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Encyclopedia > Tiberius
Tiberius
Emperor of the Roman Empire

A bust of the Emperor Tiberius
Reign AD 14–AD 37
Full name Tiberius Caesar Augustus
(born Tiberius Claudius Nero)
Born November 16, 42 BC
Rome
Died March 16, AD 37 (age 78)
Misenum
Predecessor Augustus
Successor Caligula
Wife/wives 1) Vipsania Agrippina, 20 BC to 12 BC
2) Julia the Elder, 11 BC to 2 BC
Issue By 1) Julius Caesar Drusus
By 2) 1, died in infancy
Dynasty Julio-Claudian
Father Tiberius Nero
Mother Livia

Tiberius Caesar Augustus, born Tiberius Claudius Nero (November 16, 42 BCMarch 16 AD 37), was the second Roman Emperor, from the death of Augustus in AD 14 until his own death in 37. Tiberius was by birth a Claudian, son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. His mother divorced his father and was remarried to Octavian Augustus in 39 BC. Tiberius would later marry Augustus' daughter Julia the Elder (from an earlier marriage) and even later be adopted by Augustus and by this act he became a Julian. The subsequent emperors after Tiberius would continue this blended dynasty of both families for the next forty years; historians have named it the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Tiberius can refer to: // Roman Persons Named Tiberius Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, Roman politician of the 2nd century BC Tiberius Julius Caesar Nero, the son of Drusus and Livilla Tiberius Claudius Nero, member of the Claudian Family of ancient Rome Tiberius Caesar Augustus, the second Roman Emperor Flavius Tiberius Constantinius Augustus... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (614x800, 162 KB) Summary Bust of the Roman Emperor Tiberius. ... Events First year of tianfeng era of the Chinese Xin Dynasty. ... Events March 18 - The Roman Senate annuls Tiberius will and proclaims Caligula Roman Emperor. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events October 3 - First Battle of Philippi: The Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesars assassins Marcus Junius Brutus and Cassius. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 18 - The Roman Senate annuls Tiberius will and proclaims Caligula Roman Emperor. ... Misemen is the site of an ancient port in Campania, in southern Italy. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Vipsania Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa and first wife of Tiberius Vipsania Agrippina (36 BC-20 AD) was the daughter of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa from his first wife Pomponia Caecilia Attica, granddaughter of Ciceros friend and knight Titus Pomponius Atticus. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC 19 BC 18 BC 17 BC 16 BC 15... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 17 BC 16 BC 15 BC 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC... For other Roman women named Julia Caesaris, see Julia Caesaris. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 16 BC 15 BC 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 3 4 Events Births Deaths Gaius and... Drusus the Younger, son of Tiberius. ... Template:Julio-Claudian Dynasty The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. ... Tiberius Claudius Nero (c. ... Livia Drusilla, after 14 AD called Livia Augusta (Classical Latin: LIVIA•DRVSILLA, later LIVIA•AVGVSTA[1]) (58 BC-AD 29) was the wife of Caesar Augustus (also known as Octavian) and the most powerful woman in the early Roman Empire, acting several times as regent and being Augustus faithful advisor. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events October 3 - First Battle of Philippi: The Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesars assassins Marcus Junius Brutus and Cassius. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 18 - The Roman Senate annuls Tiberius will and proclaims Caligula Roman Emperor. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Events First year of tianfeng era of the Chinese Xin Dynasty. ... The gens Claudia was one of the oldest families in ancient Rome, and for centuries its members were regularly leaders of the city and empire. ... Tiberius Claudius Nero (c. ... Livia Drusilla, after 14 AD called Livia Augusta (Classical Latin: LIVIA•DRVSILLA, later LIVIA•AVGVSTA[1]) (58 BC-AD 29) was the wife of Caesar Augustus (also known as Octavian) and the most powerful woman in the early Roman Empire, acting several times as regent and being Augustus faithful advisor. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC - 39 BC - 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC... For other Roman women named Julia Caesaris, see Julia Caesaris. ... Julius (fem. ... Template:Julio-Claudian Dynasty The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. ...


Tiberius was one of Rome's greatest generals, whose campaigns in Pannonia, Illyricum, Rhaetia and Germania laid the foundations for the northern frontier. But he came to be remembered as a dark, reclusive, and sombre ruler who never really desired to be emperor; Pliny the Elder called him tristissimus hominum, "the gloomiest of men."[1] After the death of Tiberius’ son Julius Caesar Drusus in 23, the quality of his rule declined and ended in a terror. In 26, Tiberius exiled himself from Rome and left administration largely in the hands of his unscrupulous Praetorian Prefects Lucius Aelius Sejanus and Quintus Naevius Sutorius Macro. Caligula, Tiberius’ adopted grandson, succeeded the Emperor upon his death. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... This article is about an ancient civilization in southeastern Europe; see also Illyria (software), Illyria (character in the TV series Angel). ... Raetia as province of the Roman Empire, ca. ... Map of the Roman Empire and the free Germania, Magna Germania, in the early 2nd century For other uses, see Germania (disambiguation). ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Drusus the Younger, son of Tiberius. ... Praetorian prefect (Latin Praefectus praetorio) was the constant title of a high office in the Roman state that changed fundamentally in nature. ... Lucius Aelius Seianus (or Sejanus) (20 BC – October 18, 31 AD) was an ambitious soldier, friend and confidant of the Roman Emperor Tiberius. ... Quintus Naevius Sutorius Macro (or Quintus Naevius Cordus Sutorius Macro) (21 BC - 38 AD) was the Prefect of the Roman Praetorian Guard after the execution of Aelius Sejanus in October, 31. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ...

