguation). ...


Prehistoric Iron Age hill forts and burial complexes have recently been found on the Chang Tang plateau but the remoteness of the location is hampering archaeological research. The initial identification of this culture is as the Zhang Zhung culture which is described in ancient Tibetan texts and is known as the original culture of the Bön religion. Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... The term hill fort is commonly used by archeologists to describe fortified enclosures located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage. ... Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province and Sichuan Province of China lie on the Tibetan Plateau. ... Zhang Zhung culture (Tibetan: ཞང་ཞུང་; OTT: Shangshung) is an ancient culture of western and northwestern Tibet which pre-dated Tibetan Buddhism and is best known as the source of the Bön religion. ... Bön[1] (Tibetan: བོན་; Wylie: bon; Lhasa dialect IPA: [) is the oldest spiritual tradition of Tibet. ...


Tibetan Empire

A series of kings ruled Tibet from the 7th to the 11th century. At times, Tibetan rule may have extended as far south as Bengal and as far north as Mongolia.[citation needed] A statue of Emperor Srong-rtsan Sgam-po in his meditation cave at Yerpa Songtsen Gampo (སྲོང་བཙན་སྒམ་པོ་ Wylie: Srong-btsan Sgam-po) (604–650 CE) was the thirty-third king of the Yarlung Dynasty of Tibet. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ...


Tibet appeared in an ancient Chinese historical text where it is referred to as fa. The first incident from recorded Tibetan history which is confirmed externally occurred when King Namri Lontsen sent an ambassador to the Chinese court in the early 7th century.[25]


However general, the history of Tibet begins with the rule of Namri Songzen, who first attempts to unify Tibet. His son Songtsän Gampo (604–649 AD) united parts of the Yarlung River Valley and ruled Tibet as a kingdom. In 640 he married Princess Wencheng, the niece of the powerful Chinese emperor Taizong. A statue of King Songtsän Gampo in his meditation cave at Yerpa Songtsen Gampo, Song-btsan-sgam-po or Songtsän Gampo, or Tsrong-tsong Gompo (སྲོང་བཙན་སྒམ་པོ་ Wylie: Srong-btsan Sgam-po) (died 650 CE) was the first emperor of a unified Tibet. ... Yarlung Tsamgpo River, whitewater Yarlung Tsangpo River, sediment The Yarlung Tsangpo River originates upstream from the Yarlung Tsangpo Canyon, Tibet. ... The Chinese Princess Wencheng (Tibetan: Mung-chang Kungco, (Traditional Chinese: 文成公主, pinyin: Wénchéng GōngzhÇ”) (d. ... Emperor Taizong of Tang China (Chinese: , January 23, 599–July 10, 649), born LÄ­ ShìMín (Chinese: ), was the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China from 626 to 649. ...


Tibetan forces conquered the Tuyuhun Kingdom of modern Qinghai and Gansu to the northeast in 663 AD.[26] Tibet also controlled the Tarim Basin and adjoining regions (now called Xinjiang), including the city of Kashgar, from 670[27] to 692 AD, when they were defeated by Chinese forces.[28] Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Location of Kashgar Kashgars Sunday market Kashgar (also spelled Cascar[1]) (Uyghur: /; Chinese: ; pinyin: , ), is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The Tibetans were allied with the Arabs and eastern Turks. In 747, Tibet's hold over Central Asia was weakened by the campaign of general Gao Xianzhi, who re-opened the direct communications between Central Asia and Kashmir. By 750 the Tibetans had lost almost all of their central Asian possessions to the Chinese. However, after Gao Xianzhi's defeat by the Arabs and Qarluqs at the Battle of Talas river (751), Chinese influence decreased rapidly and Tibetan influence resumed. Tibet conquered large sections of northern India and even briefly took control of the Chinese capital Chang'an in 763 during the chaos of the An Shi Rebellion.[29] Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire, that overthrew the Umayyid caliphs. ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... The Qarluq (Karluk) were originally a nomadic turkic tribe based on the transoxania steppes (roughly east and south of the Aral Sea) in Central Asia. ... Combatants Abbasid Caliphate Tang Dynasty Commanders Ziyad ibn Salih (Persian)[3][4] Gao Xianzhi (Goguryeo)[3] Li Siye (Chinese)[3] Duan Xiushi (Chinese)[3] Strength The number of troops from Arab protectorates was not recorded by either side. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... The An Shi Rebellion (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) occurred in China, during the Tang Dynasty, from 756 to 763. ...


There was a stone pillar, the Lhasa Shöl rdo-rings, in the ancient village of Shöl in front of the Potala in Lhasa, dating to c. 764 AD during the reign of Trisong Detsen. It also contains an account of the brief capture of Chang'an, the Chinese capital, in 763 AD, during the reign of Emperor Daizong.[30][31] The Potala Palace, located in Lhasa, Tibet, was the chief residence of the Dalai Lama until the 14th Dalai Lama fled to Dharamsala after a failed uprising in 1959. ... Trisong Detsän (Tibetan: ཁྲི་སྲོང་ལྡེ་བཙན་; Wylie: Khri-srong Lde-btsan; ZWPY: Chisong Dêzän) was the 38th King of Tibet, ruling from 755 until 797. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... Emperor Tang Daizong 唐代宗李豫 (726–779), born Li Chu (李俶); in 758 he renamed himself Li Yu (李豫). He was the eighth emperor of the Tang dynasty and reigned from the fifth month of 762 to the fifth month of 779. ...


In 821/822 AD Tibet and China signed a peace treaty. A bilingual account of this treaty including details of the borders between the two countries are inscribed on a stone pillar which stands outside the Jokhang temple in Lhasa.[32] Tibet continued as a Central Asian empire until the mid-9th century. The Jokhang Temple, home of the most venerated statue in Tibet a golden roof cylinder The Jokhang, also called the Jokhang Temple or the Jokhang Monastery, is a famous Buddhist temple in Lhasa, Tibet. ...


Mongol Empire and Yuan Dynasty

At the end of the 1230s, the Mongols turned their attention to Tibet. At that time, Mongol armies had already conquered Northern China, much of Central Asia, and were operating in Russia and what is now Ukraine. The Tibetan nobility, however, was fragmented and mainly occupied with internal strife, essentially a feudal society composed of numerous principalities constantly at war with one another. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... The Mongol Empire (1206–1368) was an empire founded by Genghis Khan in 1206. ...


Göden, a brother of Güyük, entered the country with military force in 1240. In 1244, Göden Khan ordered the Sakya Pandita Kunga Gyeltsen to meet him in Liangzhou for the purpose of spiritual instruction in Buddhism. Göden received various initiation rites and the Sakya sect of Tibetan Buddhism became the religion of the ruling line of Mongol khans. In return, after a second Mongol invasion in 1247 led to the submission of almost all Tibetan states, Sakya Pandita was appointed Viceroy of Tibet by the Mongol court in 1249, marking one of the occasions on which the Chinese base their claim to the rule of Tibet. Güyük (c. ... Sakya Pandita (1182--1251) was a Tibetan sprititual leader and Buddhistscholar and the fourth of the Five Venerable Supreme Sakya Masters of Tibet. ... Wuwei (woo-WAY) Taoist concept of a disengagement from the affairs of the world. ...


Sakya was accompanied by two of his nephews: Chana Dorje (Phyag-na Rdo-rje) would later marry a daughter of Kublai Khan, and Phagpa would become Kublai's spiritual teacher. Despite the 1247 invasion and further expeditions into Tibet in 1251/52, it is generally held that the Tibetan experience with the Mongols was much less traumatic than that of other peoples, since the Mongol expeditions to Tibet were in part influenced by Tibetan leaders who sought to unify Tibet by the hands of the Mongol armies, but who for obvious reasons influenced the Mongols in exercising restraint in their handling of the Tibetans. For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... Drogön Chögyal Phagpa (Tibetan: འགྲོ་མགོན་ཆོས་རྒྱལ་འཕགས་པ་; Wylie: Gro mgon Chos rgyal Phags pa; also written Dongon Choegyal Phakpa, Dromtön Chögyal Pagpa, etc. ...


Through their influence with the Mongol rulers, Tibetan lamas gained considerable influence in different Mongol clans, not only with Kublai, but for example also with the Il-Khanids. Kublai's success in succeeding Möngke as Great Khan meant that after 1260, Phagpa and the House of Sakya would only wield greater influence. Phagpa became head of all Buddhist monks in the Yuan empire, and Sakya would become the administrative center of Tibet. The lamaist clergy would receive considerable financial support, at the cost of mainly the Chinese areas ruled by the Yuan Dynasty. Tibet would also enjoy a rather high degree of autonomy compared to other parts of the Yuan empire, though further expeditions took place in 1267, 1277, 1281 and 1290/91.[33] The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Möngke Khan (1208-1259, also transliterated as Mongke, Mongka, Möngka, Mangu) was the fourth khan of the Mongol Empire. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ...


In 1253, Phagpa (1235-1280) succeeded Sakya Pandita at the Mongol court. Phagpa became a religious teacher to Göden Khan's famous successor, Kublai Khan. Kublai Khan named Phagpa the Imperial Preceptor of Tibet, offering him the rule of all Tibet. This is one of the points under contention in the issue of Tibetan independence, with the pro-Tibet argument of Tibet having been ruled by Tibetan rulers, ignoring the fact that Tibet was conquered by the Mongols in 1247 and that the "Tibetan ruler" Phagpa derived the power of his rule from the Mongol Empire.


Tibet would be ruled by a succession of Sakya lamas until 1358, when central Tibet came under control of the Kagyu sect.


Ming Dynasty

Main article: Tibet during the Ming Dynasty

Modern historians still debate on the exact relationship the Chinese Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) had with Tibet. Some scholars support the view that the Ming Dynasty had full sovereignty over Tibet, while others believe that Tibet was simply an independent tributary and that the Ming merely had non-militant suzerainty over Tibet by granting lama rulers various official titles. For other uses, see Ming. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Suzerainty (pronounced or ) is a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy to control its foreign affairs. ...


Late 14th - 16th Century

Between 1346 and 1354, already towards the end of the Yuan dynasty, the House of Pagmodru would topple the Sakya. The following 80 years were a period of relative stability. They also saw the birth of the Gelugpa school (also known as Yellow Hats) by the disciples of Tsongkhapa Lobsang Dragpa, and the founding of the Ganden, Drepung, and Sera monasteries near Lhasa. After the 1430s, the country entered another period of internal power struggles.[34] The Geluk (dge lugs) School was founded by Tsongkhapa (1357-1419), Tibets best known religious reformer and arguably its greatest philosopher. ... The Gelug School Je Tsongkhapa, whose name means The Man from Onion Valley, also known as Je Rinpoche and by his ordained name Lobsang Drakpa, is recorded as the founder of the Gelugpa school in Tibetan Buddhism. ... Ganden monastery Ganden Monastery is one of the great three Gelukpa university monasteries of Tibet, located on Wangbur Mountain, Tagtse County, 47 kilometers from Lhasa. ... Drepung monastery Drepung Monastery is one of the great three Gelukpa university monasteries of Tibet. ... Sera Monastery is one of the great three Gelukpa university monasteries of Tibet. ...


The Dalai Lama Lineage

It has been commonly wrongly believed that Altan Khan "bestowed" the "title" Dalai Lama on Sonam Gyatso, and placed him in a reincarnation line with Gendun Drup and Gendun Gyatso in 1578. Altan Khan (1507-1582), whose given name was Anda, was the de facto ruler of the Right Wing of the Mongols and exercised his power over whole Mongolia. ... Sonam Gyatso (1543 - 1588) was the first officially recognized Dalai Lama by the Mongolians, who gave this teacher the Mongolian name of the Lama (teacher) that has knowledge vast as an ocean (Dalai). ... Gendun Drup (1391 – 1474) is retrospectively considered to be the first in the line of Dalai Lamas of Tibet, who are believed to be reincarnations of Chenresig (Sanskrit: Avalokiteshvara), the Bodhisattva of Compassion. ... Gendun Gyatso Palzangpo (Wylie transliteration: Dge-dun Rgya-mtsho), also Gendun Gyatso (Sublimely Glorious Ocean of Spiritual Aspirants, layname: Yonten Phuntsok) (1475 – 1541) was the second Dalai Lama. ...

"More confusing in our time is that many writers have mistranslated Dalai Lama as "Ocean of Wisdom." The full Mongolian title, "the wonderful Vajradhara, good splendid meritorious ocean," given by Altan Khan, is primarily a translation of the Tibetan words Sonam Gyatso (sonam is "merit")."
The 14th Dalai Lama added: "The very name of each Dalai Lama from the Second Dalai Lama onwards had the word Gyatso (in it), which means 'ocean' in Tibetan. Even now I am Tenzin Gyatso, so the first name is changing but the second part (the word "ocean") became like part of each Dalai Lama's name. All of the Dalai Lamas, since the Second, have this name. So I don't really agree that the Mongols actually conferred a title. It was just a translation."[35][36]

While this did not really mark the beginning of a massive conversion of Mongols to Buddhism (this would only happen in the 1630s), it did lead to the widespread use of Buddhist ideology for the legitimation of power among the Mongol nobility. Lastly, the fourth Dalai Lama was a grandson of Altan Khan.[37] Yonten Gyatso was the 4th Dalai Lama, ( 1589- 1616). ...


Khoshud, Dzungars, and the Qing Dynasty

In the 1630s, Tibet would become entangled in the power struggles between the rising Manchu and various Mongol and Oirad factions. Ligden Khan of the Chakhar, on the retreat from the Manchu, set out to Tibet to destroy the Yellow Hat school. He died on the way in Koko Nur in 1634,[38] but his vassal Tsogt Taij would continue the fight, even having his own son Arslan killed for changing sides. Tsogt Taij was defeated and killed by Güshi Khan of the Khoshud in 1637, who would in turn become the overlord over Tibet, and act as a "Protector of the Yellow Church".[39] Güshi helped the Fifth Dalai Lama to establish himself as the highest spiritual and political authority in Tibet and destroyed any potential rivals, like the prince of Tsang. The time of the fifth Dalai Lama was, however, also a period of rich cultural development. The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... The Oyirad (also spelled Oirat) is an alliance of the western Mongols. ... Lingdan Khutaghtu Khan, also Ligdan, Legdan or Likdan (ruled 1604-1634), was the last in the Borjigin dynasty of Mongol Khans who ruled from Chaharia. ... Chakhar is a group of the Mongols. ... Choghtu Khong Tayiji, born Tümengken (Tümengken čoγtu qong tayiǰi, 1581-1637), was a ruler of the Khalkha Mongols. ... Güshi Khan was a 17th century Kalmyk military leader and the leader of the Tibetan Buddhist school of Karmapa. ... Lozang Gyatso, the Great Fifth Dalai Lama, (1617-1682), is one of only two Dalai Lamas formally titled Great. He initiated the construction of the fabulous Potala Palace in Lhasa, Tibet. ...


His death was kept secret for 15 years by the regent (Tibetan: desiWylie: sde-srid), Sanggye Gyatso. His reasons for doing so are not really clear, but the Sixth Dalai Lama was only enthroned in 1697. The new Dalai Lama did not really live up to expectations: he would blackmail the Panchen Lama to let him return to the lay class, and afterwards grow long hair and spend the nights outside the palace, with women of his choice. He gained fame for writing love poetry.[40] The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... The Wylie transliteration scheme is a method for transliterating the Tibetan script using the keys on a typical English language typewriter. ... Tsangyang Gyatso Tsangyang Gyatso, (Tibetan: ཚངས་དབྱངས་རྒྱ་མཚོ,Wylie transliteration: Tshang dbyang Rgya mtsho), (1683 – November 15, 1706) was the sixth Dalai Lama. ...

Lha-bzang Khan, the last Khoshut King of Tibet
Lha-bzang Khan, the last Khoshut King of Tibet

In 1705, Lobzang Khan of the Khoshud used the 6th Dalai Lama's escapades as excuse to take control of Tibet. The regent was murdered, and the Dalai Lama sent to Beijing. He died on the way, in Koko Nur, ostensibly from illness. Lobzang Khan appointed a new Dalai Lama, who however was not accepted by the Gelugpa school. A rival reincarnation was found in Koko Nur. Lha-bzang Khan, the last Khoshut King of Tibet Lha-bzang Khan (d. ... Kelzang Gyatso (Bskal-bzang Rgya-mtsho)(1708 – 1757), also spelled Kelsang Gyatso and Kezang Gyatso was the 7th Dalai Lama of Tibet. ...


The Dzungars invaded Tibet in 1717, deposed and killed a pretender to the position of Dalai Lama (who had been promoted by Lhabzang, the titular King of Tibet), which met with widespread approval. However, they soon began to loot the holy places of Lhasa which brought a swift response from Emperor Kangxi in 1718, but his military expedition was annihilated by the Dzungars not far from Lhasa.[41][42] The Dzungars (also Jungars or Zungars; Mongolian: Зүүнгар Züüngar) were a tribe of the Oirat Mongols. ... This article needs cleanup, so as to conform to a higher standard. ...


Many Nyingmapa and Bonpos were executed and Tibetans visiting Dzungar officials were forced to stick their tongues out so the Dzungars could tell if the person recited constant mantras (which was said to make the tongue black or brown). This allowed them to pick the Nyingmapa and Bonpos, who recited many magic-mantras.[43] This habit of sticking one's tongue out as a mark of respect on greeting someone has remained a Tibetan custom until recent times. The Nyingma tradition is one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. ... Bön has typically been described as the shamanistic religion in Tibet before the arrival of Buddhism in the 7th century. ...


A second, larger, expedition sent by Emperor Kangxi expelled the Dzungars from Tibet in 1720 and the troops were hailed as liberators. They brought Kelzang Gyatso with them from Kumbum to Lhasa and he was installed as the seventh Dalai Lama in 1721.[41] The Dzungars (also Jungars or Zungars; Mongolian: Зүүнгар Züüngar) were a tribe of the Oirat Mongols. ...


The Qing put Amdo under their rule in 1724, and incorporated eastern Kham into neighbouring Chinese provinces in 1728.[44] The Qing government sent a resident commissioner (amban) to Lhasa. Tibetan factions rebelled in 1750 and killed the ambans. Then, a Qing army entered and defeated the rebels and installed an administration headed by the Dalai Lama. The number of soldiers in Tibet was kept at about 2,000. The defensive duties were partly helped out by a local force which was reorganized by the resident commissioner, and the Tibetan government continued to manage day-to-day affairs as before. Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Situation of the east Tibetan region of Amdo Amdo (Tibetan: ཨ༌མདོ, Chinese: 安多, Pinyin: Ānduō) is one of the three former provinces of Tibet, the other two being Ü-Tsang and Kham; it is also the place from which Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, comes from. ... Situation of the east Tibetan region of Kham Kham (Tibetan: ཁམས; Wylie transliteration: Khams; Simplified Chinese: 康; Pinyin: Kāng), also referred to as the Kingdom of Kham, is one of the three traditional provinces claimed by the Tibetan government-in-exile and the International Tibetan Independence Movement. ... The Ambans were imperial administrators of Qing China in Tibet. ...


While the ancient Sino-Tibetan relationships are complex, there can be no question regarding the subordination of Tibet to Manchu-ruled China following the chaotic era of the 6th and 7th Dalai Lamas.[45] Already in 1725 two high Chinese commissioners had been appointed to control the temporal affairs of the country.[46] In 1751, the Manchu (Qing) Emperor Qianlong established the Dalai Lama as both the spiritual leader and political leader of Tibet who lead a government (Kashag) with four Kalöns in it.[47] The Qianlong Emperor (September 25, 1711–February 7, 1799) was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. ...


In 1788, Gurkha forces sent by Bahadur Shah, the Regent of Nepal, invaded Tibet, occupying a number of frontier districts. The young Panchen Lama fled to Lhasa and the Manchu Qianlong Emperor sent troops to Lhasa, upon which the Nepalese withdrew agreeing to pay a large annual sum. Gurkha, also spelled as Gorkha, are people from Nepal and parts of North India, who take their name from the eighth century Hindu warrior-saint Guru Gorakhnath. ... Two Mughal Emperors have had the name of Bahadur Shah: Bahadur Shah I Bahadur Shah Zafar II. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... The Qianlong Emperor (born Hongli, September 25, 1711 – February 7, 1799) was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. ...


In 1791 the Nepalese Gurkhas invaded Tibet a second time, seizing Shigatse and destroyed, plundered, and desecrated the great Tashilhunpo Monastery. The Panchen Lama was forced to flee to Lhasa once again. The Qianlong Emperor then sent an army of 17,000 men to Tibet. In 1793, with the assistance of Tibetan troops, they managed to drive the Nepalese troops to within about 30 km of Kathmandu before the Gurkhas conceded defeat and returned all the treasure they had plundered.[48] Soon the Chinese emperor decreed that the selection of the Dalai Lama and other high lamas such as the Panchen Lama was under the supervision of Qing government's Amban Commissioners in Lhasa. An imperial edict ordered that future dalai lamas were to be chosen from the names of children drawn from a "golden urn".[45][46] Shigatse (Tibetan: གཞིས་ཀ་རྩེ་; Wylie transliteration: Gzhis-ka-rtse; Modified Wiley: gzhi-ka-rtse; pinyin (Tibetan): Xigazê; Chinese: 日喀则; pinyin: Rìkāzé, Zhigatse [Zhi-ga-tse], and Xigatse) is the second largest city in Tibet with a population of 80,000. ... Tashilhunpo Monastery The Thanka Wall overlooking the monastery Tashilhunpo Monastery, built in 1447, is a historic and culturally important monestary in Shigatse, Tibet. ... For other uses, see Kathmandu (disambiguation). ...


European contact

António de Andrade
António de Andrade
Sándor Kőrösi Csoma
Sándor Kőrösi Csoma

The first Europeans to arrive in Tibet were Portuguese missionaries in 1624 by the hand of António de Andrade, and were welcomed by the Tibetans who allowed them to build a church. The 18th century brought more Jesuits and Capuchins from Europe who gradually met opposition from Tibetan lamas who finally expelled them from Tibet in 1745. However, at the time not all Europeans were banned from the country — in 1774 a Scottish nobleman, George Bogle, came to Shigatse to investigate trade for the British East India Company, introducing the first potatoes into Tibet.[49] {{Warbox| conflict=The British Expedition to Tibet Tibet is kool ! ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Father António de Andrade (born 1580 in Oleiros, Portugal; died March 19, 1634, in Goa, India) was a Jesuit priest from Portugal. ... Sándor KÅ‘rösi Csoma, Alexander Csoma de KÅ‘rös, born Csoma Sándor (1784-1842) Hungarian philologist, born in KÅ‘rös, Transylvania, who attempted to trace the origin of the Magyar ethnic group. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Lieutenant Colonel Sir Francis Edward Younghusband (31 May 1863 - 31 July 1942) was a British Army officer, explorer, and spiritualist. ... Father António de Andrade (born 1580 in Oleiros, Portugal; died March 19, 1634, in Goa, India) was a Jesuit priest from Portugal. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (OFM Cap) is an order of friars in the Roman Catholic Church, among the chief offshoots of the Franciscans. ... Not to be confused with Llama. ... Shigatse (Tibetan: གཞིས་ཀ་རྩེ་; Wylie transliteration: Gzhis-ka-rtse; Modified Wiley: gzhi-ka-rtse; pinyin (Tibetan): Xigazê; Chinese: 日喀则; pinyin: Rìkāzé, Zhigatse [Zhi-ga-tse], and Xigatse) is the second largest city in Tibet with a population of 80,000. ... This article is about economic exchange. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ...


However by the 19th century the situation of foreigners in Tibet grew more ominous. The British Empire was encroaching from northern India into the Himalayas and Afghanistan and the Russian Empire of the tsars was expanding south into Central Asia and each power became suspicious of intent in Tibet. In 1840, Sándor Kőrösi Csoma arrived in Tibet, hoping that he would be able to trace the origin of the Magyar ethnic group. By the 1850s Tibet had banned all foreigners from Tibet and shut its borders to all outsiders. For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Sándor KÅ‘rösi Csoma, Alexander Csoma de KÅ‘rös, born Csoma Sándor (1784-1842) Hungarian philologist, born in KÅ‘rös, Transylvania, who attempted to trace the origin of the Magyar ethnic group. ... Magyar may refer to: The Magyar language The Magyar people This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


In 1865 Great Britain began secretly mapping Tibet. Trained Indian surveyor-spies disguised as pilgrims or traders counted their strides on their travels across Tibet and took readings at night. Nain Singh, the most famous, measured the longitude and latitude and altitude of Lhasa and traced the Yarlung Tsangpo River. Monument to pilgrims in Burgos, Spain This article is on religious pilgrims. ... Nain Singh (नैन सिंह) was one of the first of the pundits who explored the Himalayas for the British. ... Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum. ... For other uses, see Lhasa (disambiguation). ... Yarlung Tsamgpo River, whitewater Yarlung Tsangpo River, sediment The Yarlung Tsangpo River originates upstream from the Yarlung Tsangpo Canyon, Tibet. ...


British Invasion

At the beginning of the twentieth century the British and Russian Empires competed for supremacy in Central Asia. Tibet was the biggest prize of this rivalry. To forestall the Russians, in 1904, a British expedition led by Colonel Francis Younghusband was sent to Lhasa to force a trading agreement and to prevent Tibetans from establishing a relationship with the Russians.


On July 19, 1903, Younghusband arrived at Gangtok, the capital city of the Indian state of Sikkim, to prepare for his mission. A letter from the under-secretary to the government of India to Younghusband on July 26, 1903 stated that “In the event of your meeting the Dalai Lama, the government of India authorizes you to give him the assurance which you suggest in your letter.” [50] The British took a few months to prepare for the expedition which pressed into Tibetan territories in early December 1903. The entire British force numbered over 3,000 fighting men and was accompanied by 7,000 sherpas, porters and camp followers.


The Tibetans were aware of the expedition. To avoid bloodshed the Tibetan general at Yetung pledged that if the Tibetans make no attack upon the British, no attack should be made by the British on them. Colonel Younghusband on December 6, 1903 replied that “we are not at war with Tibet and that, unless we are ourselves attacked, we shall not attack the Tibetans.” [51]


Despite the mutual agreement, the British expedition did take the lives of a few thousand unprepared Tibetan soldiers and civilians. The biggest massacre took place on March 31, 1904 at a mountain pass halfway to Gyantse near a village called Guru. Colonel Younghusband tricked the 2,000 Tibetan soldiers guarding the pass into extinguishing the burning ropes of their basic rifles before firing at them with the Maxim machine guns and rifles. The Tibetan casualty, according to Younghusband’s account, was “500 killed and wounded.” [52] Others have claimed that the Tibetan casualty was as high as 1,300.


According to the British, their intention was to disarm Tibetan soldiers who were being surrounded. The slaughter was triggered by the Tibetans who fired the first shot. [53] But the accounts of those who pulled the triggers make it clear that the British had the intention of killing as many as possible. “From three sides at once a withering volley of magazine fire crashed into the crowded mass of Tibetans,” wrote Perceval Landon. “Under the appalling punishment of lead, they [the Tibetans] staggered, failed and ran…Men dropped at every yard.” [54]


The British soldiers mowed down the Tibetans with machine guns as they fled. “I got so sick of the slaughter that I ceased fire, though the general’s order was to make as big a bag as possible,” wrote Lieutenant Arthur Hadow, commander of the Maxim guns detachment. “I hope I shall never again have to shoot down men walking away.” [54]


In a telegraph to his superior in India, the day after the massacre, Younghusband stated: “I trust the tremendous punishment they have received will prevent further fighting, and induce them to at last to negotiate.” [55]

Sera Monastery, Lhasa, Tibet (2006)
Sera Monastery, Lhasa, Tibet (2006)

When the mission reached Lhasa, the Dalai Lama had already fled to Urga in Mongolia (and was consequently deposed by the Chinese government[56]). As Younghusband found the option of returning to India empty-handed untenable, he proceeded to draft a treaty unilaterally, and have it signed in the Potala by the regent, Ganden Tri Rinpoche, and any other local officials he could gather together as an ad hoc government. The Tibetan ministers Younghusband dealt with had apparently, unknown to him, just been appointed to their posts. The regular ministers had been imprisoned for suspected pro-British leanings and it was feared they would be too accommodating to Younghusband.[5] A treaty was signed by lay and ecclesiastical officials of the said Tibetan government, and by representatives of the three monasteries of Sera, Drepung, and Ganden[57] and the British force left the city of Lhasa on 23 September 1904. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1696 × 2544 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1696 × 2544 pixel, file size: 2. ... Sera Monastery is one of the great three Gelukpa university monasteries of Tibet. ... For other uses, see Lhasa (disambiguation). ... Ulaanbaatar (Mongolian: Улаанбаатар) or Ulan Bator is the capital of Mongolia. ... Sera Monastery is one of the great three Gelukpa university monasteries of Tibet. ... Drepung monastery Drepung Monastery is one of the great three Gelukpa university monasteries of Tibet. ... Ganden monastery Ganden Monastery is one of the great three Gelukpa university monasteries of Tibet, located on Wangbur Mountain, Tagtse County, 47 kilometers from Lhasa. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ...


The treaty made provisions for the frontier between Sikkim and Tibet to be respected, for free trade between British and Tibetan subjects, and for an indemnity to be paid from the Qing court to the British Government for its expenses in dispatching armed troops to Lhasa. It also made provision for a British trade agent to reside at the trade mart at Gyangzê. The provisions of this 1904 treaty were confirmed in a 1906 treaty signed between Britain and China, in which the British, for a fee from the Qing court, also agreed "not to annex Tibetan territory or to interfere in the administration of Tibet.".[58] The position of British Trade Agent at Gyangzê was occupied from 1904 until 1944. It was not until 1937, with the creation of the position of "Head of British Mission Lhasa", that a British officer had a permanent posting in Lhasa itself.[59] A Nepalese agency had also been established in Lhasa after the invasion of Tibet by the Gurkha government of Nepal in 1855.[60]


In the Anglo-Chinese Convention of 1906 which confirmed the Anglo-Tibetan Treaty of 1904, Britain agreed "not to annex Tibetan territory or to interfere in the administration of Tibet" while China engaged "not to permit any other foreign state to interfere with the territory or internal administration of Tibet".[61] In the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907, drafted by the British, Britain also recognized the "suzerainty of China over Thibet" and, in conformity with such admitted principle, engaged "not to enter into negotiations with Tibet except through the intermediary of the Chinese Government."[62] Suzerainty (pronounced or ) is a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy to control its foreign affairs. ...


Qing control reasserted

The Qing put Amdo under their rule in 1724, and incorporated eastern Kham into neighbouring Chinese provinces in 1728.[63][64][44] Chinese government ruled these areas indirectly through the Tibetan noblemen. Tibetans claimed that Tibetan control of the Batang region of Kham in eastern Tibet appears to have continued uncontested from the time of an agreement made in 1726[65] until soon after the British invasion, which alarmed the Qing rulers in China. They sent an imperial official to the region to begin reasserting Qing control, but the locals revolted and killed him. The Qing government in Beijing then appointed Zhao Erfang, the Governor of Xining, "Army Commander of Tibet" to reintegrate Tibet into China. He was sent in 1905 (though other sources say this occurred in 1908)[66] on a punitive expedition. His troops destroyed a number of monasteries in Kham and Amdo, and a process of sinification of the region was begun.[67][68][69] Several observers and historians point out that some of the reforms implemented in this process also were beneficial to the local population[70][71]. Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Situation of the east Tibetan region of Amdo Amdo (Tibetan: ཨ༌མདོ, Chinese: 安多, Pinyin: Ä€nduō) is one of the three former provinces of Tibet, the other two being Ãœ-Tsang and Kham; it is also the place from which Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, comes from. ... Situation of the east Tibetan region of Kham Kham (Tibetan: ཁམས; Wylie transliteration: Khams; Simplified Chinese: 康; Pinyin: Kāng), also referred to as the Kingdom of Kham, is one of the three traditional provinces claimed by the Tibetan government-in-exile and the International Tibetan Independence Movement. ... Situation of the east Tibetan region of Kham Kham (Tibetan: ཁམས; Wylie transliteration: Khams; Simplified Chinese: 康; Pinyin: Kāng), also referred to as the Kingdom of Kham, is one of the three traditional provinces claimed by the Tibetan government-in-exile and the International Tibetan Independence Movement. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing the... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing the... Peking redirects here. ... Location of Xining Xining (Simplified Chinese : 西宁, Traditional Chinese : 西寧, Tibetan : Ziling) is the capital of Qinghai Province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Situation of the east Tibetan region of Kham Kham (Tibetan: ཁམས; Wylie transliteration: Khams; Simplified Chinese: 康; Pinyin: Kāng), also referred to as the Kingdom of Kham, is one of the three traditional provinces claimed by the Tibetan government-in-exile and the International Tibetan Independence Movement. ... Situation of the east Tibetan region of Amdo Amdo (Tibetan: ཨ༌མདོ, Chinese: 安多, Pinyin: Ä€nduō) is one of the three former provinces of Tibet, the other two being Ãœ-Tsang and Kham; it is also the place from which Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, comes from. ...


After the Dalai Lama's title's had been restored in November 1908 and he was about to return to Lhasa from Amdo in the summer of 1909, the Chinese decided to send military forces to Lhasa to keep control over him. The Dalai Lama once again fled, this time to India, and was once again deposed by the Chinese[72]. The situation was soon to change, however, as, after the fall of the Qing dynasty in October 1911, Zhao's soldiers mutinied and beheaded him.[73][74]


The Republic of China

On 1 January 1912 the Republic of China was established and one month later the regent of Qing Emperor Xuantong abdicated.[75] In April 1912 the Chinese garrison of troops in Lhasa surrendered to the Tibetan authorities while the new Chinese Republican government wished to make the commander of the Chinese troops in Lhasa its new Tibetan representative. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Aisin-Gioro Puyi¹ (February 7, 1906 - October 17, 1967) was the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1912, and non-ruling emperor between 1912 and 1924), the tenth (and last) emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty to rule over China. ...