Contents

Early life

Roman imperial dynasties
Julio-Claudian dynasty
Augustus
Children
   Natural - Julia the Elder
   Adoptive - Gaius Caesar, Lucius Caesar, Agrippa Postumus, Tiberius
Tiberius
Children
   Natural - Julius Caesar Drusus
   Adoptive - Germanicus
Caligula
Children
   Natural - Julia Drusilla
   Adoptive - Tiberius Gemellus
Claudius
Children
   Natural - Claudia Antonia, Claudia Octavia, Britannicus
   Adoptive - Nero
Nero
Children
   Natural - Claudia Augusta

Template:Julio-Claudian Dynasty The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... For other Roman women named Julia Caesaris, see Julia Caesaris. ... Gaius Julius Caesar Vipsanianus (20 BC - AD 4), most commonly known as Gaius Caesar, was the oldest son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. ... Lucius Julius Caesar (17 BC-2 AD), most commonly known as Lucius Caesar, was the second son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. ... Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Postumus, (12 BC-14 AD) also known as Agrippa Postumus or Postumus Agrippa, was a son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. ... Drusus the Younger, son of Tiberius. ... Germanicus Julius Caesar Claudianus (24 May 15 BC–October 10, 19) was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty of the early Roman Empire. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... For the identically named daughter of Germanicus, see Drusilla (sister of Caligula). ... Tiberius Gemellus, son of Drusus the Younger and Livilla Tiberius Julius Caesar Nero , known as Tiberius Gemellus, (10 October AD 19–AD 37 or 38) was the son of Drusus and Livilla, the grandson of Tiberius, and the cousin of Gaius Caligula. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... Antonia (30–66 AD) was Claudius only child from his second marriage to Aelia Paetina. ... Octavia was the name of three women of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty of ancient Rome: two were sisters of Augustus Caesar, and the younger was the daughter of Claudius and wife of Nero. ... Britannicus (41 - 55 A.D.) was the son of the Roman emperor Claudius and his third wife Messalina. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Claudia Augusta was the only daughter of the Roman Emperor Nero by his second wife Poppaea Sabina. ...

Background

Tiberius Claudius Germanicus Augustus Nero was born on 16 November 42 BC to Tiberius Nero and Livia Drusilla, in Rome.[2] In 39 BC, his mother divorced his biological father and remarried Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus shortly thereafter, while still pregnant with Tiberius Nero's son. Shortly thereafter in 38 BC his brother, Nero Claudius Drusus, was born. is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events October 3 - First Battle of Philippi: The Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesars assassins Marcus Junius Brutus and Cassius. ... Tiberius Claudius Nero (c. ... Livia Livia Drusa Augusta, Livia Drusilla, or Julia Augusta (58 BC-AD 29) was the wife of Caesar Augustus and the most powerful woman in Roman history, acting several times as regent and being Augustus faithful advisor. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC - 39 BC - 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Bust of Nero Claudius Drusus, in the Musée du Cinquantinaire, Brussels Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, born Decimus Claudius Drusus and variously called Drusus, Drusus I, Drusus Claudius Nero, or Drusus the Elder (14 January 38 - 9 BC) was the youngest son of Livia, wife of Augustus, and her first...


Little is recorded of Tiberius's early life. In 32 BC, Tiberius made his first public appearance at the age of nine, delivering the eulogy for his biological father.[3] In 29 BC, both he and his brother Drusus rode in the triumphal chariot along with their adoptive father Octavian in celebration of the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra at Actium.[3] In 26 BC, Augustus became gravely ill, and his possible death threatened to plunge the Roman world into chaos again. Historians generally agree that it is during this time that the question of Augustus's heir became most acute, and while Augustus had seemed to indicate that Agrippa and Marcellus would carry on his position in the event of his death, the ambiguity of succession became Augustus's chief problem. Events Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Gaius Sosius become Roman Consuls. ... Look up eulogy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus becomes Roman Consul for the fifth time. ... Actium (mod. ...


In response, a series of potential heirs seem to have been selected, among them Tiberius and his brother, Drusus. In 24 BC, at the age of seventeen, Tiberius entered politics under Augustus's direction, receiving the position of quaestor,[4] and was granted the right to stand for election as praetor and consul five years in advance of the age required by law.[5] Similar provisions were made for Drusus. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC 19... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... This article is about the Roman rank. ...


Civil and military career

Shortly thereafter Tiberius began appearing in court as an advocate,[6] and it is presumably here that his interest in Greek rhetoric began. In 20 BC, Tiberius was sent East under Marcus Agrippa. The Parthians had captured the standards of the legions under the command of Marcus Licinius Crassus (53 BC)(at the battle of Carrhae), Decidius Saxa (40 BC), and Mark Antony (36 BC).[5] After several years of negotiation, Tiberius lead a sizable force into Armenia, presumably with the goal of establishing Armenia as a Roman client-state and as a threat on the Roman-Parthian border, and Augustus was able to reach a compromise whereby these standards were returned, and Armenia remained a neutral territory between the two powers.[5] An advocate is one who speaks on behalf of another, especially in a legal context. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC 19 BC 18 BC 17 BC 16 BC 15... Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (63 BC-12 BC) was a Roman statesman and general, son-in-law and minister of the emperor Caesar Augustus. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... The Roman Legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) is a term that can apply both as a transliteration of legio (conscription or army) to the entire Roman army and also, more narrowly (and more commonly), to the heavy infantry that was the basic military unit of... Marcus Licinius Crassus Dives (c. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50... Harran, also known as Carrhae, is an archeological site in present day southeastern Turkey, 24 miles (39 kilometers) southeast of Sanli Urfa. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 10s BC Years: 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC...

Bust of Vipsania Agrippina, Tiberius' first wife. Recovered from Leptis Magna.
Bust of Vipsania Agrippina, Tiberius' first wife. Recovered from Leptis Magna.

After returning from the East in 19 BC, Tiberius was married to Vipsania Agrippina, the daughter of Augustus’s close friend and greatest general, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa,[7] appointed praetor, and sent with his legions to assist his brother Drusus in campaigns in the west. While Drusus focused his forces in Gallia Narbonensis and along the German frontier, Tiberius combated the tribes in the Alps and within Transalpine Gaul. In 16 BC he discovered the sources of the Danube, and soon afterwards the bend of the middle course. Returning to Rome in 13 BC, Tiberius was appointed as consul, and around this same time his son, Julius Caesar Drusus, was born. Image File history File links Vipsania. ... Image File history File links Vipsania. ... Arch of Septimius Severus Market place Leptis Magna (or Lepcis Magna as it is sometimes spelled), also called Neapolis, was a prominent city of the Roman Empire. ... Vipsania Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa and first wife of Tiberius Vipsania Agrippina (36 BC-20 AD) was the daughter of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa from his first wife Pomponia Caecilia Attica, granddaughter of Ciceros friend and knight Titus Pomponius Atticus. ... Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Drusus the Younger, son of Tiberius. ...


Agrippa's death in 12 BC elevated both Tiberius and Drusus with respect to the succession. At Augustus’ request, Tiberius divorced Vipsania and married Julia the Elder, Augustus' daughter and Agrippa's widow.[7] This event seems to have been the breaking point for Tiberius; his marriage with Julia was never a happy one, and produced only a single child which died in infancy.[7] Reportedly, Tiberius once ran into Vipsania again, and proceeded to follow her home crying and begging forgiveness;[7] soon afterwards, Tiberius met with Augustus, and steps were taken to ensure that Tiberius and Vipsania would never meet again. Tiberius continued to be elevated by Augustus, and after Agrippa's death and his brother Drusus's death in 9 BC, seemed the clear candidate for succession. As such, in 12 BC he received military commissions in Pannonia and Germania; both areas highly volatile and both areas key to Augustan policy. He returned to Rome and was consul for a second time in 7 BC, and in 6 BC was granted tribunician power (tribunicia potestas) and control in the East,[8] all of which mirrored positions that Agrippa had previously held. However, despite these successes and despite his advancement, Tiberius was not happy. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 17 BC 16 BC 15 BC 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC... For other Roman women named Julia Caesaris, see Julia Caesaris. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC Events... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... Map of the Roman Empire and the free Germania, Magna Germania, in the early 2nd century For other uses, see Germania (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC Events... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ...


Retirement to Rhodes

Remnants of Tiberius' villa at Sperlonga, a Roman resort midway between Rome and Naples.
Remnants of Tiberius' villa at Sperlonga, a Roman resort midway between Rome and Naples.

In 6 BC, on the verge of accepting command in the East and becoming the second most powerful man in Rome, Tiberius suddenly announced his withdrawal from politics and retired to Rhodes. The precise motives for Tiberius's withdrawal are unclear.[9] Historians have speculated a connection with Augustus’s grandchildren Gaius and Lucius, whom Augustus had adopted, and were being elevated along the same political path that both Tiberius and Drusus had been. Tiberius thus was an interim solution; he would hold power only until Lucius and Gaius came of age, and then be swept aside. The promiscuous, and very public, behavior of his unhappily married wife, Julia,[10] may have also played a part;[8] indeed Tacitus calls it Tiberius' intima causa, his innermost reason for departing for Rhodes, and seems to ascribe the entire move to a hatred of Julia and a longing for Vipsania.[11] Tiberius had found himself married to a woman he loathed, who publicly humiliated him with nighttime escapades in the Forum, and forbidden to see the woman he had loved. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 740 × 555 pixelsFull resolution (740 × 555 pixel, file size: 113 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tiberius ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 740 × 555 pixelsFull resolution (740 × 555 pixel, file size: 113 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tiberius ... Sperlonga is a coastal town in the province of Latina, Italy, about half way between Rome and Naples. ... Events Births Possible birthdate of Jesus, April 17. ... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... This article is about Gaius, the jurist. ... Lucius is one of the small group of common forenames found in the culture of ancient Rome. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ...


Whatever Tiberius's motives, the withdrawal was almost disastrous for Augustus's succession plans. Gaius Caesar and Lucius Caesar were still in their early teens, and Augustus, now 57 years old, had no immediate successor. There was no longer a guarantee of a peaceful transfer of power after Augustus's death, nor a guarantee that his family, and therefore his family's allies, would continue to hold power should the position of princeps survive. Gaius Julius Caesar Vipsanianus (20 BC - AD 4), most commonly known as Gaius Caesar, was the oldest son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. ... Lucius Julius Caesar (17 BC-2 AD), most commonly known as Lucius Caesar, was the second son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. ... The Latin word Princeps (plural: principes) means the first. This article is devoted to a number of specific historical meanings the word took, by far the most important of which follows first. ...


Somewhat apocryphal stories tell of Augustus pleading with Tiberius to stay, even going so far as to stage a serious illness; Tiberius's response was to anchor off the shore of Ostia until word came that Augustus had survived, then sailing straightway for Rhodes.[12] Tiberius reportedly discovered the error of his ways and requested to return to Rome several times; each time Augustus refused the request. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Heir to Augustus

With Tiberius's departure, succession rested solely on Augustus' two young grandsons, Lucius and Gaius Caesar. The situation became more precarious in AD 2 with the death of Lucius; Augustus, with perhaps some prompting from Livia, allowed Tiberius to return to Rome as a private citizen and nothing more.[13] In AD 4, Gaius was killed in Armenia and, to paraphrase Tacitus, Augustus had no other choice but to turn to Tiberius.[14][15] For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see 2 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see 4 (disambiguation). ...


The death of Gaius in AD 4 initiated a flurry of activity in the household of Augustus. Tiberius was adopted as full son and heir. In turn, Tiberius was required to adopt his nephew, Germanicus, the son of his brother Drusus and Augustus' niece Antonia Minor.[14][16] Along with his adoption, Tiberius received tribunician power as well as a share of Augustus's maius imperium, something that even Marcus Agrippa may never have had.[17] In AD 7, Postumus was disowned by Augustus and banned to the island of Planasia, to live in solitary confinment.[18][19] Thus, when in AD 13, the powers held by Tiberius were made equal, rather than second, to Augustus's own powers, he was for all intents and purposes a "co-princeps" with Augustus, and in the event of the latter's passing, would simply continue to rule without an interregnum or possible upheaval. Germanicus Julius Caesar Claudianus (24 May 15 BC–October 10, 19) was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty of the early Roman Empire. ... Julia Antonia Cretica Minor (the younger) (31 January 36 BC - September/October 37 AD) or Antonia the Younger or simply known as Antonia. ... This article is about the year 7. ... Pianosa is a small (about 10 km2) island in Italys Tuscan Archipelago. ... This article is about the year 13. ... For other uses, see Interregnum (disambiguation). ...


Augustus died in AD 14, at the age of seventy-six.[20] He was buried with all due ceremony and, as had been arranged beforehand, deified, his will read, and Tiberius confirmed as his sole surviving heir.[21] Events First year of tianfeng era of the Chinese Xin Dynasty. ... Look up Apotheosis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Emperor

Early reign

The younger Emperor Tiberius. Bust from the Louvre, Paris.
The younger Emperor Tiberius. Bust from the Louvre, Paris.