The Dalai Lama returned to Tibet from India in July 1912. By the end of 1912, the Chinese troops in Tibet had returned, via India, to China Proper.[75] This image was origianlly part of a book cover by author Glenn H. Mullin. ... This image was origianlly part of a book cover by author Glenn H. Mullin. ... The 13th Dalai Lama Thubten Gyatso (Tibetan: ཐུབ་བསྟན་རྒྱ་མཚོ་) (born February 12, 1876; died December 17, 1933), also spelled Thupten Gyatso, was the 13th Dalai Lama of Tibet. ... China proper refers to the historical heartlands of China in the context of that paradigm which contrasts these heartlands with frontier regions of Outer China (including sections of Inner Asia and other regions). ...


The Tibet-Mongolia Treaty of 1913

In early 1913, Agvan Dorzhiev and two other Tibetan representatives[76] signed a treaty in Urga, proclaiming mutual recognition and their independence from China. However, Agvan Dorzhiev's authority to sign such a treaty has always been - and still is - disputed by some authorities including legal experts.[77] Agvan Lobsan Dorzhiev, Agvan Dorjiev, Dorjieff, or Tsenyi Khempo (1854-1938), a Khory Buryat Mongolian, and a Russian subject, was born in the village of Khara-Shibir, not far from Ulan Ude, to the east of Lake Baikal. ... The Treaty of Friendship and Alliance Between the Government of Mongolia and Tibet was signed in 1913 at Urga (now Ulaanbaatar). ... September 2004 Ulan Bator, or Ulaanbaatar (Улаанбаатар, [Ulaɣan Baɣatar]) in Mongolian, is the capital of Mongolia. ...


The 13th Dalai Lama himself denied he authorized Agvan Dorzhiev to conclude any treaties on behalf of Tibet.[78][79] The Tibetan government never ratified this treaty and no Tibetan version of this treaty was published by Tibetan government.[79] A Russian diplomat pointed out to the British ambassador that since Agvan Dorzhiev himself is a Russian subject, his legal ability to sign such a treaty is in question.[80]


Some British authors have even disputed the mere existence of the treaty,[81] but scholars of Mongolia generally are positive it exists[82], as were contemporary authors [83][84]. The Mongolian text of the treaty has, for example, been published by the Mongolian Academy of Sciences in 1982.[85][86]


The Simla Convention of 1914

In 1914, representatives of China, Tibet and Britain negotiated a treaty in India: the Simla Convention. During the convention, the British tried to divide Tibet into Inner and Outer Tibet. When negotiations broke down over the specific boundary between Inner and Outer, the British demanded instead to advance their line of control, enabling them to annex 9,000 square kilometers of traditional Tibetan territory in southern Tibet i.e Tawang region, which corresponds to the north-west parts of modern Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh, while recognizing Chinese suzerainty over Tibet[87] and affirming the latter's status as part of Chinese territory, with a promise from the Government of China that Tibet will not be converted into a Chinese province.[88][89] Tibetan representatives signed without Chinese approval, more so as an act of defiance now that the Chinese army had left; after the collapse of Chinese authority in Tibet in 1912. China maintains that it was signed under British pressure; however, the representative of China's central government declared that the secretive annexation of territory was not acceptable. The boundary established in the convention, the McMahon Line, was considered by the British and later the independent Indian government to be the boundary; however, the Chinese view since then has been that since China, which had suzerainty over Tibet, did not sign the treaty, the treaty was meaningless, and the annexation and control of parts of Arunachal Pradesh by India is illegal. This paved the way to the Sino-Indian War of 1962 and the boundary dispute between China and India today. , Arunachal Pradesh   (Hindi:   ) is the easternmost state of India. ... Suzerainty (pronounced or ) is a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy to control its foreign affairs. ... The McMahon Line crosses a high-altitude wasteland which was briefly the focus of world attention in 1962 as Indian and Chinese forces struggled for control. ... Combatants China India Commanders Zhang Guohua[4] Brij Mohan Kaul Strength 80,000[5][6] Casualties Killed 1,460 (Chinese sources)[7] None captured[8][9][10][11] Wounded 1,697[7] Killed 3,128 (Indian sources)[12] Captured 3,968[2] Wounded 548[13] The Sino-Indian War (Simplified...

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... (Redirected from 14th Dalai Lama) Tenzin Gyatso is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ...

World War I and the Decentralisation of China

The subsequent outbreak of World War I and the division of China into military cliques ruled by warlords caused the Western powers and the infighting factions within China to lose interest in Tibet, and the 13th Dalai Lama ruled undisturbed until his death in 1933. At that time, the government of Tibet controlled all of Ü-Tsang (Dbus-gtsang) and western Kham (Khams), roughly coincident with the borders of Tibet Autonomous Region today. Eastern Kham, separated by the Yangtze River was under the control of Chinese warlord Liu Wenhui. The situation in Amdo (Qinghai) was more complicated, with the Xining area controlled after 1928 by the Hui warlord Ma Bufang, who constantly strove to exert control over the rest of Amdo (Qinghai). “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Warlord era represents the period in the history of the Republic of China from 1916 to the mid-1930s when the country was divided by various military cliques, and this division continued until the fall of the nationalist government in mainland China in many regions, such as in Sichuan... A warlord is a person with power who has de facto military control of a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. ... Ãœ-Tsang (Wylie transliteration: Dbus-gtsang, Tibetan: དབུསགཙང་ Simplified Chinese: 卫藏; Traditional Chinese: 衛藏; pinyin: ), or Tsang-Ãœ, is one of the traditional provinces of Tibet, the others being Amdo and Kham. ... Situation of the east Tibetan region of Kham Kham (Tibetan: ཁམས; Wylie transliteration: Khams; Simplified Chinese: 康; Pinyin: Kāng), also referred to as the Kingdom of Kham, is one of the three traditional provinces claimed by the Tibetan government-in-exile and the International Tibetan Independence Movement. ... This article is about the administrative region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... (1895-1976) General Liu Wenhui or Liu Wen-hui, one of the warlords of Sichuan Province during Chinas Warlord era. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ... Location of Xining Xining (Simplified Chinese : 西宁, Traditional Chinese : 西寧, Tibetan : Ziling) is the capital of Qinghai Province, Peoples Republic of China. ... The Hui (回) ethnic group is unrelated to the Hui (å¾½) dialects. ... Ma Bufang (Chinese: 馬步芳; 1903–1975), was a prominent Ma clique warlord in China during the Republic of China era, ruling the northwestern province of Qinghai. ...


In 1934, soon after the 13th Dalai Lama died, the Kashag reaffirmed their 1914 position that Tibet remains nominally part of China, provided the former shall manage its own political affairs.[90][91] Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Writing in 1940, after his visit to Tibet in 1936–7, British Army officer Freddie Spencer Chapman said: Frederick Spencer Chapman was born in London on May 10, 1907. ...

"Since the expulsion of the Chinese, following the revolution of 1910, there has been no official representative in Lhasa. In 1934, however, when General Huang Mu Sung returned to China, he left a wireless transmission set in the charge of a certain Mr. Tsang. As the Tibetans have no other form of wireless transmission, Tsang became a rather important person. This was especially clear during the recent disturbances on the Sino-Tibetan frontier, for it takes ten days or a fortnight for a mounted messenger from Lhasa to reach Derge or Chamdo. If Tsang did not like the message he changed it; if he disapproved of it altogether, he just didn't send it."[92]

In 1935 the 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso was born in Amdo in eastern Tibet and was recognized as the latest reincarnation. He was taken to Lhasa in 1937 where he was later given an official ceremony in 1939. In 1943, U.S. government officially recognized Tibet as a part of China.[93] In 1944, during World War II, two Austrian mountaineers, Heinrich Harrer and Peter Aufschnaiter came to Lhasa, where Harrer became a tutor and friend to the young Dalai Lama, giving him sound knowledge of Western culture and modern society, until he was forced to leave in 1959. Tenzin Gyatso is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ... For other uses, see Lhasa (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Heinrich Harrer Heinrich Harrer (July 6, 1912 – January 7, 2006) was an Austrian mountaineer, sportsman, geographer, and author. ... Peter Aufschnaiter Peter Aufschnaiter (* 1899 in Kitzbühel, Austria; † October 19th 1973 in Innsbruck, Austria) was a mountaineer, agricultural scientist and geographist. ...


Rule of the People's Republic of China

Main article: People's Liberation Army invasion of Tibet (1950–1951)

Neither the Republic of China nor the People's Republic of China have ever renounced China's claim to sovereignty over Tibet.[9] The People's Liberation Army first entered Chamdo on October 7 1950.[94] The highly mobile units of the PLA quickly surrounded the outnumbered Tibetan forces, and by October 19 1950, 5,000 Tibetan troops had surrendered.[94] Since the signing of the Seventeen Point Agreement in 1951, Tibet has been officially incorporated into the People's Republic of China. According to this Agreement between the Tibetan and Chinese central governments, the Dalai Lama-ruled Tibetan area was supposed to be a highly autonomous area of China. Before 1951, according to anthropologists, a vast majority of the people of Tibet were serfs ("mi ser"),[95][96][97][98] often bound to land owned by monasteries and aristocrats. Tibetans in exile have claimed that the serfs and their masters formed only a small part of Tibetan society, and argued that Tibet would have modernized itself without China's intervention. However, the Chinese government claims that most Tibetans were still serfs in 1951,[99], and have proclaimed that the Tibetan government inhibited the development of Tibet during its self-rule from 1913 to 1959, and opposed modernization efforts by the Chinese government.[99] For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Qamdo (Tibetan:ཆབ་མདོ་རྫོང་(Chab-mdo), Mandarin Chinese:昌都(Chāngdū)) is a county in Tibet. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet, the official name of a document in which delegates of the Dalai Lama reached an agreement with the new Peoples Republic of China, which regarded Tibet as part of its territory. ... Serf redirects here. ... Buddhist monastery near Tibet A monastery is the habitation of monks. ...


This 1951 agreement was initially put into effect in the Tibetan regions under Dalai Lama's administration (Ü-Tsang and western Kham). However, Eastern Kham and Amdo (Qinghai) were considered by the Chinese to be outside the administration of the government of Tibet in Lhasa, and were thus treated like any other Chinese province with land redistribution implemented in full. Most lands were taken away from noblemen and monasteries and re-distributed to serfs. As a result, a rebellion led by noblemen and monasteries broke out in Amdo and eastern Kham in June 1956. The insurrection, supported by the American CIA, eventually spread to Lhasa. It was crushed by 1959. During this campaign, tens of thousands of Tibetans were killed. The 14th Dalai Lama and other government principals fled to exile in India, but isolated resistance continued in Tibet until 1972 when the CIA abruptly withdrew its support. After the Lhasa rebellion in 1959, the Chinese government lowered the level of autonomy of Central Tibet, and implemented full-scale land redistribution in all areas of Tibet. Ãœ-Tsang (Wylie transliteration: Dbus-gtsang, Tibetan: དབུསགཙང་ Simplified Chinese: 卫藏; Traditional Chinese: 衛藏; pinyin: ), or Tsang-Ãœ, is one of the traditional provinces of Tibet, the others being Amdo and Kham. ... Situation of the east Tibetan region of Kham Kham (Tibetan: ཁམས; Wylie transliteration: Khams; Simplified Chinese: 康; Pinyin: Kāng), also referred to as the Kingdom of Kham, is one of the three traditional provinces claimed by the Tibetan government-in-exile and the International Tibetan Independence Movement. ... Situation of the east Tibetan region of Kham Kham (Tibetan: ཁམས; Wylie transliteration: Khams; Simplified Chinese: 康; Pinyin: Kāng), also referred to as the Kingdom of Kham, is one of the three traditional provinces claimed by the Tibetan government-in-exile and the International Tibetan Independence Movement. ... Situation of the east Tibetan region of Amdo Amdo (Tibetan: ཨ༌མདོ, Chinese: 安多, Pinyin: Ä€nduō) is one of the three former provinces of Tibet, the other two being Ãœ-Tsang and Kham; it is also the place from which Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, comes from. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ... Situation of the east Tibetan region of Amdo Amdo (Tibetan: ཨ༌མདོ, Chinese: 安多, Pinyin: Ä€nduō) is one of the three former provinces of Tibet, the other two being Ãœ-Tsang and Kham; it is also the place from which Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, comes from. ... Situation of the east Tibetan region of Kham Kham (Tibetan: ཁམས; Wylie transliteration: Khams; Simplified Chinese: 康; Pinyin: Kāng), also referred to as the Kingdom of Kham, is one of the three traditional provinces claimed by the Tibetan government-in-exile and the International Tibetan Independence Movement. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... The initial Peoples Republic of Chinas military invasion of Tibet in 1950 met with high resistance in the heart of the country. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ...


On 5 June 1959 Purshottam Trikamdas, Senior Advocate, Supreme Court of India, presented a report on Tibet to the International Commission of Jurists (an NGO). The press conference address on the report states in paragraph 26 that is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the land as established by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. ... The International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) is an international human rights non-government organisation. ... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization which is not a part of a government. ...

From the facts stated above the following conclusions may be drawn: … (e) To examine all such evidence obtained by this Committee and from other sources and to take appropriate action thereon and in particular to determine whether the crime of Genocide — for which already there is strong presumption — is established and, in that case, to initiate such action as envisaged by the Genocide Convention of 1948 and by the Charter of the United Nations for suppression of these acts and appropriate redress;[100]

In 1989, the Panchen Lama was finally allowed to return to Shigatse, where he addressed a crowd of 30,000 and described what he saw as the suffering of Tibet and the harm being done to his country in the name of socialist reform under the rule of the PRC in terms reminiscent of the petition he had presented to Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai in 1962.[101] 5 days later, he died of a massive heart attack at the age of 50.[102] For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the UN General Assembly in December 1948 and came into effect in January 1951. ... The United Nations Charter is the constitution of the United Nations. ...


The PRC continues to portray its rule over Tibet as an unalloyed improvement, but foreign governments continue to make occasional protests about aspects of PRC rule in Tibet as groups such as Human Rights Watch report alleged human rights violations. All governments, however, recognize the PRC's sovereignty over Tibet today, and none have recognized the Government of Tibet in Exile in India. Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Official language Tibetan Headquarters Dharamsala Head of State (Dalai Lama) Tenzin Gyatso National Anthem Tibetan National Anthem, (Link) The Government of Tibet in Exile, officially named the Central Tibetan Administration (CTA) of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, is a theocratic government-like entity headed by Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai...


In 2005, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao offered to hold talks with the 14th Dalai Lama on the Tibet issue, provided he dropped the demand for independence. The Dalai Lama said in an interview with the South China Morning Post "We are willing to be part of the People's Republic of China, to have it govern and guarantee to preserve our Tibetan culture, spirituality and our environment." He had already said he would accept Chinese sovereignty over Tibet but insisted on real autonomy over its religious and cultural life. The Tibetan government-in-exile called on the Chinese government to respond.[103] The move was seen to be unpopular with some Tibetans in exile, particularly among the younger generation.[103] Wen Jiabao (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wen Chia-pao) (born September 1942) is the Premier of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The South China Morning Post, together with its Sunday edition, the Sunday Morning Post, is the dominant English-language newspaper in Hong Kong, with a circulation of 104,000. ...


In January 2007 the Dalai Lama, in an interview on a private television channel, said "What we demand from the Chinese authority is more autonomy for Tibetans to protect their culture." He added that he had told the Tibetan people not to think in terms of history and to accept Tibet as a part of China.[104]


2008 Tibetan protests against the Chinese powerholders -- initiated by Buddhist monks -- flared up again in 2008. The Chinese government reacted strongly, imposing curfews and strictly limiting access to Tibetan areas. The international response was likewise immediate and robust, with a number of leaders condemning the crackdown and large protests (including some in support of China's actions) in many major cities.


Evaluation by the Tibetan exile community

The Chairman of the Cabinet of the CTA, Samdhong Rinpoche

In 1991 the Dalai Lama stated that Chinese settlers in Tibet were creating "Chinese Apartheid," stating, "The new Chinese settlers have created an alternate society: a Chinese apartheid which, denying Tibetans equal social and economic status in our own land, threatens to finally overwhelm and absorb us."[105][106] The Central Tibetan Administration states that the number that have died in the Great Leap Forward, of violence, or other indirect causes since 1950 is approximately 1.2 million.[107] According to Patrick French, the former director of the London-based Free Tibet Campaign and a supporter of the Tibetan cause who was able to view the data and calculations, the estimate is not reliable because the Tibetans were not able to process the data well enough to produce a credible total. French says this total was based on refugee interviews, but prevented outsider access to the data. French, who did gain access, found no names, but "the insertion of seemingly random figures into each section, and constant, unchecked duplication."[108] Furthermore, he found that of the 1.1 million dead listed, only 23,364 were female (implying that 1.07 million of the total Tibetan male population of 1.25 million had died)[108]. Tibetologist Tom Grunfeld also finds that the figure is "without documentary evidence."[109] There were, however, many casualties, perhaps as many as 400,000. This figure is extrapolated from a calculation Warren W. Smith made from census reports of Tibet which show 200,000 "missing" from Tibet.[110][111] Even the controversial The Black Book of Communism expresses doubt at the 1.2 million figure, but does note that according to the Chinese census the total population of ethnic Tibetans in the PRC was 2.8 million in 1953[citation needed], but only 2.5 million in 1964[citation needed]. It puts forward a figure of 800,000 deaths and alleges that as many as 10% of Tibetans were interned, with few survivors.[112] Chinese demographers have estimated that 90,000 of the 300,000 "missing" Tibetans fled the region.[113] Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (856x727, 77 KB) Summary Photo by User:Adam Carr, February 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (856x727, 77 KB) Summary Photo by User:Adam Carr, February 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso (born Llhamo Döndrub (Tibetan: ; Wylie: Lha-mo Don-grub) 6 July 1935 in Qinghai [1]), is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ... Official language Tibetan Headquarters Dharamsala, India Head of State Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama Head of Government Professor Venerable Samdhong Rinpoche National Anthem Tibetan National Anthem, (Link) The Central Tibetan Administration (CTA), officially the Central Tibetan Administration of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, is a government in exile headed by... The Great Leap Forward (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social plan used from 1958 to 1960 which aimed to use Chinas vast population to rapidly transform mainland China from a primarily agrarian economy dominated by peasant farmers... The Black Book of Communism The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a book that describes the history of political repressions by Communist states, including extrajudicial executions, deportations, and man-made famines that the book argues resulted from communist policies. ...

The Tibetan Parliament-in-Exile in Dharamsala, India.

The government of Tibet in Exile also says that, fundamentally, the issue is that of the right to self-determination of the Tibetan people.[citation needed] The Dalai Lama has stated his willingness to negotiate with China for genuine autonomy. According to the government in exile and Tibetan independence groups, most Tibetans still call for full Tibetan independence. The Dalai Lama said that he sees the millions of government-imported Han immigrants[citation needed] and preferential socioeconomic policies, as presenting an urgent threat to the Tibetan nation by stealing economic resources and smothering Tibetan culture. Tibetan exile groups say that despite recent attempts to restore the appearance of original Tibetan culture to attract tourism, the traditional Tibetan way of life is now irrevocably changed. Tashi Wangdi, the Representative of the Dalai Lama, stated in an interview that China's Western China Development program "is providing facilities for the resettlement of Han Chinese in Tibet. At every point of development, and any casual visitor such as a tourist can see it, all the development is in Chinese towns and cities. The local people have become more and more marginalized."[114] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (962x741, 468 KB) Tibetan Government in Exile parliament in Dharamshala, India. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (962x741, 468 KB) Tibetan Government in Exile parliament in Dharamshala, India. ... Dharamshala redirects here. ... Tashi Wangdi Wikinews has related news: Dalai Lamas representative talks about China, Tibet, Shugden and the next Dalai Lama Tashi Wangdi is the Representative to the Americas for His Holiness the Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso. ... Tenzin Gyatso is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ... China Western Development (Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also Chinas Western Development, Western China Development, Great Western Development Strategy, or the Open Up the West Program is a policy adopted by the Peoples Republic of China to boost its less developed western regions. ...

A Tibetan refugee market in Ladakh, India.
A Tibetan refugee market in Ladakh, India.

The Chinese government says that when Hu Yaobang, the general secretary of the Chinese Communist Party, visited Lhasa in 1980 he was unhappy when he found out the region was lacking autonomy and was lagging behind neighbouring provinces. Policies were changed, including the revitalization of Tibetan culture and religion and language. [115] Since then the central government's policy in Tibet has claimed to have granted most religious freedoms, despite the observation of the more stringent government control implemented over Tibetan monasteries.[citation needed] However, in 1998 three monks and five nuns died while in custody, after suffering beatings and torture for having shouted slogans supporting the Dalai Lama and Tibetan independence.[116] Projects that the PRC claims to have benefited Tibet as part of the China Western Development economic plan, such as the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, have roused fears of facilitating military mobilisation and Han migration.[117] There is still ethnic imbalance in appointments and promotions to the civil and judicial services in the Tibetan Autonomous Region, with disproportionately few ethnic Tibetans appointed to these posts.[118] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1420 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tibet User:Deeptrivia/Album Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1420 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tibet User:Deeptrivia/Album Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people... Hu Yaobang (Chinese: 胡耀邦 Pinyin: Hú Yàobāng, Wade-Giles: Hu Yao-pang) (November 20, 1915 – April 15, 1989) was a leader of the Peoples Republic of China. ... China Western Development (西部大开发 Pinyin: XÄ«bù Dàkāifā), also Chinas Western Development or Western China Development, is a policy adopted by the Peoples Republic of China to boost its underdeveloped western regions. ... The Qinghai-Tibet railway, or Qingzang Railway (青藏铁路), is a railway that will connect Xining, Qinghai Province to Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Evaluation by the Communist Party of China

The government of the PRC maintains that the Tibetan Government did almost nothing to improve the Tibetans' material and political standard of life during its rule from 1913–59, and that they opposed any reforms proposed by the Chinese government. According to the Chinese government, this is the reason for the tension that grew between some central government officials and the local Tibetan government in 1959.[99] The government of the PRC also rejects claims that the lives of Tibetans have deteriorated, and stated that the lives of Tibetans have been improved immensely compared to self rule before 1950.[119] From 1951 to 2007, the Tibetan population in Lhasa administered Tibet has increased from 1.2 million to almost 3 million. The GDP of the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) today is thirty times that of before 1950. Workers in Tibet have the second highest wages in China.[120] The TAR has 22,500 km of highways, as opposed to none in 1950. All secular education in the TAR was created after the revolution. The TAR now has 25 scientific research institutes as opposed to none in 1950. Infant mortality has dropped from 43% in 1950 to 0.661% in 2000.[121] (The United Nations reports an infant mortality rate of 35.3 per thousand in 2000.[122]) Life expectancy has risen from 35.5 years in 1950 to 67 in 2000. The collection and publishing of the traditional Epic of King Gesar, which is the longest epic poem in the world and had only been handed down orally before. Allocation of 300 million Renminbi since the 1980s for the maintenance and protection of Tibetan monasteries.[123] The Cultural Revolution and the cultural damage it wrought upon the entire PRC is generally condemned as a nationwide catastrophe, whose main instigators, in the PRC's view, the Gang of Four, have been brought to justice. The China Western Development plan is viewed by the PRC as a massive, benevolent, and patriotic undertaking by the wealthier eastern coast to help the western parts of China, including Tibet, catch up in prosperity and living standards. is the death of infants in the first year of life. ... This article is about the measure of remaining life. ... The Epic of King Gesar is the premier epic poem of Tibet and much of Central Asia. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... CNY and RMB redirect here. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Gang of Four (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ) was a group of Communist Party of China leaders in the Peoples Republic of China who were arrested and removed from their positions in 1976, following the death of Mao Zedong, and were primarily blamed for the events of... China Western Development (西部大开发 Pinyin: XÄ«bù Dàkāifā), also Chinas Western Development or Western China Development, is a policy adopted by the Peoples Republic of China to boost its underdeveloped western regions. ...


Geography

Yamdrok tso lake
Yamdrok tso lake
Main article: Geography of Tibet

Tibet is located on the Tibetan Plateau, the world's highest region. Most of the Himalaya mountain range, one of the youngest mountain ranges in the world at only 4 million years old, lies within Tibet. Its most famous peak, Mount Everest, is on Nepal's border with Tibet. The average altitude is about 3,000 m in the south and 4,500 m in the north. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 798 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tibet Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 798 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tibet Metadata This file contains additional... The geography of historical Tibet Tibet, located in central Asia, is a region in Asia which is currently, for the most part, part of China. ... Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province and Sichuan Province of China lie on the Tibetan Plateau. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Everest redirects here. ...


The atmosphere is severely dry nine months of the year, and average snowfall is only 18 inches (46 cm), due to the rain shadow effect whereby mountain ranges prevent moisture from the ocean from reaching the plateaus. Western passes receive small amounts of fresh snow each year but remain traversable all year round. Low temperatures are prevalent throughout these western regions, where bleak desolation is unrelieved by any vegetation beyond the size of low bushes, and where wind sweeps unchecked across vast expanses of arid plain. The Indian monsoon exerts some influence on eastern Tibet. Northern Tibet is subject to high temperatures in the summer and intense cold in the winter. For the Australian television series see Rain Shadow (TV series). ... For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ...

Snow mountains in Tibet
Snow mountains in Tibet

Historic Tibet consists of several regions: Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1920 × 2560 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1920 × 2560 pixel, file size: 2. ...

  • Amdo (A mdo) in the northeast, incorporated by China into the provinces of Qinghai, Gansu and Sichuan.[citation needed]
  • Kham (Khams) in the east, divided between Sichuan, northern Yunnan and Qinghai.[citation needed]
    • Western Kham, part of the Tibetan Autonomous Region
  • Ü-Tsang (dBus gTsang) (Ü in the center, Tsang in the center-west, and Ngari (mNga' ris) in the far west), part of the Tibetan Autonomous Region

Tibetan cultural influences extend to the neighboring states of Bhutan, Nepal, adjacent regions of India such as Sikkim and Ladakh, and adjacent provinces of China where Tibetan Buddhism is the predominant religion. Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Yunan redirects here. ... , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ...


On the border with India, the region popularly known among Chinese as South Tibet[citation needed] is claimed by China and administered by India as the state of Arunachal Pradesh. South Tibet (Chinese: Zàngnán 藏南) refers to a geographical area of Tibet. ... , Arunachal Pradesh   (Hindi:   ) is the easternmost state of India. ...


Several major rivers have their source in the Tibetan Plateau (mostly in present-day Qinghai Province), including:

The Indus, Brahmaputra rivers originate from a lake (Tib: Tso Mapham) in Western Tibet, near Mount Kailash. The mountain is a holy pilgrimage for both Hindus and Tibetans. The Hindus consider the mountain to be the abode of Lord Shiva. The Tibetan name for Mt Kailash is Khang Rinpoche. The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... The Mekong is one of the world’s major rivers. ... Map of the Brahmaputra Yarlung Tsangpo River in Tibet. ... Ganga redirects here. ... Salween River Delta, October 1994 The Salween River (also spelled Salwin) rises in Tibet, after which it flows through Yunnan, where it is known as the Nujiang river (Chinese: 怒江; Pinyin: Nù Jiāng), although either name can be used for the whole river. ... Yarlung Tsamgpo River, whitewater Yarlung Tsangpo River, sediment The Yarlung Tsangpo River originates upstream from the Yarlung Tsangpo Canyon, Tibet. ... Mount Kailash (officially: Kangrinboqê; Tibetan: Gang Rinpoche, གངས་རིན་པོཅཧེ་; Wylie: Gangs Rin-po-che; ZWPY: Kangrinboqê; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Hindi कैलाश पर्वत, Kailāśā Parvata) is a peak in the Gangdisê mountains, the source of some of the longest rivers in Asia—the Indus River, the Sutlej River, a tributary of the Ganges...

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Cities, towns and villages

Further information: List of towns and villages in the Tibet Autonomous Region

Lhasa is Tibet's traditional capital and the capital of Tibet Autonomous Region. Lhasa contains the world heritage site the Potala Palace and Norbulingka, the residences of the Dalai Lama. Lhasa contains a number of significant temples and monasteries which are deeply engrained in its history including Jokhang and Ramoche Temple. A comprehensive A-Z List of cities, towns and villages in the Tibet Autonomous Region of western China // Alamdo Arza Asog Baga Bagar Baicang Baidi Baima Baimai Baixoi Bamda Banag Banbar Banggaidoi Bangkor Bangru Bangxing Baqen Bar Barga Bari Bayizhen Beba Bebar Benqungdo Bilung Birba Biru Bogkamba Boindoi Bolo Bongba... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 385 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (570 × 888 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photo in 1993. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 385 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (570 × 888 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photo in 1993. ... Shigatse (Tibetan: གཞིས་ཀ་རྩེ་; Wylie transliteration: Gzhis-ka-rtse; Modified Wiley: gzhi-ka-rtse; pinyin (Tibetan): Xigazê; Chinese: 日喀则; pinyin: Rìkāzé, Zhigatse [Zhi-ga-tse], and Xigatse) is the second largest city in Tibet with a population of 80,000. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... The Jokhang Temple, home of the most venerated statue in Tibet a golden roof cylinder The Jokhang, also called the Jokhang Temple or the Jokhang Monastery, is a famous Buddhist temple in Lhasa, Tibet. ... For other uses, see Lhasa (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Qamdo (Tibetan:ཆབ་མདོ་རྫོང་(Chab-mdo), Mandarin Chinese:昌都(ChāngdÅ«)) is a county in Tibet. ... For other uses, see Lhasa (disambiguation). ... The Potala Palace (Tibetan: པོ་ཏ་ལ; Wylie: Po ta la; simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ) is located in Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Norbulingka (Wylie: Nor-bu-gling-ka) is a palace and surrounding park in Lhasa, Tibet which served as the traditional summer residence of the successive Dalai Lamas from the 1780s up until the PRC takeover in the late 1950s. ... This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ... The Jokhang Temple, home of the most venerated statue in Tibet a golden roof cylinder The Jokhang, also called the Jokhang Temple or the Jokhang Monastery, is a famous Buddhist temple in Lhasa, Tibet. ... Ramoche Temple (Tibetan: ར་མོ་ཆེ་དགོན་པ་; Wylie: Ra-mo-che Dgon-pa; Lhasa dialect IPA: [) is a Buddhist monastery is considered the most important temple in Lhasa after the Potala. ...


Shigatse is the region's second largest city, west of Lhasa. Gyantse, Chamdo are also amongst the largest. Shigatse (Tibetan: གཞིས་ཀ་རྩེ་; Wylie transliteration: Gzhis-ka-rtse; Modified Wiley: gzhi-ka-rtse; pinyin (Tibetan): Xigazê; Chinese: 日喀则; pinyin: Rìkāzé, Zhigatse [Zhi-ga-tse], and Xigatse) is the second largest city in Tibet with a population of 80,000. ... Gyantse Fortress A view of Gyantse from the top of its fortress Gyantse (also spelled Gyangtse; Wylie: Rgyang-rtse; Tibetan: རྒྱལ་རྩེ་) is the third largest town in Tibet. ... Qamdo (Tibetan:ཆབ་མདོ་རྫོང་(Chab-mdo), Mandarin Chinese:昌都(Chāngdū)) is a county in Tibet. ...


Other cities in Historic Tibet include, Nagchu, Nyingchi, Nedong, Barkam, Sakya, Gartse, Pelbar, Lhatse, and Tingri; in Sichuan, Kangding (Dartsedo); in Qinghai, Jyekundo or Yushu, Machen, and Golmud. There is also a large Tibetan settlement in South India near Kushalanagara. India created this settlement for Tibetan refugees that escaped Chinese persecution and fled to India. Nagqu is a small town in northern Tibet approximately 250 kilometers north-east of the capital Lhasa, in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Nyingchi Prefecture (Tibetan: ཉིང་ཁྲི་ས་ཁུལ་; Wylie: nying-khri sa khul; simplified Chinese: 林芝地区; pinyin: LínzhÄ« DìqÅ«) is a prefecture in southwestern Tibetan Autonomous Region in western China. ... Nedong is a village in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. ... Lhatse is a small town of a few thousand people in Tibet, just West of the mountain pass leading to Shigatse. ... Tingri is a town in Tibet. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Kangding (Chinese: 康定; Tibetan: Dartsedo) is a town in Garze Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in western Sichuan Province, China. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ... Location of Golmud Golmud (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Koerhmu; Tibetan: ན་གོར་མོ་; Wylie: Na-gor-mo) is a county-level city of Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai Province, China. ... Inside Kushalnagar Temple Kushalanagara is a town located in the east of Kodagu district, Karnataka state, on the Mysore-Madikeri road, near the Kaveri river. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Tibet
The Tibetan yak is an integral part of Tibetan life.
The Tibetan yak is an integral part of Tibetan life.
A fresh fruit and vegetable market in Lhasa
A fresh fruit and vegetable market in Lhasa

Barren rocks and deserts cover much of Tibet, and the temperature extremes further limit the region’s agricultural production. “Tibet as a whole averages fewer than fifty frost-free days each year.” [124] In this vast land there is little arable land available. The main crops grown are barley, wheat, buckwheat, rye, potatoes and assorted fruits and vegetables. Livestock raised are sheep, goals, camels, yaks and horses. The scarce resources made it very difficult for the population to grow in the old Tibet. In the nine centuries before 1950, the population stood still at about one million. The official Tibetan census in 1953 only recorded a population of 1,273,969.[125] The Tibetan yak was an integral part of Tibetan life. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Yak (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Photo by Nathan Freitas. ... Image File history File links Photo by Nathan Freitas. ... For other uses, see Lhasa (disambiguation). ...