While the reality of Tiberius's position as the new Princeps could not be denied, the ceremonial aspect of the transference of power was something that neither the Senate, nor indeed Tiberius, knew how to handle. The Senate convened on 18 September, ostensibly to validate Tiberius's position as Princeps and, as it had done with Augustus before, extend the powers of the position to him. Tacitus gives a full account of the proceedings. Tiberius already had the administrative and political powers of the Princeps, all he lacked were the titles- Augustus, Pater Patriae, and the Civic Crown (a crown made from laurel and oak, in honor of Augustus having saved the lives of Roman citizens). Tiberius - bust in the Louvre, Paris File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Tiberius - bust in the Louvre, Paris File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article is about the museum. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Civic Crown (Latin: corona civica) was a chaplet of common oak leaves woven to form a crown. ... Laurel may refer to: // Lauraceae, the botanical laurel family, including Bay laurel Laurus nobilis, the original true laurel that is the source of bay leaves used as a seasoning California Laurel Umbellularia californica is a related tree or large shrub True Cinnamon or Ceylon Cinnamon Cinnamomum verum, the inner bark... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ...


Tiberius, however, attempted to play the role of Augustus, that is of the reluctant public servant who wants nothing more than to serve the state, and ended up throwing the entire affair into confusion. Rather than humble, he came across as derisive; rather than seeming to want to serve the state, he seemed obstructive.[22] He cited his age as a reason why he could not act as Princeps, stated he did not wish the position, and then proceeded to ask for only a section of the state. The Senate, thoroughly confused, asked which part of the state he would like. Finally, one senator cried, "Sire, for how long will you allow the State to be without a head?"[23] Tiberius finally relented and accepted the powers voted to him, though according to Tacitus and Suetonius he refused to bear the titles Pater Patriae, Imperator, and Augustus, and declined the most solid emblem of the Princeps, the Civic Crown and laurels.[24] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


This meeting seems to have set the tone for Tiberius's entire rule. He seems to have wished for the Senate and the state to simply act without him; his direct orders were vague, inspiring debate more on what he actually meant than on passing his legislation.[25] In his first few years, Tiberius seems to have wanted the Senate to act on its own,[26] rather than as a servant to his will as it had been under Augustus; according to Tacitus, Tiberius derided the Senate as "men fit to be slaves".[27]


Rise and fall of Germanicus

Problems arose quickly for the new Princeps. The legions posted in Pannonia and in Germania had not been paid the bonuses promised them by Augustus, and after a short period of time, when it was clear that a response from Tiberius was not forthcoming, mutinied.[28] Germanicus and Tiberius's son, Drusus, were dispatched with a small force to quell the uprising and bring the legions back in line. Rather than simply quell the mutiny however, Germanicus rallied the mutineers and led them on a short campaign across the Rhine into Germanic territory, stating that whatever booty they could grab would count as their bonus.[29] Germanicus's forces smashed across the Rhine and quickly occupied all of the territory between the Rhine and the Elbe. Additionally, Tacitus records the capture of the Teutoburg forest and the reclaiming of standards lost years before by Publius Quinctilius Varus,[30] when three Roman legions and its auxiliary cohorts had been ambushed by a band of Germans. In the face of inaction by Tiberius, Germanicus had managed to deal a significant blow to Rome's enemies, quell an uprising of troops, and once again return lost standards to Rome, actions that placed the young Germanicus in a clear "Augustan" light when compared with befuddled Tiberius. Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... Map of the Roman Empire and the free Germania, Magna Germania, in the early 2nd century For other uses, see Germania (disambiguation). ... Mutiny is the act of conspiring to disobey an order that a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the military; or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) are legally obliged to obey. ... Germanicus Julius Caesar Claudianus (24 May 15 BC–October 10, 19) was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty of the early Roman Empire. ... Drusus the Younger, son of Tiberius. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... View over the Teutoburg Forest The Teutoburg Forest (German: Teutoburger Wald) is a range of low, forested mountains in the German states of Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia, which was believed to be the environ of a decisive battle in AD 9. ... Denarius minted by Mark Antony to pay his legions. ... The Defeated Varus (2003), a sculpture by Wilfried Koch in Haltern am See, Germany. ... Combatants Germanic tribes (Cherusci, Marsi, Chatti, Bructeri and Chauci) Roman Empire Commanders Arminius Publius Quinctilius Varus † Strength 10,000 to 18,000 3 Roman legions, 3 alae and 6 auxiliary cohorts, probably 20,000 - 25,000 Casualties Unknown; but far less than Roman losses 15,000-20,000 The Battle...


After being recalled from Germania,[31] Germanicus celebrated a triumph in Rome in AD 17,[30] the first full triumph that the city had seen since Augustus's own in 29 BC. As a result, in AD 18 Germanicus was granted control over the eastern part of the empire, just as both Agrippa and Tiberius had received before, and was clearly the successor to Tiberius.[32] Germanicus survived a little over a year before dying, accusing Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, the governor of Syria, of murdering him.[33] The Pisones had been longtime supporters of the Claudians, and had allied themselves with the young Octavian after his marriage to Livia, the mother of Tiberius; Germanicus's death and accusations indicted the new Princeps. Piso was placed on trial and, according to Tacitus, threatened to implicate Tiberius.[34] Whether the governor actually could connect the Princeps to the death of Germanicus will never be known; rather than continuing to stand trial when it became evident that the Senate was against him, Piso committed suicide.[35][36] A Roman Triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly honour the military commander (dux) of a notably successful foreign war or campaign and to display the glories of Roman victory. ... For other uses, see number 17. ... 29 is my favourite colour!!!!!!!! Events Romans captured Sofia. ... Ë‘ This article is about the year 18. ... Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, (c. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ...


Tiberius seems to have tired of politics at this point. In AD 22, he shared his tribunician authority with his son Drusus,[37] and began making yearly excursions to Campania that reportedly became longer and longer every year. In AD 23, Drusus mysteriously died,[38][39] and Tiberius seems to have made no effort to elevate a replacement. Finally, in AD 26, Tiberius retired from Rome altogether to the island of Capri.[40] Events Pontius Pilate is appointed as Prefect of Judaea. ... For other uses, see Capri (disambiguation). ...


Tiberius in Capri, Sejanus in Rome

Roman aureus depicting Tiberius, with Livia as Pax shown on the reverse. Struck in AD 36.
Roman aureus depicting Tiberius, with Livia as Pax shown on the reverse. Struck in AD 36.