Pre-1950 Tibet was a theocracy with a feudal serfdom system. Most of the arable land was organized into manorial estates owned by rich theocratic lamas and secular landlords. Drepung monastery was one of the biggest landowners in Tibet with its 185 manors, 25,000 serfs, 300 great pastures, and 16,000 herdsmen. The commander-in-chief of the Tibetan army, a member of the Dalai Lama’s lay Cabinet owned 4,000 square kilometers of land and 3,500 serfs. [126]


The majority of the population in old Tibet was serfs under a lifetime bond to work the lord's land—or the monastery’s land—without pay. And yet they were heavily taxed. The serfs were taxed upon getting married, the birth of each child and for every death in the family, etc. [127] The monasteries often lent money to people who could not pay their taxes at 20 to 50 percent interest. Debtors who could not meet their obligations risked being cast into slavery. [128] Noble families and monasteries, on the other hand, received many privileges from the government including interest-free loans. [129]


In Pre-1950 Tibet the principal export was wool. Tibetans transported thousands of loads of wool by mules and donkeys to India and Nepal; from there this popular item was shipped throughout Asia, Europe and America. [130]


Tibet's GDP in 2001 was 13.9 billion yuan (USD1.8billion).[131] The Central government exempts Tibet from all taxation and provides 90% of Tibet's government expenditures. The Chinese central government spends about $2.5 billion in Tibet annually, mostly on infrastructure projects.[132] The Tibetan economy is dominated by subsistence agriculture. Due to limited arable land, livestock raising is the primary occupation mainly on the Tibetan Plateau, among them are sheep, cattle, goats, camels, yaks and horses. However, the main crops grown are barley, wheat, buckwheat, rye, potatoes and assorted fruits and vegetables. Like most farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, this Cameroonian man cultivates at the subsistence level. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a plant in the genus Fagopyrum (sometimes merged into genus Polygonum) in the family Polygonaceae. ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Binomial name Solanum tuberosum L. The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, grown for its starchy tuber. ...


In recent years, due to the increased interest in Tibetan Buddhism, tourism has become an increasingly important sector, and is actively promoted by the authorities. The Tibetan economy is heavily subsidized by the Central government and government cadres receive the second-highest salaries in China.[133] Tourist redirects here. ...


Tourism brings in the most income from the sale of handicrafts. These include Tibetan hats, jewelry (silver and gold), wooden items, clothing, quilts, fabrics, Tibetan rugs and carpets. Tibetan rug making is an ancient art and craft in tradition of Tibetan people. ...

The world's highest railway connecting Tibet with eastern Chinese provinces for the first time by rail. Operational since July 2006.

The Qinghai-Tibet Railway which links the region to Qinghai in China proper was opened in 2006.[134] The Chinese government claims that the line will promote the development of impoverished Tibet.[135] But opponents argue the railway will harm Tibet. For instance, Tibetan opponents contend that it would only draw more Han Chinese residents, the country's dominant ethnic group, who have been migrating steadily to Tibet over the last decade, bringing with them their popular culture. Opponents believe that the large influx of Han Chinese will ultimately extinguish the local culture.[136] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 300 KB) Chinas new railway into Tibet. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 300 KB) Chinas new railway into Tibet. ... The Qinghai-Tibet railway, or Qingzang Railway (青藏铁路), is a railway that will connect Xining, Qinghai Province to Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ... China proper refers to the historical heartlands of China in the context of that paradigm which contrasts these heartlands with frontier regions of Outer China (including sections of Inner Asia and other regions). ...


Other opponents argue that the railway will damage Tibet's fragile ecology and that most of its economic benefits will go to migrant Han Chinese.[137] As activists call for a boycott of the railway, the Dalai Lama has urged Tibetans to "wait and see" what benefits the new line might bring to them. According to the Government-in-exile's spokesmen, the Dalai Lama welcomes the building of the railway, "conditioned on the fact that the railroad will bring benefit to the majority of Tibetans."[138]


In January of 2007, the Chinese government issued a report outlining the discovery of a large mineral deposit under the Tibetan Plateau.[139] The deposit has an estimated value of $128 billion and may double Chinese reserves of zinc, copper, and lead. China sees this as a way to alleviate the country's dependence on foreign mineral imports necessary for its growing economy. However, critics worry that mining these vast resources will harm Tibet's fragile ecosystem as well take valuable resources away from the Tibetan people.[139] Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province and Sichuan Province of China lie on the Tibetan Plateau. ... In the technical terminology of political science the PRC was a communist state for much of the 20th century, and is still considered a communist state by many, though not all, political scientists. ...


Demographics

Ethnolinguistic Groups of Tibetan language, 1967 (See entire map, which includes a key)
Ethnolinguistic Groups of Tibetan language, 1967 ( See entire map, which includes a key)
Ethnic Tibetan autonomous entities set up by the People's Republic of China. Opponents to the PRC dispute the actual level of autonomy.
Ethnic Tibetan autonomous entities set up by the People's Republic of China. Opponents to the PRC dispute the actual level of autonomy.
Traditional Kham houses
Traditional Kham houses

Historically, the population of Tibet consisted of primarily ethnic Tibetans. Other ethnic groups in Tibet include Menba (Monpa), Lhoba, Mongols and Hui. According to tradition the original ancestors of the Tibetan people, as represented by the six red bands in the Tibetan flag, are: the Se, Mu, Dong, Tong, Dru and Ra. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3031x2544, 959 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Tibet Autonomous Region + Tibetan Autonomous Prefectures + Tibetan Autonomous Counties Base map is Image:China administrative. ... Tibet Autonomous Region + Tibetan Autonomous Prefectures + Tibetan Autonomous Counties Base map is Image:China administrative. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 718 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: White cubical houses close to Xiangcheng, Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (ancient Kham), Sichuan, China. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 718 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: White cubical houses close to Xiangcheng, Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (ancient Kham), Sichuan, China. ... The Tibetan people are a people indigenous to Tibet and surrounding areas stretching from Central Asia in the West to Myanmar and China in the East. ... The Monpa (Chinese: 门巴族, ménbàzú, Tibetan: མོན་པ།) are an ethnic group of Tibetan descent in the Indian territory of Arunachal Pradesh, with a population of 50,000, centered in the districts of Tawang and West Kameng. ... Languages Lhoba, Tibetan Religions Animism Tibetan Buddhist (primarily in Tibet) An entry was temporarily removed here. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ...


The issue of the proportion of the Han Chinese population in Tibet is a politically sensitive one. The Central Tibetan Administration, an exile group, says that the People's Republic of China has actively swamped Tibet with Han Chinese migrants in order to alter Tibet's demographic makeup.[1] Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ...


View of the Tibetan exile community

Between the 1960s and 1980s, many prisoners (over 1 million, according to Harry Wu) were sent to laogai camps in Qinghai (Amdo), where they were then employed locally after release. Since the 1980s, increasing economic liberalization and internal mobility has also resulted in the influx of many Han Chinese into Tibet for work or settlement, as well as an exodus of some ethnic Tibetans moving into other provinces, though the actual number of this floating population remains disputed.[140] Professor Harry Wu (in Chinese Wu Hongda 吳弘達) (born 1937) is an activist for human rights in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Map of laogai in China Laogai (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), the abbreviation for Laodong Gaizao(勞動改造), which means reform through labor, is a slogan of the Chinese criminal justice system and has been used to refer to the use of prison labor in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ... Situation of the east Tibetan region of Amdo Amdo (Tibetan: ཨ༌མདོ, Chinese: 安多, Pinyin: Ānduō) is one of the three former provinces of Tibet, the other two being Ü-Tsang and Kham; it is also the place from which Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, comes from. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ...


The Government of Tibet in Exile claims that, despite official statistics to the contrary, in reality non-ethnic Tibetans (including Han Chinese and Hui Muslims) outnumber ethnic Tibetans. It claims that this is as a result of an active policy of demographically swamping the Tibetan people and further diminishing any chances of Tibetan political independence.[2] The Dalai Lama has recently been reported as saying that the Tibetans had been reduced to a minority "in his homeland", by reference to population figures of Lhasa, and accusing China of "demographic aggression".[141] Official language Tibetan Headquarters Dharamsala Head of State (Dalai Lama) Tenzin Gyatso National Anthem Tibetan National Anthem, (Link) The Government of Tibet in Exile, officially named the Central Tibetan Administration (CTA) of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, is a theocratic government-like entity headed by Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ... The Hui (回) ethnic group is unrelated to the Hui (徽) dialects. ... This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ... For other uses, see Lhasa (disambiguation). ...


The Government of Tibet in Exile questions all statistics given by the PRC government, since they do not include members of the People's Liberation Army garrisoned in Tibet, or the large floating population of unregistered migrants.[3] The Qinghai-Tibet Railway (Xining to Lhasa) is also a major concern, as it is believed to further facilitate the influx of migrants.[4] Peoples Liberation Army redirects here. ... The Qinghai-Tibet railway, or Qingzang Railway (青藏铁路), is a railway that will connect Xining, Qinghai Province to Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Location of Xining Xining (Simplified Chinese : 西宁, Traditional Chinese : 西寧, Tibetan : Ziling) is the capital of Qinghai Province, Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses, see Lhasa (disambiguation). ...


The Government of Tibet in Exile quotes an issue of People's Daily published in 1959 to claim that the Tibetan population has dropped significantly since 1959. According to the article, figures from the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China show that the autonomous region of Tibet was populated by 1,273,969 persons. In the Tibetan sectors of Kham, 3,381,064 Tibetans were counted. In Qinghai and other Tibetan sectors that are incorporated in Gansu, 1,675,534 Tibetans were counted. According to the total of these three numbers, the Tibetan population attained 6,330,567 in 1959.[142] The Peoples Daily (Chinese: 人民日报 Pinyin ) is the official newspaper of the Communist Party of China, published worldwide with a circulation of 3 to 4 million. ... Situation of the east Tibetan region of Kham Kham (Tibetan: ཁམས; Wylie transliteration: Khams; Simplified Chinese: 康; Pinyin: Kāng), also referred to as the Kingdom of Kham, is one of the three traditional provinces claimed by the Tibetan government-in-exile and the International Tibetan Independence Movement. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


In 2000, the number of Tibetans as a whole of these regions was about 5,400,000 according to National Bureau of Statistics.[143]


However, the source of the 1959 Tibetan population quoted by the Government of Tibet in Exile is questionable. According to 1954 Chinese census report, the total population of the autonomous region of Tibet was 1,273,969; the total population of Kham was 3,381,064; and the total population of Qinghai was 1,675,534.[144] These numbers were taken by the Government of Tibet in Exile as the population of Tibetans in each province.


View of the People's Republic of China

The PRC government does not view itself as an occupying power and has vehemently denied allegations of demographic swamping. The PRC also does not recognize Greater Tibet as claimed by the government of Tibet in Exile, saying that the idea was engineered by foreign imperialists as a plot to divide China amongst themselves (Mongolia being a striking precedent, gaining independence with Soviet, backing and subsequently aligning itself with the Soviet Union) and that those areas outside the TAR were not controlled by the Tibetan government before 1959 in the first place, having been administered instead by other surrounding provinces for centuries.[145] This article is becoming very long. ... CCCP redirects here. ...


The PRC gives the number of Tibetans in Tibet Autonomous Region as 2.4 million, as opposed to 190,000 non-Tibetans, and the number of Tibetans in all Tibetan autonomous entities combined (slightly smaller than the Greater Tibet claimed by exiled Tibetans) as 5.0 million, as opposed to 2.3 million non-Tibetans. In the TAR itself, much of the Han population is to be found in Lhasa. Population control policies like the one-child policy only apply to Han Chinese, not to minorities such as Tibetans.[146] This article is about the administrative region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses, see Lhasa (disambiguation). ... The phrase one-child policy is commonly used in English to refer to the population control policy (or Planned Birth policy) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ...


Jampa Phuntsok, chairman of the TAR, has also said that the central government has no policy of migration into Tibet due to its harsh high-altitude conditions, that the 6% Han in the TAR is a very fluid group mainly doing business or working, and that there is no immigration problem.[147] Jampa Phuntsok is the current Chairman of the Communist Party of China (CPC) for the Tibet Autonomous Region of China in Xizang. ...


With regards to the historical population of ethnic Tibetans, the Chinese government claims that according to the First National Census conducted in 1954, there were 2,770,000 ethnic Tibetans in China, including 1,270,000 in the TAR; whereas in the Fourth National Census conducted in 1990, there were 4,590,000 ethnic Tibetans in China, including 2,090,000 in the TAR. These figures are used to support the claim that the Tibetan population has doubled since 1951.[148]


Such claims are consistent the general trend of ethnic minorities experiencing significantly higher population growth rates than the majority Han population. Recent surveys indicate that the population growth rate for ethnic minorities is about 7 times greater than that for the Han population.[149] Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ...

Major ethnic groups in Greater Tibet by region, 2000 census.
Total Tibetans Han Chinese others
Tibet Autonomous Region: 2,616,329 2,427,168 92.8% 158,570 6.1% 30,591 1.2%
- Lhasa PLC 474,499 387,124 81.6% 80,584 17.0% 6,791 1.4%
- Qamdo Prefecture 586,152 563,831 96.2% 19,673 3.4% 2,648 0.5%
- Shannan Prefecture 318,106 305,709 96.1% 10,968 3.4% 1,429 0.4%
- Xigazê Prefecture 634,962 618,270 97.4% 12,500 2.0% 4,192 0.7%
- Nagqu Prefecture 366,710 357,673 97.5% 7,510 2.0% 1,527 0.4%
- Ngari Prefecture 77,253 73,111 94.6% 3,543 4.6% 599 0.8%
- Nyingchi Prefecture 158,647 121,450 76.6% 23,792 15.0% 13,405 8.4%
Qinghai Province: 4,822,963 1,086,592 22.5% 2,606,050 54.0% 1,130,321 23.4%
- Xining PLC 1,849,713 96,091 5.2% 1,375,013 74.3% 378,609 20.5%
- Haidong Prefecture 1,391,565 128,025 9.2% 783,893 56.3% 479,647 34.5%
- Haibei AP 258,922 62,520 24.1% 94,841 36.6% 101,561 39.2%
- Huangnan AP 214,642 142,360 66.3% 16,194 7.5% 56,088 26.1%
- Hainan AP 375,426 235,663 62.8% 105,337 28.1% 34,426 9.2%
- Golog AP 137,940 126,395 91.6% 9,096 6.6% 2,449 1.8%
- Gyêgu AP 262,661 255,167 97.1% 5,970 2.3% 1,524 0.6%
- Haixi AP 332,094 40,371 12.2% 215,706 65.0% 76,017 22.9%
Tibetan areas in Sichuan province
- Ngawa AP 847,468 455,238 53.7% 209,270 24.7% 182,960 21.6%
- Garzê AP 897,239 703,168 78.4% 163,648 18.2% 30,423 3.4%
- Muli AC 124,462 60,679 48.8% 27,199 21.9% 36,584 29.4%
Tibetan areas in Yunnan province
- Dêqên AP 353,518 117,099 33.1% 57,928 16.4% 178,491 50.5%
Tibetan areas in Gansu province
- Gannan AP 640,106 329,278 51.4% 267,260 41.8% 43,568 6.8%
- Tianzhu AC 221,347 66,125 29.9% 139,190 62.9% 16,032 7.2%
Total for Greater Tibet:
With Xining and Haidong 10,523,432 5,245,347 49.8% 3,629,115 34.5% 1,648,970 15.7%
Without Xining and Haidong 7,282,154 5,021,231 69.0% 1,470,209 20.2% 790,714 10.9%

This table[150] includes all Tibetan autonomous entities in the People's Republic of China, plus Xining PLC and Haidong P. The latter two are included to complete the figures for Qinghai province, and also because they are claimed as parts of Greater Tibet by the Government of Tibet in exile. A Tibetan pilgrim The Tibetans speak the Tibetan language natively and form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), although in anthropological terms they include more than one ethnic group. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ... This article is about the administrative region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses, see Lhasa (disambiguation). ... Qamdo prefecture in Tibet Autonomous Region Qamdo Prefecture (Tibetan: ཆབ་མདོ་ས་ཁུལ་; Wylie: chab-mdo sa khul; simplified Chinese: 昌都地区; pinyin: ChāngdÅ« DìqÅ«) List of Tibet Autonomous Region County-level divisions Categories: | ... Shannan prefecture in Tibet Autonomous Region Shannan Prefecture (Tibetan: ལྷོ་ཁ་ས་ཁུལ་; Wylie: lho kha sa khul; simplified Chinese: 山南地区; pinyin: Shānnán DìqÅ«) List of Tibet Autonomous Region County-level divisions Categories: | ... Shigatse (Tibetan: གཞིས་ཀ་རྩེ་; Wylie transliteration: Gzhis-ka-rtse; Modified Wiley: gzhi-ka-rtsa; pinyin (Tibetan): Xigazê; Chinese: 日喀则; pinyin: Rìkāzé, Zhigatse [Zhi-ga-tse], and Xigatse) is the second largest city in Tibet with a population of 80,000. ... Nagqu prefecture in Tibet Autonomous Region Nagchu Prefecture (Tibetan: ནག་ཆུ་ས་ཁུལ་; Wylie: nag-chu sa khul; simplified Chinese: 那曲地区; pinyin: NàqÅ« DìqÅ«) List of Tibet Autonomous Region County-level divisions Categories: | ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Nyingchi Prefecture (Tibetan: ཉིང་ཁྲི་ས་ཁུལ་; Wylie: nying-khri sa khul; simplified Chinese: 林芝地区; pinyin: LínzhÄ« DìqÅ«) is a prefecture in southwestern Tibetan Autonomous Region in western China. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ... Location of Xining Xining (Simplified Chinese : 西宁, Traditional Chinese : 西寧, Tibetan : Ziling) is the capital of Qinghai Province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Haidong (Simplified Chinese : 海东, Traditional Chinese : 海東; Pinyin : HÇŽidōng, Wylie: Haitung) is the prefecture of Qinghai Province, Peoples Republic of China. ... location of Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture within Qinghai Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (simplified Chinese: 海北藏族自治州; pinyin: HÇŽibÄ›i Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu; Tibetan: མཚོ་བཡྣང་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་; Wylie: Mtsho-byang Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul) is an autonomous prefecture of Qinghai province in China. ... location of Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture within Qinghai Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (simplified Chinese: 黄南藏族自治州; pinyin: HÇŽinán Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu; Tibetan: རྨ་ལྷོ་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་; Wylie: Rma-lho Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul) is an autonomous prefecture of Qinghai province in China. ... location of Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture within Qinghai Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (simplified Chinese: 海南藏族自治州; pinyin: HÇŽinán Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu; Tibetan: མཚོ་ལྷོ་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་; Wylie: Mtsho-lho Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul) is an autonomous prefecture of Qinghai province in China. ... location of Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture within Qinghai Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (simplified Chinese: 果洛藏族自治州; pinyin: GuÇ’luò Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu; Tibetan: མགོ་ལོག་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་; Wylie: Mgo-log Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul) is an autonomous prefecture of Qinghai province in China. ... Gyêgu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (simplified Chinese: 玉树藏族自治州; pinyin: Yùshù Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu; Tibetan: ཡུལ་ཤུལ་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ / Yul-shul Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul) is an autonomous prefecture in Qinghai. ... Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (simplified Chinese: 海西蒙古族藏族自治州; pinyin: HÇŽixÄ« MÄ›nggÇ”zú Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu; Tibetan: མཚོ་ནུབ་སོག་རིགས་ཆ་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་; Wylie: Mtsho-nub Sog-rigs dang Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul) is an autonomous prefecture in Qinghai. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... The Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture (Tibetan: རྔ་བ་བོད་རིགས་ཆ་བ༹ང་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་, Wylie transliteration: rnga ba bod rigs dang chang rigs rang skyong khul; Chinese: 阿坝藏族羌族自治州; Pinyin: Ä€bà Zàngzú Qiāngzú Zìzhìzhōu) is an autonomous prefecture in Sichuan whose capital is Barkam. ... Garze Tibetan Autonomous Region (Chinese: 甘孜藏族自治州; pinyin: GānzÄ« Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu, Tibetan - དཀར་མཛེས་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ / Dkar-mdzes bod-rigs rang-skyong khul) is an autonomous prefecture in Sichuan whose capital is Kangding County. ... Muli Tibetan Autonomous County (simplified Chinese: 木里藏族自治县; pinyin: Mùlǐ Zàngzú Zìzhìxiàn) Muli Tibetan autonomous county lies in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture in the province of Sichuan. ... Yunan redirects here. ... Dêqên Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (simplified Chinese: 迪庆藏族自治州; Pinyin: Díqìng Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu; Tibetan - བདེ་ཆེན་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ / Bde-chen Bod-rigs rang-skyong khul) is an autonomous prefecture in Yunnan. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (Simplified Chinese: 甘南藏族自治州; Pinyin: Gānnán Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu; Tibetan: -དཀར་ལྷོ་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ / Dkar-lho Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul) is an autonomous prefecture in southern Gansu Province, China. ... Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County (天祝藏族自治县 Tiānzhù Zàngzú Zìzhìxiàn) is in the prefecture-level city of Wuwei in the Chinese province of Gansu. ... The Peoples Republic of China has created, following Soviet nationality policy, a number of administrative divisions designated as autonomous, although many disagree of their actual autonomy. ...


P = Prefecture; AP = Autonomous prefecture; PLC = Prefecture-level city; AC = Autonomous county.


Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service. Peoples Liberation Army redirects here. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Tibet
A young monk at Labrang
A young monk at Labrang

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Labrang Monastery is one of the six great monasteriesis of the Geluk (Yellow Hat) school of Tibetan Buddhism, of which the Dalai Lama is a member. ...

Religion

Tibetan Buddhism

Main article: Tibetan Buddhism

Religion is extremely important to the Tibetans; Tibet is the traditional center of Tibetan Buddhism, a distinctive form of Vajrayana, which is also related to the Shingon Buddhist tradition in Japan. Tibetan Buddhism is practiced not only in Tibet but also in China, Mongolia, Nepal, Bhutan, Ladakh, the Buryat Republic, the Tuva Republic, and in the Republic of Kalmykia. Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... Vajrayāna Buddhism (Also known as Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayana, Mantrayana, Mantranaya, Esoteric Buddhism, Diamond Vehicle, or 金剛乘 Jingangcheng in Chinese; however, these terms are not always regarded as equivalent: one scholar[1] speaks of the tantra divisions of some editions of the Kangyur as including Sravakayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana texts) is... Shingon (真言宗) is a major school of Japanese Buddhism, and the most important school of Vajrayana Buddhism outside of the Himalayan region. ... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people... The Buryat Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Буря́тия; Buryat: Буряад Республика) is a Russian Federation (a republic). ... Tuva or Tyva (Russian: Республика Тыва [Тува], Respublika Tyva [Tuva]) (pop. ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Kalmyk: Хальмг Таңһч; Russian: ) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ...


Bön

Main article: Bön

Bön is the ancient indigenous religion of Tibet. It has been eclipsed by Tibetan Buddhism in most areas but still practiced in China. Bön[1] (Tibetan: བོན་; Wylie: bon; Lhasa dialect IPA: [) is the oldest spiritual tradition of Tibet. ...


Islam

Main article: Islam in Tibet

In Tibetan cities, there are also small communities of Muslims, known as Kachee (Kache), who trace their origin to immigrants from three main regions: Kashmir (Kachee Yul in ancient Tibetan), Ladakh and the Central Asian Turkic countries. Islamic influence in Tibet also came from Persia. After 1959 a group of Tibetan Muslims made a case for Indian nationality based on their historic roots to Kashmir and the Indian government declared all Tibetan Muslims Indian citizens later on that year.[151] There is also a well established Chinese Muslim community (gya kachee), which traces its ancestry back to the Hui ethnic group of China. It is said that Muslim migrants from Kashmir and Ladakh first entered Tibet around the 12th century. Marriages and social interaction gradually led to an increase in the population until a sizable community grew up around Lhasa.[citation needed] A newly constructed mosque in Lhasa The Tibetan Muslims, also known as the Kachee (Kache), form a small minority in Tibet. ... The Tibetan Muslims, also known as the Kache, form a small minority in Tibet. ... The Hui (回) ethnic group is unrelated to the Hui (徽) dialects. ... For other uses, see Lhasa (disambiguation). ...


Buddhist monasteries in Tibet

Main article: List of Buddhist monasteries in Tibet

Tibet is home to numerous Buddhist monasteries. A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Buddhist monastery near Tibet A monastery is the habitation of monks. ...

ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x750, 167 KB) Photographer: Philipp Roelli (2005) File links The following pages link to this file: Ganden Monastery ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x750, 167 KB) Photographer: Philipp Roelli (2005) File links The following pages link to this file: Ganden Monastery ... Ganden monastery Ganden Monastery is one of the great three Gelukpa university monasteries of Tibet, located on Wangbur Mountain, Tagtse County, 47 kilometers from Lhasa. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 911 KB) [edit] Summary Tashilhunpo Monastery, located in Shigatse, Tibet, China. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 911 KB) [edit] Summary Tashilhunpo Monastery, located in Shigatse, Tibet, China. ... Tashilhunpo Monastery The Thanka Wall overlooking the monastery Tashilhunpo Monastery, built in 1447, is a historic and culturally important monestary in Shigatse, Tibet. ...

Tibetan art

Main article: Tibetan art
A thangka painting in Sikkim
A thangka painting in Sikkim

Tibetan representations of art are intrinsically bound with Tibetan Buddhism and commonly depict deities or variations of Buddha in various forms from bronze Buddhist statues and shrines, to highly colorful thangka paintings and mandalas. Tibetan art refers to the art of Tibet and other present and former Himalayan kingdoms (Bhutan, Ladakh, Nepal, and Sikkim). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1818x1204, 859 KB) Thanka painting. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1818x1204, 859 KB) Thanka painting. ... A Thangka is a painted or embroidered Tibetan banner which was hung in a monastery or a family altar and carried by lamas in ceremonial processions. ... , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... This list of deities aims at giving information about deities in the different religions, cultures and mythologies of the world. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... A Thangka is a painted or embroidered Tibetan banner which was hung in a monastery or a family altar and carried by lamas in ceremonial processions. ... For the film, see Mandala (film). ...


Architecture

Tibetan sand mandala
Tibetan sand mandala

Tibetan architecture contains Chinese[152] and Indian influences, and reflects a deeply Buddhist approach. The Buddhist wheel, along with two dragons, can be seen on nearly every Gompa in Tibet. The design of the Tibetan Chörtens can vary, from roundish walls in Kham to squarish, four-sided walls in Ladakh. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 634 KB) Motive-description: Tibetan monks making a temporary Sand-Mandala in the City-Hall of Kitzbuehel in Austria Scan/photo by: User:Henryart Date: July 2002 File links The following pages link to this file: Mandala Sandpainting Wikiportal:Art... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 634 KB) Motive-description: Tibetan monks making a temporary Sand-Mandala in the City-Hall of Kitzbuehel in Austria Scan/photo by: User:Henryart Date: July 2002 File links The following pages link to this file: Mandala Sandpainting Wikiportal:Art... Tibetan Monk churning butter tea Tibetan civilization boasts a rich culture. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Gompas are Buddhist temples, located in Tibet, Ladakh (India), Nepal, and Bhutan. ... A stupa in Tibet A stupa (from the Sanskrit) is a type of Buddhist structure found across the Indian subcontinent and Asia. ... Situation of the east Tibetan region of Kham Kham (Tibetan: ཁམས; Wylie transliteration: Khams; Simplified Chinese: 康; Pinyin: Kāng), also referred to as the Kingdom of Kham, is one of the three traditional provinces claimed by the Tibetan government-in-exile and the International Tibetan Independence Movement. ... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people...


The most distinctive feature of Tibetan architecture is that many of the houses and monasteries are built on elevated, sunny sites facing the south, and are often made out of a mixture of rocks, wood, cement and earth. Little fuel is available for heat or lighting, so flat roofs are built to conserve heat, and multiple windows are constructed to let in sunlight. Walls are usually sloped inwards at 10 degrees as a precaution against frequent earthquakes in the mountainous area.

The Potala Palace
The Potala Palace

Standing at 117 meters in height and 360 meters in width, the Potala Palace is considered as the most important example of Tibetan architecture. Formerly the residence of the Dalai Lama, it contains over one thousand rooms within thirteen stories, and houses portraits of the past Dalai Lamas and statues of the Buddha. It is divided between the outer White Palace, which serves as the administrative quarters, and the inner Red Quarters, which houses the assembly hall of the Lamas, chapels, 10,000 shrines, and a vast library of Buddhist scriptures. ImageMetadata File history File links Potala_from_SW.jpg Photographer: Philipp Roelli (2005) released under the GFDL by creator Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Potala_from_SW.jpg Photographer: Philipp Roelli (2005) released under the GFDL by creator Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The Potala Palace (Tibetan: པོ་ཏ་ལ; Wylie: Po ta la; simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ) is located in Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ...


Music

Main article: Music of Tibet
Boudhanath, Nepal. 1973
Boudhanath, Nepal. 1973

The music of Tibet reflects the cultural heritage of the trans-Himalayan region, centered in Tibet but also known wherever ethnic Tibetan groups are found in India, Bhutan, Nepal and further abroad. First and foremost Tibetan music is religious music, reflecting the profound influence of Tibetan Buddhism on the culture. Tibet is a region of China, culturally very distinct from the rest of China. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 547 pixelsFull resolution (1842 × 1260 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 547 pixelsFull resolution (1842 × 1260 pixels, file size: 1. ... Boudhanath is the Great Stupa in the Kathmandu Valley. ... The Tibetan people are a people indigenous to Tibet and surrounding areas stretching from Central Asia in the West to Myanmar and China in the East. ... Religious music (also sacred music) is music performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ...


Tibetan music often involves chanting in Tibetan or Sanskrit, as an integral part of the religion. These chants are complex, often recitations of sacred texts or in celebration of various festivals. Yang chanting, performed without metrical timing, is accompanied by resonant drums and low, sustained syllables. Other styles include those unique to the various schools of Tibetan Buddhism, such as the classical music of the popular Gelugpa school, and the romantic music of the Nyingmapa, Sakyapa and Kagyupa schools. For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... A chant is the rhythmic speaking or singing of words or sounds, either on a single pitch or with a simple notes and often including a great deal of repetition or statis. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Many religions and spiritual movements believe that their sacred texts (or scriptures) are the Word of God, often feeling that the texts are wholly divine or spiritually inspired in origin. ... For other uses, see Festival (disambiguation). ... Look up yang in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ... The Geluk (dge lugs) School was founded by Tsongkhapa (1357-1419), Tibets best known religious reformer and arguably its greatest philosopher. ... The Nyingma tradition is one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. ... The name of the Sakya (lit. ... The Kagyu (bka brgyud) school (known as the Oral Lineage and the Spotless Practice Lineage school) of Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana) traces its origins to the teachings of the Indian mystics Tilopa (988-1089 CE) and Naropa (1016-1100 CE), whose lineage was transmitted in Tibet by the great translator Marpa...


Nangma dance music is especially popular in the karaoke bars of the urban center of Tibet, Lhasa. Another form of popular music is the classical gar style, which is performed at rituals and ceremonies. Lu are a type of songs that feature glottal vibrations and high pitches. There are also epic bards who sing of Tibet's national hero Gesar. Nangma is a genre of Tibetan dance music closely related to Toeshey. ... For other uses see Karaoke (disambiguation) Karaoke from Japanese kara(空), empty, and ōkesutora, orchestra) (pronounced ; in Japanese IPA: ;  ) is a form of entertainment in which amateur singers sing along with recorded music using a microphone and public address system. ... For other uses, see Lhasa (disambiguation). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Festivals

Main article: Tibetan Festivals

Tibet has various festivals which commonly are performed to worship the Buddha throughout the year. Losar is the Tibetan New Year Festival and the Monlam Prayer Festival follows it in the first month of the Tibetan calendar which involves many Tibetans dancing and participating in sports events and sharing picnics. Pilgrims at Jokhang, Lhasa during Monlam In Tibet, the Tibetan calendar lags approximately four to six weeks behind the solar calendar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1333 pixel, file size: 1,020 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1333 pixel, file size: 1,020 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Pilgrims at Jokhang, Lhasa during Monlam Monlam, also known as The Great Prayer Festival, falls on 4th -11th day of the 1st Tibetan month in Tibetan Buddhism. ... Losar (Tibetan: ལོ་གསར་; Wylie: lo gsar) is the Tibetan word for new year. ... Pilgrims at Jokhang, Lhasa during Monlam Monlam, also known as The Great Prayer Festival, falls on 4th -11th day of the 1st Tibetan month in Tibetan Buddhism. ... The Tibetan calendar is a lunisolar calendar, that is, the Tibetan year is composed of either 12 or 13 lunar months, each beginning and ending with a new moon. ...


Tibetan New Year is the most important festival in Tibet. It is an occasion when Tibetan families reunite and expect that the coming year will be a better one. Known as Losar, the festival starts from the first to the third day of the first Tibetan month. Preparations for the festive event are manifested by special offerings to family shrine deities, painted doors with religious symbols, and other painstaking jobs done to prepare for the event. Tibetans eat Guthuk (barley crumb food with filling) on New Year's Eve with their families. Eating Guthuk is fun since the barley crumbs are stuffed with a different filling to fool someone in the family. The Festival of Banishing Evil Sprits is observed after dinner. Signs that the New Year is approaching when one sees lit torches, and people running and yelling to get rid of evil spirits from their houses. Before dawn on New Year's Day, housewives get their first buckets of water for their homes and prepare breakfast. After breakfast, people dress up to go to monasteries and offer their prayers. People visit their neighborhoods and exchange their Tashi Delek blessings in the first two days. Feast is the theme during the occasion. On the third day, old prayer flags are replaced with new ones. Other folk activities may be held in some areas to celebrate the events.


Monlam, the Great Prayer Festival, falls on the fourth up to the eleventh day of the first Tibetan month. The event was established in 1049 by Tsong Khapa, the founder of the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama's order. It is the grandest religious festival in Tibet. Religious dances are performed and thousands of monks gather for chanting before the Jokhang Temple. Examinations taking form of sutra debates for the Geshe degree, the highest degree in Buddhist theology, are also held. Pilgrims crowd to listen to the sermons while others give religious donations.