Lucius Aelius Sejanus had served the imperial family for almost twenty years when he became Praetorian Prefect in AD 15. As Tiberius became more embittered with the position of Princeps, he began to depend more and more upon the limited secretariat left to him by Augustus, and specifically upon Sejanus and the Praetorians. In AD 17 or 18, Tiberius had trimmed the ranks of the Praetorian guard responsible for the defense of the city, and had moved it from encampments outside of the city walls into the city itself,[41] giving Sejanus access to somewhere between 6000 and 9000 troops. The death of Drusus elevated Sejanus, at least in Tiberius's eyes, who thereafter refers to him as "my partner". Tiberius had statues of Sejanus erected throughout the city,[42][43] and Sejanus became more and more visible as Tiberius began to withdraw from Rome altogether. Finally, with Tiberius's withdrawal in AD 26, Sejanus was left in charge of the entire state mechanism and the city of Rome. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 377 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 377 pixel, file size: 382 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tiberius. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 377 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 377 pixel, file size: 382 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tiberius. ... Aureus minted in 193 by Septimius Severus to celebrate XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix, the legion that proclamed him emperor. ... In Roman mythology, Pax (Latin for peace) (she had the greek equivalent Eirine) was recognized as a goddess during the rule of Augustus. ... Lucius Aelius Seianus (or Sejanus) (20 BC – October 18, 31 AD) was an ambitious soldier, friend and confidant of the Roman Emperor Tiberius. ... Praetorian prefect (Latin Praefectus praetorio) was the constant title of a high office in the Roman state that changed fundamentally in nature. ... For other uses, see 15 (disambiguation). ... The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ... Castra Praetoria are the ancient barracks (castra) of the Praetorian Guard of Imperial Rome. ... Events Pontius Pilate is appointed as Prefect of Judaea. ...


Sejanus's position was not quite that of successor; he had requested marriage in AD 25 to Tiberius's niece, Livilla,[44] though under pressure quickly withdrew the request.[45] While Sejanus's Praetorians controlled the imperial post, and therefore the information that Tiberius received from Rome and the information Rome received from Tiberius,[46] the presence of Livia seems to have checked his overt power for a time. Her death in AD 29 changed all that.[47] Sejanus began a series of purge trials of Senators and wealthy equestrians in the city of Rome, removing those capable of opposing his power as well as extending the imperial (and his own) treasury. Germanicus's widow Agrippina the elder and two of her sons, Nero and Drusus were arrested and exiled in AD 30 and later all died in suspicious circumstances.[48] Events Han dynasty was restored in China as Liu Xiu proclaimed himself emperor, start of jiangwu era (->56). ... (Claudia) Livia Julia (Classical Latin: LIVIA•IVLIA[1]), most commonly known by her family nickname of Livilla (the little Livia) (circa 13 BC–AD 31) was the only daughter of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia. ... Livia Drusilla, after 14 AD called Livia Augusta (Classical Latin: LIVIA•DRVSILLA, later LIVIA•AVGVSTA[1]) (58 BC-AD 29) was the wife of Caesar Augustus (also known as Octavian) and the most powerful woman in the early Roman Empire, acting several times as regent and being Augustus faithful advisor. ... 29 is my favourite colour!!!!!!!! Events Romans captured Sofia. ... Several notable women of Ancient Rome bore the name Agrippina. ... Nero Julius Caesar Germanicus (AD 6–AD 30) was a close relative to the Roman Emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. ... Drusus Caesar , also referred to as Drusus III, (7 - 33 AD) was a member of a noble family of ancient Rome. ... Events The Sermon on the Mount (according to proponents of the 33 theory) April 7 - Crucifixion of Jesus (suggested date, but it is also suggested that he died on April 3, AD 33) Births Quintus Petillius Cerialis, brother-in-law of Vespasian Deaths April 7 - Judas Iscariot, disciple of Jesus...

Ruins from the Villa Jovis at Capri, where Tiberius spent much of his final years, leaving control of the empire in the hands of the prefect Lucius Aelius Sejanus.
Ruins from the Villa Jovis at Capri, where Tiberius spent much of his final years, leaving control of the empire in the hands of the prefect Lucius Aelius Sejanus.

In 31, Sejanus held the consulship with Tiberius in absentia,[49] and began his play for power in earnest. Precisely what happened is difficult to determine, but Sejanus seems to have covertly attempted to court those families who were tied to the Julians, and attempted to ingratiate himself with the Julian family line with an eye towards placing himself, as an adopted Julian, in the position of Princeps, or as a possible regent.[49] Livilla was later implicated in this plot, and was revealed to have been Sejanus's lover for a number of years.[50] The plot seems to have involved the two of them overthrowing Tiberius, with the support of the Julians, and either assuming the Principate themselves, or serving as regent to the young Tiberius Gemellus or possibly even Gaius Caligula.[51] Those who stood in his way were tried for treason and swiftly dealt with. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 2. ... Villa Jovis (Villa of Jupiter; also Villa Iovis, sometimes misspelled Villa Ionis) is a Roman palace on Capri built by emperor Tiberius who ruled from there between AD 27 and AD 37. ... Lucius Aelius Seianus (or Sejanus) (20 BC – October 18, 31 AD) was an ambitious soldier, friend and confidant of the Roman Emperor Tiberius. ... For in absentia medical care, see Health care delivery. ... (Claudia) Livia Julia (Classical Latin: LIVIA•IVLIA[1]), most commonly known by her family nickname of Livilla (the little Livia) (circa 13 BC–AD 31) was the only daughter of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia. ... The Principate is, according to its etymological derivation from the Latin word princeps, meaning chief or first, the political regime dominated by such a political leader, whether or not he is formally head of state and/or head of government. ... Tiberius Gemellus, son of Drusus the Younger and Livilla Tiberius Julius Caesar Nero , known as Tiberius Gemellus, (10 October AD 19–AD 37 or 38) was the son of Drusus and Livilla, the grandson of Tiberius, and the cousin of Gaius Caligula. ... Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (August 31, 12 – January 24, 41), most commonly known as Caligula, was the third Roman Emperor and a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, ruling from 37 to 41. ...