Cuisine

Main article: Tibetan cuisine
A monk churning Butter tea
A monk churning Butter tea

The most important crop in Tibet is barley, and dough made from barley flour called tsampa, is the staple food of Tibet. This is either rolled into noodles or made into steamed dumplings called momos. Meat dishes are likely to be yak, goat, or mutton, often dried, or cooked into a spicy stew with potatoes. Mustard seed is cultivated in Tibet, and therefore features heavily in its cuisine. Yak yoghurt, butter and cheese are frequently eaten, and well-prepared yoghurt is considered something of a prestige item. Butter tea is very popular to drink and many Tibetans drink up to 100 cups a day.[citation needed] Thukpa, A Tibetan noodle dish The Cuisine of Tibet is quite distinct from that of its neighbours, since only a few crops (not including rice) grow at such high altitude. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 385 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (573 × 892 pixel, file size: 69 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photo myself in 1993. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 385 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (573 × 892 pixel, file size: 69 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photo myself in 1993. ... Butter tea known as Po Cha is a drink of the Tibetans, and is also consumed in Bhutan. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Tsampa (Tibetan: rtsam pa) is a Tibetan staple foodstuff, particularly prominent in the central part of the country. ... A staple food is a food that forms the basis of a traditional diet. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Momo (food) A momo (Tibetan: མོག་མོག་; Wylie: mog mog, Nepali: म:म:) is a type of dumpling from the Himalayan region, similar to Mongolian buuz or Japanese gyozha. ... For other uses, see Meat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Yak (disambiguation). ... This article is about the domestic species. ... An unweaned lamb Legs of lamb in a supermarket cabinet The terms lamb, hoggett or mutton are culinary names for the meat of a domestic sheep. ... Beef Stew A stew is a common dish made of vegetables (particularly potatoes or beans), meat, poultry, or seafood cooked in some sort of broth or sauce. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Mustard seeds are small, about 1mm in diameter. ... Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt (see spelling below), is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... Butter tea known as Po Cha is a drink of the Tibetans, and is also consumed in Bhutan. ...


Other

Historically, Tibet is considered the home of the ancient art of paper folding known as Origami. The tradition started as an artistic way of folding chanted or meditated mantras into decorative shapes in order to help spread their influence over the world.[citation needed] This article is about paper folding. ...


The Potala Palace, former residence of the Dalai Lamas, is a World Heritage Site, as is Norbulingka, former summer residence of the Dalai Lama. The Potala Palace (Tibetan: པོ་ཏ་ལ; Wylie: Po ta la; simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ) is located in Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Norbulingka (Wylie: Nor-bu-gling-ka) is a palace and surrounding park in Lhasa, Tibet which served as the traditional summer residence of the successive Dalai Lamas from the 1780s up until the PRC takeover in the late 1950s. ...


During the suppression of pro-independence forces in the 1950s, and during the Cultural Revolution in the 1960s, most historically significant sites in Tibet were vandalized or totally destroyed. This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Since 2002, Tibetans in exile have allowed a Miss Tibet beauty contest in spite of concerns that this event is considered a Western influence. Miss Tibet 2005 - Photo Courtesy of Lobsang Wangyal Productions[1] Miss Tibet is an annual beauty pageant held in Dharamsala, India. ... For the concept in economics and game theory, see Keynesian beauty contest. ...


Human Rights

According to the Save Tibet website, the Tibetan people are denied most rights guaranteed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, including the rights to self-determination, freedom of speech, assembly, movement, expression, and travel. [153] The Tibet Justice.org claims that according to UN Development Programme data, Tibet is ranked the lowest among China’s 31 provinces [154] , and is ranked 153 out of the 160 countries on the Human Development Index. [155] The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ...


Amnesty International has stated that political prisoners are often beaten and tortured, and sometimes summarily executed. Since the 1988 ratification of the UN Convention Against Torture by China, 69 Tibetans are recorded as having died as a result of torture in Chinese prisons. Human rights groups have confirmed by name over 700 Tibetan political prisoners in Tibet, many of them detained without charge or trial. [156] Unarmed demonstrators are occasionally shot without warning by Chinese police.[citation needed]


Tibetologist Thomas Laird claims that there is no evidence to support China's claim that Tibet is autonomous,[157] as all local legislation is subject to approval of the central government in Beijing. Local government is subject to the regional party, which in Tibet has never been run by a Tibetan.[citation needed]


The Tibetan exile government claims that China does not allow independent human rights organisations into Tibet, and foreign delegations invited to Tibet are denied independent access to meet with Tibetans. [158] The Tibetan Center for Human Rights and Democracy claims that more than 11,000 monks and nuns have been expelled from Tibet since 1996 for opposing "patriotic re-education" sessions conducted at monasteries and nunneries under the "Strike Hard" campaign. [159]


Thomas Laird also claims that China continues to encourage the transfer of Chinese settlers into Tibet. This threatens the survival of the Tibetan religious, cultural and national identity.[160]


The Free Tibet website claims that unemployment among Tibetans is high. An unequal taxation system further exacerbates the conditions of poverty for Tibetans in rural areas. Many basic rights, such as the right to housing, education and health, remain unfulfilled. In schools, discussion of Tibetan cultural, religious and social issues is discouraged, and Chinese culture is promoted. [161]


Tibet in popular culture

The popular Tintin books include Tintin in Tibet, in which Tintin travels to the Himalayas in 1958 to find and rescue Chang (a Chinese orphan boy he had previously befriended), whose plane had crashed, presumably with no survivors. During the adventure, Tintin encounters avalanches, levitating monks and the Yeti (abominable snowman). Look up Tintin, tintin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tintin in Tibet (Tintin au Tibet) is one of The Adventures of Tintin, a series of classic comic-strip albums, written and illustrated by Belgian writer and illustrator Hergé, featuring the young reporter Tintin as the hero. ... For other uses, see Yeti (disambiguation). ...

Dreaming Lhasa (2005) is the first officially recognized film from the Tibetan diaspora
Dreaming Lhasa (2005) is the first officially recognized film from the Tibetan diaspora

In recent years there have been a number of films produced about Tibet, most notably Hollywood films such as Seven Years in Tibet, starring Brad Pitt, and Kundun, a biography of the 14th Dalai Lama, directed by Martin Scorsese. Both of these films were banned by the Chinese government because of Tibetan nationalist overtones. Other films include Samsara, The Cup and the 1999 Himalaya, a French-American produced film with a Tibetan cast set in Nepal and Tibet. In 2005, exile Tibetan filmmaker Tenzing Sonam and his partner Ritu Sarin made Dreaming Lhasa, the first internationally recognized feature film to come out of the diaspora to explore the contemporary reality of Tibet. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Dreaming Lhasa (Tibetan: lha sai mi lam) is the 2005 Tibetan language debut feature film of veteran documentary filmmakers, Ritu Sarin and Tenzing Sonam, who have been making films about various aspects Tibet under the banner of White Crane Films since 1990. ... Seven Years in Tibet is the 1997 film adaptation of the adventure story written by Austrian mountaineer Heinrich Harrer based on his real life experiences in Tibet between 1944 and 1951 during the onset of the Second World War and the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army Invasion. ... William Bradley Brad Pitt (born December 18, 1963) is an Academy award-nominated American actor, film producer, and social activist. ... Kundun is a 1997 film written by Melissa Mathison and directed by Martin Scorsese, both of whom (along with several other members of the production) were banned by the Chinese Government from ever entering Tibet as a result of making the film. ... (Redirected from 14th Dalai Lama) Tenzin Gyatso is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ... Martin Marcantonio Luciano Scorsese (IPA: AmE: ; Ita: []) (b. ... Samsara is a 2001 independent Italy/France/Indian/German film which tells the story of a Buddhist monks quest to find Enlightenment. ... The Cup (Phörpa) is a 1999 Bhutanese film directed by Khyentse Norbu. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Dreaming Lhasa (Tibetan: lha sai mi lam) is the 2005 Tibetan language debut feature film of veteran documentary filmmakers, Ritu Sarin and Tenzing Sonam, who have been making films about various aspects Tibet under the banner of White Crane Films since 1990. ...

Tibetans are well-represented in contemporary Chinese culture. Tibetan singers are particularly known for their strong vocal abilities, which many attribute to the high altitudes of the Tibetan Plateau. Tseten Dolma (才旦卓玛) rose to fame in the 1960s for her music-and-dance suite "The Earth is Red". Kelsang Metok (格桑梅朵) is a popular singer who combines traditional Tibetan songs with elements of Chinese and Western pop. Phurbu Namgyal (Pubajia or 蒲巴甲) was the 2006 winner of Haonaner, the Chinese version of American Idol. In 2006, he starred in Sherwood Hu's Prince of the Himalayas, an adaptation of Shakespeare's Hamlet, set in ancient Tibet and featuring an all-Tibetan cast. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Banco de Gaia is an electronic music outfit from England, formed by Toby Marks (born 1964) in 1991. ... Last Train to Lhasa is a music album by artist Banco de Gaia which was released in 1995. ... For the current American Idol season, see American Idol (season 7). ... Sherwood Xuehua Hu (born 1961 in Shanghai China) is a Chinese American stage and film director. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ...


Kekexili: Mountain Patrol, is a film made by National Geographic about a Chinese reporter that goes to Tibet to report on the issue involving the endangerment of Tibetan Antelope. It won numerous awards at home and abroad.


In 1995 a British electronic music act Banco de Gaia released the album Last Train to Lhasa, dedicated to the music of Tibet, with many samples of Tibetan chantings.
For other uses, see Electronic music (disambiguation). ... Banco de Gaia is an electronic music outfit from England, formed by Toby Marks (born 1964) in 1991. ... Last Train to Lhasa is a music album by artist Banco de Gaia which was released in 1995. ... Tibet is a region of China, culturally very distinct from the rest of China. ... Chant is the rhythmic speaking or singing of words or sounds, often primarily on one or two pitches called reciting tones. ...


Gallery

References

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  53. ^ The British Invasion of Tibet: Colonel Younghusband, page 234
  54. ^ a b Virtual Tibet: Searching for Shangri-La from the Himalayas to Hollywood, page 195
  55. ^ The British Invasion of Tibet: Colonel Younghusband, page 237
  56. ^ Melvyn C. Goldstein, A History of Modern Tibet, 1913-1951, Los Angeles 1989, p.45
  57. ^ Bell, 1924 p. 284; Allen, 2004, p. 282
  58. ^ Bell, 1924, p. 288
  59. ^ McKay, 1997, pp. 230–1.
  60. ^ Bell, 1924, pp. 46–7, 278–80
  61. ^ Convention Between Great Britain and China Respecting Tibet (1906)
  62. ^ Convention Between Great Britain and Russia (1907)
  63. ^ The Times Atlas of World History, 1989, p. 175
  64. ^ Schirokauer, Conrad. A Brief History of Chinese Civilization, 2006, p. 242
  65. ^ Abbé Huc. The Land of the Lamas. Taken from: Travels in Tartary, Thibet and China, 1844-1846 by MM. Huc and Gabet, translated by William Hazlitt, p. 123.
  66. ^ FOSSIER Astrid, Paris, 2004 "L’Inde des britanniques à Nehru : un acteur clé du conflit sino-tibétain."
  67. ^ "He abolished the powers of the Tibetan local leaders and appointed Chinese magistrates in their places. He introduced new laws that limited the number of lamas and deprived monasteries of their temporal power and inaugurated schemes for having the land cultivated by Chinese immigrants. Zhao's methods in eastern Tibet uncannily prefigured the Communist policies nearly half a century later. They were aimed at the extermination of the Tibetan clergy, the assimilation of territory and repopulation of the Tibetan plateaus with poor peasants from Sichuan. Like the later Chinese conquerors, Zhao's men looted and destroyed Tibetan monasteries, melted down religious images and tore up sacred texts to use to line the soles of their boots and, as the Communists were also to do later, Zhao Erfang worked out a comprehensive scheme for the redevelopment of Tibet that covered military training reclamation work, secular education, trade and administration.": Hilton, Isabel. (1999). The Search for the Panchen Lama. Viking. Reprint: Penguin Books. (2000), p. 115. ISBN 0-14-024670-3.
  68. ^ Karenina Kollmar-Paulenz, Kleine Geschichte Tibets, München 2006, p. 140f
  69. ^ Melvyn C. Goldstein, A History of Modern Tibet, 1913-1951, Los Angeles 1989, p. 46f
  70. ^ "Zhang (initiated) a series of developmental project, and (forced) the official to a higher level of productivity by having them work harder. Specifically, Zhang and the amban...attacked corruption and "monastic idleness" founded a four thousand-man Tibetan army, secularized the government in Lhasa, opened schools, improved agriculture, and founded a military academy. While none of these reforms lasted very long, they did go some way toward winning the allegiance of the people and the enmity of the ruling elite....[Qing commissioners] created a well-trained army of six thousand; and during the following two years pacified most of eastern Tibet, introducing extensive administrative, economic, land, and tax reforms. He abolished corvee labor, threatening offenders with decapitation. He established inns for travelers; appointed school officials; introduced compulsory education; established mining, tanning and agricultural enterprises, and even built a steel bridge across the Ya-lung River.": Grunfeld, A.T., The Making of Modern Tibet, M.E. Sharpe, 1995, p. 60
  71. ^ "It may be freely conceded that China's work in Tibet had its own good points. The Chinese officials of the modern school, who came in now, lessened the bribes taken by the Tibetan officials from the poorer classes, and in the ordinary, non-political cases gave straighter justice than that dealt out by the Tibetan magistry. There was no doubt some foundation for the Amban's claim that the poorer classes in Tibet were in favour of China": Charles Bell, Tibet Past and Present, Oxford 1924 , p. 93
  72. ^ Melvyn C. Goldstein, A History of Modern Tibet, 1913-1951, Los Angeles 1989, p. 49ff
  73. ^ Hilton, Isabel. (1999). The Search for the Panchen Lama. Viking. Reprint: Penguin Books. (2000), p. 115. ISBN 0-14-024670-3.
  74. ^ Melvyn C. Goldstein, A History of Modern Tibet, 1913-1951, Los Angeles 1989, p. 58f
  75. ^ a b Smith (1996), p. 181
  76. ^ Bell, Charles, Tibet Past and Present, 1924, p. 304
  77. ^ Rubin, Alfred P., "The Position of Tibet in International Law", China Quarterly, 1968, p. 123
  78. ^ Grunfeld, A. Tom, The Making of Modern Tibet, p. 65, saying: "However, the Dalai Lama denied his letter authorized Dorjieff to negotiate a treaty and, besides, neither the cleric or his government ever ratified the treaty"
  79. ^ a b Bell, Charles, Tibet Past and Present, 1924, pp. 150-151
  80. ^ UK Foreign Office Archive: FO 371/1608
  81. ^ Quoted by Sir Charles Bell, "Tibet and Her Neighbours", Pacific Affairs(Dec 1937), pp. 435–6, a high Tibetan official pointed out years later that there was "no need for a treaty; we would always help each other if we could."
  82. ^ Gerard M. Friters: The Prelude to Outer Mongolian Independence, Pacific Affairs, Vol. 10, No. 2. (Jun., 1937), p. 173f
  83. ^ Alfred L. P. Dennis: Diplomatic Affairs and International Law 1913, The American Political Science Review, Vol. 8, No. 1. (Feb., 1914), p. 38
  84. ^ E. T. Williams: The Relations Between China, Russia and Mongolia, The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 10, No. 4. (Oct., 1916), p. 803f
  85. ^ Udo B. Barkmann, Geschichte der Mongolei, Bonn 1999, p. 380f
  86. ^ John Snelling says: "Though sometimes doubted, this Tibet-Mongolia Treaty certainly existed. It was signed on 29 December 1912 (OS) (that is, by the Julian Calendar - thus making it 8th January 1913 by the Gregorian Calendar) by Dorzhiev and two Tibetans on behalf of the Dalai Lama, and by two Mongolians for the Jebtsundamba Khutukhtu." He then quotes the full wording of the treaty (in English) from the British Public Records Office: FO [Foreign Office] 371 1609 7144: Sir George Buchanan to Sir Edward Grey, St. Petersburg, dated 11 February 1913. Snelling, John. (1993). Buddhism in Russia: The Story of Agvan Dorzhiev, Lhasa's Emissary to the Tsar. (1993) Element Inc., pp. 150-151; 292. ISBN 1-85230-332-8
  87. ^ Article 2 of the Simla Convention
  88. ^ Appendix of the Simla Convention
  89. ^ Goldstein, Melvyn C., A History of Modern Tibet, 1913–1951, University of California Press, 1989, p. 75
  90. ^ Chambers's Encyclopaedia, Volume XIII, Pergamaon Press, 1967, p. 638
  91. ^ Reports by F.W. Williamson, British political officer in Sikkim, India Office Record, L/PS/12/4175, dated 20 January 1935
  92. ^ Chapman, F. Spencer. Lhasa: The Holy City, p. 96. (1940). Readers Union Ltd., London.
  93. ^ Aide-mémoire sent by the US Department of States to the British Embassy in Washington, D.C.(dated 15 May 1943), Foreign Office Records: FO371/35756, quoted from Goldstein, 1989, p. 386
  94. ^ a b Laird, Thomas (2007). The Story of Tibet: Conversations with the Dalai Lama. Grove Press, 301. 
  95. ^ Goldstein, Melvyn, Taxation and the Structure of a Tibetan village, Central Asiatic Journal, 1971, p. 15: "With the exception of about 300 noble families, all laymen and laywomen in Tibet were serfs (Mi ser) bound via ascription by parallel descent to a particular lord (dPon-po) though an estate, in other words sons were ascribed to their father's lord but daughters to their mother's lord."
  96. ^ Goldstein, Melvyn, An Anthropological Study of the Tibetan Political System, 1968, p. 40
  97. ^ Rahul, Ram, The Structure of the Government of Tibet, 1644-1911, 1962, pp. 263-298
  98. ^ Grunfeld, A. Tom, The Making of Modern Tibet, p. 12: "The vast majority of the people of Tibet were serfs, or as they were known there, mi ser."
  99. ^ a b c Jiawei, Wang, "The Historical Status of China's Tibet", 2000, pp. 194-97
  100. ^ Tibet — Summary of a Report on Tibet: Submitted to the International Commission of Jurists by Shri Purshottam Trikamdas, Senior Advocate, Supreme Court of India
  101. ^ The petition of 10th Panchen Lama in 1962
  102. ^ "Panchen Lama Poisoned arrow", BBC, 2001-10-14. Retrieved on 2007-04-29. 
  103. ^ a b Spencer, Richard. "Tibet ready to sacrifice sovereignty, says leader", The Daily Telegraph, 2005-03-15. Retrieved on 2007-08-01. 
  104. ^ "Accept Tibet as part of China: Dalai Lama", The Hindu, 2007-01-24. Retrieved on 2007-08-01. 
  105. ^ "Profile: The Dalai Lama", BBC News, April 25, 2006.
  106. ^ United States Congressional Serial Set, United States Government Printing Office, 1993, p. 110.
  107. ^ 'Tibet: Proving Truth from Facts', The Department of Information and International Relations: Central Tibetan Administration, 1996. p. 53
  108. ^ a b Barry Sautman, June Teufel Dreyer, Contemporary Tibet: Politics, Development, And Society In A Disputed Region pp. 239
  109. ^ Grunfield, Tom. The Making of Modern Tibet. p. 247.
  110. ^ Tibet, Tibet ISBN 1-4000-4100-7, pp. 278–82
  111. ^ Warren W. Smith, Tibetan Nation: A History of Tibetan Nationalism and Sino-Tibetan Relations ISBN 0-8133-3155-2, p. 600
  112. ^ Black Book ISBN 0-674-07608-7, Internment Est:p. 545, (cites Kewly, Tibet p. 255); Tibet Death Est: p. 546
  113. ^ Yan Hao, 'Tibetan Population in China: Myths and Facts Re-examined', Asian Ethnicity, Volume 1, No. 1, March 2000, p.24
  114. ^ Interview with Tashi Wangid, David Shankbone, Wikinews, November 14, 2007.
  115. ^ http://cc.purdue.edu/~wtv/tibet/article/art4.html Tibet, China and the United States: Reflections on the Tibet Question,by Melvyn C. Goldstein
  116. ^ Amnesty International, 'Call for accountability for Tibetan deaths in custody in Drapchi Prison'
  117. ^ Train heads for Tibet, carrying fears of change
  118. ^ Personnel Changes in Lhasa Reveal Preference for Chinese Over Tibetans, Says TIN Report
  119. ^ Peter Hessler, 'Tibet Through Chinese Eyes', The Atlantic Monthly, Feb. 1999
  120. ^ 'High wages in Tibet benefit the privliviged', Asian Labour News, 21 February 2005,
  121. ^ 'Tibet's March Toward Modernization, section II The Rapid Social Development in Tibet', Information Office of the State Council of the PRC, November 2001
  122. ^ Tibet: Basic Data. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. Retrieved on 2008-04-22.
  123. ^ 'Tibet's March Toward Modernization, section II The Rapid Social Development in Tibet', Information Office of the State Council of the PRC, November 2001
  124. ^ Lee Feigon, Demystifying Tibet, page 125
  125. ^ See Leo A. Orleans,"A Note on Tibet's Population."
  126. ^ Michael Parenti, Friendly Feudalism: The Tibet Myth
  127. ^ Michael Parenti, Friendly Feudalism: The Tibet Myth
  128. ^ Gelder and Gelder, The Timely Rain, 175-176; http://www.jstor.org/pss/2754632
  129. ^ Lee Feigon, Demystifying Tibet, page 127
  130. ^ Lee Feigon, Demystifying Tibet, page 100
  131. ^ "China's Tibet Fact and Figures 2003", China Tibet Information Service, 2002-08-26. Retrieved on 2006-02-24. 
  132. ^ "Tibet's economy depends on Beijing", NPR News, 2002-08-26. Retrieved on 2006-02-24. 
  133. ^ "High wages in Tibet benefit the privileged", Asia Labour News, 2005-02-21. Retrieved on 2006-02-24. 
  134. ^ "China opens world's highest railway", Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 2005-07-01. Retrieved on 2006-07-01. 
  135. ^ "China completes railway to Tibet", BBC News, 2005-10-15. Retrieved on 2006-07-04. 
  136. ^ "Deemed a road to ruin, Tibetans say Beijing rail-way poses latest threat to minority culture", Boston Globe, 2002-08-26. Retrieved on 2006-07-04. 
  137. ^ "China Opens 1st Train Service to Tibet", Washington Post, 2006-06-30. Retrieved on 2006-07-04. 
  138. ^ "Dalai Lama Urges 'Wait And See' On Tibet Railway", Deutsche Presse Agentur, 2006-06-30. Retrieved on 2006-07-04. 
  139. ^ a b Valuable mineral deposits found along Tibet railroad route. Reuters (2007-01-25). Retrieved on 2007-11-05.
  140. ^ "Following the progression of the process of reform, there has been some population movement. People from other provinces who are trading or employed in Tibet for more than half a year are included in the census [of the Tibetan Autonomous Region]. Ethnic Tibetans who are studying, working, and trading in the inland provinces are not included in the census." (”随着改革开放的深入,发生了一些人口流动,一些在藏居住半年以上的外地经商务工人员被统计在内;而到内地上学、工作及经商务工的藏族居民未在统计之列”): China Tibet Information,列确:西藏不存在所谓的“移民”和“汉化”问题 (Legqog: there is no so-called "migration" or "Han-ification" problem in Tibet), 中国西藏基本情况 (China Tibet Basic Information), Xinhua Net, 2002-09-04
  141. ^ Dalai Lama accuses China of 'demographic aggression'
  142. ^ Population transfer and control
  143. ^ 5,416,021 At the time of the census of 2000: (English)(Chinese) China Statistical Yearbook 2003, p. 48
  144. ^ 1954 Chinese Census Report (Chinese)
  145. ^ Xinhua News report (Chinese)
  146. ^ The law of birth control, The People's Republic of China
  147. ^ SINA News report (Chinese)
  148. ^ Population of Tibet 1950-1990 (Chinese)
  149. ^ Communiqué on Major Data of 1% National Population Sample Survey in 2005
  150. ^ Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司) and Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (国家民族事务委员会经济发展司), eds. Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China (《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》). 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House (民族出版社), 2003 (ISBN 7-105-05425-5).
  151. ^ Masood Butt, 'Muslims of Tibet', The Office of Tibet, January/February 1994
  152. ^ McKay, Alex. The History of Tibet. Routledge. 2003. p. 596. ISBN 0700715088.
  153. ^ http://www.savetibet.org/tibet/humanrights/index.php
  154. ^ http://www.tibetjustice.org/reports/globalization.pdf
  155. ^ http://www.tew.org/development/devel.tibet.update.html
  156. ^ http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA17/009/2002/en/dom-ASA170092002en.html
  157. ^ Laird, Thomas (2006). The Story of Tibet: Conversations with the Dalai Lama, pp. 352-357. Grove Press, N.Y. ISBN 978-0-8021-827-1.
  158. ^ http://www.tibet.com/humanrights/hratglance.html
  159. ^ http://www.tchrd.org/publications/annual_reports/1999/
  160. ^ Laird, Thomas (2006). The Story of Tibet: Conversations with the Dalai Lama, pp. 357-358. Grove Press, N.Y. ISBN 978-0-8021-827-1.
  161. ^ http://www.freetibet.org/info/facts/fact1.html

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Japan Times is one of the few independent English newspapers published in Japan: it mainly competes with English editions of the major dailies, such as the Daily Yomiuri and the Mainichi Daily News, as well as the International Herald Tribune. ... Founded in 1683 in Leiden, the Netherlands, Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is an international academic publisher and is listed on Euronext, Amsterdam. ... When considering the transliteration of non-Chinese words into Chinese characters, one has to know the following facts: Chinese is written with monosyllabic logograms. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... The International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) is an international human rights non-government organisation. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ...

Further reading

  • Allen, Charles (2004). Duel in the Snows: The True Story of the Younghusband Mission to Lhasa. London: John Murray, 2004. ISBN 0-7195-5427-6.
  • Bell, Charles (1924). Tibet: Past & Present. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Dowman, Keith (1988). The Power-Places of Central Tibet: The Pilgrim's Guide. Routledge & Kegan Paul. London, ISBN 0-7102-1370-0. New York, ISBN 0-14-019118-6.
  • Melvyn C. Goldstein; with the help of Gelek Rimpoche. A History of Modern Tibet, 1913-1951: The Demise of the Lamaist State. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers (1993), ISBN 81-215-0582-8. University of California (1991), ISBN 0-520-07590-0.
A History of Modern Tibet, 1913-1951. University of California Press, 1991, ISBN 0-520-07590-0
  • Melvyn C. Goldstein: A History of Modern Tibet, Volume 2: The Calm Before the Storm: 1951-1955, University of California Press 2007 ISBN 978-0520249417
  • Melvyn C. Goldstein: The Snowlion and the Dragon: China, Tibet and the Dalai Lama. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1997.
  • Melvyn Goldstein, William Siebenschuh, and Tashi Tsering. The Struggle for Modern Tibet: The Autobiography of Tashi Tsering. Armonk, NY: M.E.Sharpe, Inc. 1997.
  • Grunfeld, Tom (1996). The Making of Modern Tibet. ISBN 1-56324-713-5.
  • Gyatso, Palden (1997). "The Autobiography of a Tibetan Monk". Grove Press. NY, NY. ISBN 0-8021-3574-9
  • Human Rights in China: China, Minority Exclusion, Marginalization and Rising Tensions, London, Minority Rights Group International, 2007
  • McKay, Alex (2003). The History of Tibet. Routledge. ISBN 0700715088
  • McKay, Alex (1997). Tibet and the British Raj: The Frontier Cadre 1904-1947. London: Curzon. ISBN 0-7007-0627-5.
  • Norbu, Thubten Jigme; Turnbull, Colin (1968). Tibet: Its History, Religion and People. Reprint: Penguin Books (1987).
  • Pachen, Ani; Donnely, Adelaide (2000). Sorrow Mountain: The Journey of a Tibetan Warrior Nun. Kodansha America, Inc. ISBN 1-56836-294-3.
  • Parenti, Michael (2004)."Friendly Feudalism: The Tibet Myth".
  • Petech, Luciano (1997). China and Tibet in the Early XVIIIth Century: History of the Establishment of Chinese Protectorate in Tibet. T'oung Pao Monographies, Brill Academic Publishers, ISBN 9-00403-442-0.
  • Samuel, Geoffrey (1993). Civilized Shamans: Buddhism in Tibetan Societies. Smithsonian ISBN 1-56098-231-4.
  • Schell, Orville (2000). Virtual Tibet: Searching for Shangri-La from the Himalayas to Hollywood. Henry Holt. ISBN 0-8050-4381-0.
  • Smith, Warren W. (Jr.) (1996). Tibetan Nation: A History of Tibetan Nationalism and Sino-Tibetan Relations. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3155-2.
  • Stein, R. A. (1962). Tibetan Civilization. First published in French; English translation by J. E. Stapelton Driver. Reprint: Stanford University Press (with minor revisions from 1977 Faber & Faber edition), 1995. ISBN 0-8047-0806-1.
  • Tsering Shakya (1999): The Dragon in the Land of Snows. A History of Modern Tibet Since 1947, London 1999, ISBN 0140196153*

Thurman, Robert (2002). Robert Thurman on Tibet. DVD. ASIN B00005Y722. Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ...

  • Wilby, Sorrel (1988). Journey Across Tibet: A Young Woman's 1,900-mile (3,060 km) Trek Across the Rooftop of the World. Contemporary Books. ISBN 0-8092-4608-2.
  • Wilson, Brandon (2004). Yak Butter Blues: A Tibetan Trek of Faith. Pilgrim's Tales. ISBN 0977053660, ISBN 0977053679. (second edition 2005)
  • Wang Jiawei (2000). "The Historical Status of China's Tibet". ISBN-7-80113-304-8.
  • Tibet wasn't always ours, says Chinese scholar by Venkatesan Vembu, Daily News & Analysis, 22 February 2007
  • Sharife Khadija :Tibet's Natural Resources as China's Pillar Industry "http://www.thoughtleader.co.za/khadijasharife/2008/04/18/tibet-shifting-climates-on-the-roof-of-the-world-p2/

is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

See also

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Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... The UTF-8-encoded Japanese Wikipedia article for mojibake, as displayed in ISO-8859-1 encoding. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, rarely Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Image File history File links Example. ... The UTF-8-encoded Japanese Wikipedia article for mojibake, as displayed in ISO-8859-1 encoding. ... Situation of the east Tibetan region of Amdo Amdo (Tibetan: ཨ༌མདོ, Chinese: 安多, Pinyin: Ä€nduō) is one of the three former provinces of Tibet, the other two being Ãœ-Tsang and Kham; it is also the place from which Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, comes from. ... Situation of the east Tibetan region of Kham Kham (Tibetan: ཁམས; Wylie transliteration: Khams; Simplified Chinese: 康; Pinyin: Kāng), also referred to as the Kingdom of Kham, is one of the three traditional provinces claimed by the Tibetan government-in-exile and the International Tibetan Independence Movement. ... Évariste Régis Huc, or Abbé Huc, (August 1, 1813 - March 31, 1860) was a French missionary-traveller, famous for his travel accounts in Souvenirs dun voyage dans la Tartarie, le Thibet, et la Chine pendant les années 1844—1846. ... Lieutenant Colonel Sir Francis Edward Younghusband (31 May 1863 - 31 July 1942) was a British Army officer, explorer, and spiritualist. ... {{Warbox| conflict=The British Expedition to Tibet Tibet is kool ! ... Alexandra David-N el (October 24, 1868 - September 8, 1969) was a French explorer, anarchist, spiritualist, Buddhist and writer. ... For other uses, see Lhasa (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China (Communist China). ... Official language Tibetan Headquarters Dharamsala, India Head of State Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama Head of Government Professor Venerable Samdhong Rinpoche National Anthem Tibetan National Anthem, (Link) The Central Tibetan Administration (CTA), officially the Central Tibetan Administration of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, is a government in exile headed by... A Free Tibet logo, one of several that exist The International Tibet Independence Movement (ITIM) is a movement to establish historical Tibet, comprising the three traditional provinces of Amdo, Kham, and Ãœ-Tsang as an independent kingdom. ... This is a list of currently active autonomist and secessionist movements around the world. ... The history of Tibetans in the United States is relatively short, as the remote kingdom of Tibet for centuries had few relations with other countries. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... South Tibet (Chinese: Zàngnán 藏南) refers to a geographical area of Tibet. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people... Baltistan (Urdu: بلتستان) , also known as بلتیول (Baltiyul) in the Balti language, is a region to the north of Kashmir, bordering Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China. ... Phuntsog Nyidron is a Tibetan Buddhist nun who was imprisoned by the government of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) in 1989 and released in 2004. ...

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  • Tibet travel guide from Wikitravel
  • The Tibetan & Himalayan Digital Library
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Tibet Travel Information, Tibet Tour, Low Price, Travel to Tibet, 24/7 Toll Free, Tips, Travel Permit, Tibet Trip, ... (1326 words)
Tibet (Xizang), the Roof of the World, remained unknown to the world until the beginning of the 20th century.
The Himalayas to the south, the Karakoram to the west, and the Kunlun to the north are the dream lands of all adventurers and mountaineers.
Western Tibet, Ngari, is a vast barren plateau and renowned as the Roof of Tibet.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Tibet (2645 words)
Tibet with the towns of Gartok and Rudok, the Kailas Mountain, the Refuge of Siva; it is bounded by the British district of Kumaun.
Tibet but did not visit it; the first European traveller who appears to have visited Lhasa is the Franciscan Odoric of Pordenone in the first half of the fourteenth century.
Tibet, was to penetrate into the country by the way of Northern India with Fathers Krick and Bernard.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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