However, what is clear from the record is that when Sejanus finally did fall, the purges that ensued under Tiberius were almost all aimed at supporters of the Julians. In AD 31 Sejanus was summoned to a meeting of the Senate, where a letter from Tiberius was read condemning Sejanus and ordering his immediate execution. Sejanus was tried, and he and several of his colleagues were executed within the week.[52] As commander of the Praetorian Guard, he was replaced by Naevius Sutorius Macro.[52] Events Aelius Sejanus named co-Consul to the Emperor Tiberius Naevius Sutorius Macro becomes the leader of the Praetorian Guard after Sejanus is executed. ... Quintus Naevius Sutorius Macro (or Quintus Naevius Cordus Sutorius Macro) (21 BC - 38 AD) was the Prefect of the Roman Praetorian Guard after the execution of Aelius Sejanus in October, 31. ...


Rome then erupted into even more extensive trials. Whereas Tiberius had been hesitant to act at the outset of his reign, now, towards the end of his life, he seemed to do so without compunction. The Senatorial ranks were decimated. Hardest hit were those families with political ties to the Julians. Even the imperial magistracy was hit, as any and all who had associated with Sejanus or could in some way be tied to his schemes were summarily tried and executed, their properties seized by the state.[53] As Tacitus vividly describes,

Executions were now a stimulus to his fury, and he ordered the death of all who were lying in prison under accusation of complicity with Sejanus. There lay, singly or in heaps, the unnumbered dead, of every age and sex, the illustrious with the obscure. Kinsfolk and friends were not allowed to be near them, to weep over them, or even to gaze on them too long. Spies were set round them, who noted the sorrow of each mourner and followed the rotting corpses, till they were dragged to the Tiber, where, floating or driven on the bank, no one dared to burn or to touch them. The force of terror had utterly extinguished the sense of human fellowship, and, with the growth of cruelty, pity was thrust aside.[53]

Meanwhile, with Tiberius in Capri, rumors abounded as to what exactly he was doing there. Suetonius records lurid tales of sexual perversity and cruelty, of sado-masochism and pederasty,[54] and most of all his paranoia.[55] While perhaps sensationalized, the stories at least paint a picture of how Tiberius was perceived by the Roman people, and what his impact on the Principate was during his 23 years of rule. Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... Flogging demonstration at Folsom Street Fair 2004. ... Pederasty or paederasty (literally boy-love, see Etymology below) refers to an intimate or erotic relationship between an adolescent boy and an adult male outside his immediate family. ...


Final years

The Death of Tiberius by Jean-Paul Laurens, depicting the Roman emperor about to be smothered under orders of Naevius Sutorius Macro.
The Death of Tiberius by Jean-Paul Laurens, depicting the Roman emperor about to be smothered under orders of Naevius Sutorius Macro.

The affair with Sejanus and the final years of treason trials permanently damaged Tiberius' image and reputation. After Sejanus's fall, Tiberius's withdrawal from Rome was complete; the empire continued to run under the inertia of the bureaucracy established by Augustus, rather than through the leadership of the Princeps. He became utterly paranoid,[55] and reportedly spent a great deal of time brooding over the death of his son. Meanwhile, Suetonius records a short invasion by Parthia and incursions by tribes from Dacia and from across the Rhine by several Germanic tribes.[56] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 774 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1001 × 775 pixel, file size: 119 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Jean-Paul Laurens (1838-1931) La Mort de Tibere (The Death of Tiberius), 1864 Oil on canvas, 69 3/8 x 87 1/2 inches (176. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 774 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1001 × 775 pixel, file size: 119 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Jean-Paul Laurens (1838-1931) La Mort de Tibere (The Death of Tiberius), 1864 Oil on canvas, 69 3/8 x 87 1/2 inches (176. ... Jean-Paul Laurens (Fourquevaux, (1838–Paris, 1921), was a French academic painter. ... Quintus Naevius Sutorius Macro (or Quintus Naevius Cordus Sutorius Macro) (21 BC - 38 AD) was the Prefect of the Roman Praetorian Guard after the execution of Aelius Sejanus in October, 31. ... Look up reputation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... For other senses of this word, see paranoia (disambiguation). ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now...


Nothing was done to either secure or indicate how his succession was to take place; the Julians and their supporters felt his full wrath, his own sons and immediate family were dead. There seemed to be a vague nod to Gaius "Caligula", the sole surviving son of Germanicus, as well as his own grandson Tiberius Gemellus,[57] but nothing certain, and there was only a half-hearted attempt at the end of his life to make Gaius an honorary quaestor.[58] Succession is the act or process of pooing or of following in order or sequence. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Tiberius Gemellus, son of Drusus the Younger and Livilla Tiberius Julius Caesar Nero , known as Tiberius Gemellus, (10 October AD 19–AD 37 or 38) was the son of Drusus and Livilla, the grandson of Tiberius, and the cousin of Gaius Caligula. ... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ...


Tiberius died in Misenum on March 16, AD 37, at the age of 77.[59] Tacitus records that upon the news of his death the crowd rejoiced, only to become suddenly silent upon hearing that he had recovered, and rejoiced again at the news that Caligula and Macro had smothered him.[60] This is not recorded by other ancient historians and is most likely apocryphal, but it can be taken as an indication of how the senatorial class felt towards the Emperor at the time of his death. In his will, Tiberius had left his powers jointly to Caligula and Tiberius Gemellus[61][62]; Caligula's first act on becoming Princeps was to void Tiberius' will and have Gemellus executed.[62] Misemen is the site of an ancient port in Campania, in southern Italy. ... In the common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the testator) regulates the rights of others over his property or family after death. ...


Tiberius’s downfall was not his abuse of power but his refusal to use it. His withdrawn nature, especially in comparison with Augustus's openness, immediately made him a disliked figure. The Senate had been functioning under the directorship of the Principate for almost 50 years; most Senators had gained their position and hoped to advance further by courting Imperial favor. Tiberius's attempt to restore some share of administration to the Senate thus met with failure; the Senate no longer knew how to rule independent of the Princeps. Tiberius seemed uninterested in the role set for him to play, and his rule and his reputation suffered. The administration of the Imperial sector of the government increased during this time, but how much this is due to direct action by Tiberius rather than his freedmen advisors cannot be determined. In the end, Tiberius perhaps is a model of how power can be abused by its lack of use.


Legacy

Historiography

Publius Cornelius Tacitus.
Publius Cornelius Tacitus.

Were he to have died prior to AD 23, he might have been hailed as an exemplary ruler.[63] Despite the overwhelmingly negative characterization left by Roman historians, Tiberius left the imperial treasury with nearly 3 billion sesterces upon his death.[64][62] Rather than embark on costly campaigns of conquest, he chose to strengthen the existing empire by building additional bases, using diplomacy as well as military threats, and generally refraining from getting drawn into petty squabbles between competing frontier tyrants.[41] The result was a stronger, more consolidated empire. Of the authors whose texts have survived until the present day, only four describe the reign of Tiberius in considerable detail: Tacitus, Suetonius, Cassius Dio and Velleius Paterculus. Fragmentary evidence also remains from Pliny the Elder, Strabo and Seneca the Elder. Tiberius himself wrote an autobiography which Suetonius describes as "brief and sketchy", but this book has been lost.[65] Tacitus Source: [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Tacitus Source: [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This is a list of historians. ... The term treasury was first used in classical times to describe the votive buildings erected to house gifts to the gods, such as the Siphnian Treasury in Delphi or the many buildings put up in Olympia, Greece by competing city-states, to impress each other during the Ancient Olympic Games. ... This article is about negotiations. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Lucius, or Marcus, Annaeus Seneca, known as Seneca the Elder and Seneca the Rhetorician (c. ...


Publius Cornelius Tacitus

The most detailed account of this period is handed down to us by Tacitus, whose Annals dedicates the first six books entirely to the reign of Tiberius. Tacitus was a Roman of the equestrian order, born during the reign of Nero in 56. His text is largely based on the acta senatus (the minutes of the session of the Senate) and the acta diurna populi Romani (a collection of the acts of the government and news of the court and capital), as well as speeches by Tiberius himself, and the histories of contemporaries such as Cluvius Rufus, Fabius Rusticus and Pliny the Elder (all of which are lost to us at present). Tacitus' narrative emphasizes both political and psychological motivation. The characterisation of Tiberius throughout the first six books is mostly negative, and gradually worsens as his rule declines, identifying a clear breaking point with the death of Drusus in 23.[63] The rule of Julio-Claudians is generally described as unjust and 'criminal' by Tacitus.[66] Even at the outset of his reign, he seems to ascribe many of Tiberius' virtues merely to hypocrisy.[59] Another major recurring theme concerns the balance of power between the Senate and the Emperors, corruption, and the growing tyranny among the governing classes of Rome. A substantial amount of his account on Tiberius is therefore devoted to the treason trials and persecutions following the revival of the maiestas law under Augustus.[67] Ultimately, Tacitus' opinion on Tiberius is best illustrated by his conclusion of the sixth book: For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... Annals (Latin Annales, from annus, a year) are a concise form of historical writing which record events chronologically, year by year. ... An equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites - also known as a vir egregius, lit. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... // Events By place Roman Empire War between Rome and Parthia broke out due to the invasion of Armenia by Vologases, who replaced the Roman supported ruler with his brother Tiridates of Parthia Publius Clodius Thrasea Paetus becomes a consul in Rome. ... Acta Senatus, or Commentarii Senatus, are minutes of the discussions and decisions of the Roman Senate. ... Acta Diurna (lat: Daily Acts sometimes translated as Daily Public Records) were daily Roman official notices. ... Cluvius Rufus was a Roman senator, governor and historian who was mentioned on several occasions by Tacitus, Suetonius, Josephus and Plutarch. ... Fabius Rusticus was a Roman historian who was quoted on several occasions by Tacitus. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... This page is about the religious concept of Tyranny. ...

His character too had its distinct periods. It was a bright time in his life and reputation, while under Augustus he was a private citizen or held high offices; a time of reserve and crafty assumption of virtue, as long as Germanicus and Drusus were alive. Again, while his mother lived, he was a compound of good and evil; he was infamous for his cruelty, though he veiled his debaucheries, while he loved or feared Sejanus. Finally, he plunged into every wickedness and disgrace, when fear and shame being cast off, he simply indulged his own inclinations.[59]

Suetonius Tranquilius

Suetonius was an equestrian who held administrative posts during the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian. The Twelve Caesars details a biographical history of the principate from the birth of Julius Caesar to the death of Domitian in AD 96. Like Tacitus, he drew upon the imperial archives, as well as histories by Aufidius Bassus or Cluvius Rusticus and Augustus' own letters, but his account is more sensationalist and anecdotal than that of his contemporary. The most famous sections of his biography delve into the numerous alleged debaucheries Tiberius remitted himself to while at Capri.[54] Nevertheless, Suetonius also reserves praise for Tiberius' actions during his early reign, emphasizing his modesty.[68] Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... Suetonius - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... For other uses, see number 96. ... Aufidius Bassus was a Roman historian who lived in the reign of Tiberius. ...


Velleius Paterculus

One of the few surviving sources contemporary with the rule of Tiberius comes from Velleius Paterculus, who served under Tiberius for eight years (from AD 4) in Germany and Pannonia as praefect of cavalry and legatus. Paterculus' Compendium of Roman History spans a period from the fall of Troy to the death of Livia in AD 29. His text on Tiberius lavishes praise on both the emperor[4][69] and Sejanus.[70] How much of this is due to genuine admiration, prudence or fear remains an open question, but it has been conjectured that he was put to death in AD 31 as a friend of Sejanus.[71] Marcus Velleius Paterculus (c. ... For other uses, see 4 (disambiguation). ... The word prefect can refer to any of a number of types of official, including: in Latin, praefectus: a high-ranking military or civil official in the Roman Empire; the title now attaches to the heads of some departments of the Roman Curia, who are traditionally Cardinals, and if they... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... 29 is my favourite colour!!!!!!!! Events Romans captured Sofia. ... Events Aelius Sejanus named co-Consul to the Emperor Tiberius Naevius Sutorius Macro becomes the leader of the Praetorian Guard after Sejanus is executed. ...


Gospels

The tribute penny mentioned in the Bible is commonly believed to be a Roman denarius depicting Tiberius.
The tribute penny mentioned in the Bible is commonly believed to be a Roman denarius depicting Tiberius.

The Gospels record that during Tiberius' reign, Jesus of Nazareth preached and was executed under the authority of Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor of Judea. In the Bible, Tiberius is mentioned by name only once, in Luke 3:1, stating that John the Baptist entered on his public ministry in the fifteenth year of his reign. Many references to Caesar (or the emperor in some other translations), without further specification, actually refer to Tiberius. Image File history File links 005_Tiberius. ... Image File history File links 005_Tiberius. ... First row : c. ... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ... This article concerns critical reconstructions of the Historical Jesus. ... Ecce Homo (Behold the Man!), Antonio Ciseris depiction of Pontius Pilate presenting a scourged Jesus to the people of Jerusalem. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... St. ...


Similarly, the "Tribute Penny" referred to in Matthew 22:19 and Mark 12:15 is popularly thought to be a silver denarius coin of Tiberius. Christ and the tribute by Masaccio “Render unto Caesar…” is a phrase attributed to Jesus in the synoptic gospels. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... First row : c. ...


Archeology

The palace of Tiberius at Rome was located on the Palatine Hill, the ruins of which can still be seen today. No major public works were undertaken in the city during his reign, except a temple dedicated to Augustus and the restoration of the theater of Pompey,[72][73] both of which were not finished until the reign of Caligula.[74] 17th century aviaries on the hill, built by Rainaldi for Odoardo Cardinal Farnese: once wirework cages surmounted them. ... Pompeys Theater remains in Largo di Torre Argentina. ...


In addition, remnants of Tiberius' villa at Sperlonga, which includes a grotto where several Rhodean sculptures have been recovered, and the Villa Jovis on top of Capri have been preserved. The original complex at Capri is thought to have spanned a total of twelve villas across the island[40], of which Villa Jovis was the largest. Sperlonga is a coastal town in the province of Latina, Italy, about half way between Rome and Naples. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... Villa Jovis (Villa of Jupiter; also Villa Iovis, sometimes misspelled Villa Ionis) is a Roman palace on Capri built by emperor Tiberius who ruled from there between AD 27 and AD 37. ... For other uses, see Capri (disambiguation). ...


Tiberius refused to be worshipped as a living god, and allowed only one temple to built in his honor at Smyrna.[75] Smyrna (Greek: Σμύρνη) is an ancient city (today İzmir in Turkey) that was founded by ancient Greeks at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. ...


The town Tiberias on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee was named in Tiberius's honour by Herod Antipas.[76] Hebrew טבריה (Standard) Teverya Arabic طبرية Government City District North Population 39 900 (a) Jurisdiction 10 000 dunams (10 km²) Tiberias (British English: ; American English: ; Hebrew: , Tverya; Arabic: , abariyyah) is a town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, Lower Galilee, Israel. ... The Sea of Galilee or Lake Kinneret (Hebrew ים כנרת), is Israels largest freshwater lake. ... Herod Antipas (short for Antipatros) was an ancient leader (tetrarch, meaning ruler of a quarter) of Galilee and Perea. ...


Tiberius in fiction

Tiberius has been represented several times in fiction, both in literature and in film and television, though often as a peripheral character in the central storyline. The most widely known modern representation is in the novel I, Claudius by Robert Graves, and the consequent BBC television series adaptation, where he is portrayed by George Baker. In addition, Tiberius has prominent roles in Ben-Hur (played by George Relph in his last starring role), and Caligula (played by Peter O'Toole). I, Claudius is a novel by Robert Graves, (ISBN 067972477X) first published in 1934, dealing sympathetically with the life of the Roman Emperor Claudius and the history of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty and Roman Empire, from Julius Caesars assassination in 44 BC to Caligulas assassination in 41 AD... Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... I, Claudius, 1976 was a BBC Television adaptation of Robert Gravess I Claudius and Claudius the God. ... George Baker (born 1 April 1931) is a English actor, who was born in Varna, Bulgaria. ... Ben-Hur is the fictional story of Judah Ben-Hur, a Judean aristocrat who, during the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus, is enslaved through the betrayal of his Roman friend Messala. ... George Relph (born January 27, 1888 in Cullercoats, England, died April 24, 1960 in London, England) was a British actor. ... Caligula is a 1979 film directed by Tinto Brass, with additional scenes filmed by Bob Guccione and Giancarlo Lui, about the Roman Emperor Gaius Caesar Germanicus also known as Caligula. Caligula was written by Gore Vidal and co-financed by Penthouse magazine, though the script underwent several re-writes after... Peter Seamus OToole (born August 2, 1932, uncertain but presumed correct date[1]) is an eight-time Academy Award-nominated Irish actor. ...


In the Command and Conquer series of computer games, the fictional substance Tiberium is supposedly named after him. Command & Conquer is a real-time strategy series of computer games released by the game developer Westwood Studios, now a part of Electronic Arts. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long. ...


See also

Clutorius Priscus (ca. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Pliny the Elder, Natural Histories XXVIII.5.23.
  2. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 5
  3. ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 6
  4. ^ a b Velleius Paterculus, Roman History II.94
  5. ^ a b c Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 9
  6. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 8
  7. ^ a b c d Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 7
  8. ^ a b Cassius Dio, Roman History LV.9
  9. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 10
  10. ^ Velleius Paterculus, Roman History II.100
  11. ^ Tacitus, Annals I.53
  12. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 11
  13. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 13
  14. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals I.3
  15. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 15
  16. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LV.13
  17. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 21. For the debate over whether Agrippa's imperium after 13 BC was maius or aequum, see, e.g., E. Badian (December–January 1980–1981). "Notes on the Laudatio of Agrippa". Classical Journal 76 (2): 97–109, pp. 105–106. 
  18. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 15
  19. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LV.32
  20. ^ Velleieus Paterculus, Roman History II.123
  21. ^ Tacitus, Annals I.8
  22. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 24
  23. ^ Tacitus, Annals I.12, I.13
  24. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 26
  25. ^ Tacitus, Annals III.32, III.52
  26. ^ Tacitus, Annals III.35, III.53, III.54
  27. ^ Tacitus, Annals III.65
  28. ^ Tacitus, Annals I.16, I.17, I.31
  29. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LVII.6
  30. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals II.41
  31. ^ Tacitus, Annals II.26
  32. ^ Tacitus, Annals II.43
  33. ^ Tacitus, Annals II.71
  34. ^ Tacitus, Annals III.16
  35. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 52
  36. ^ Tacitus, Annals III.15
  37. ^ Tacitus, Annals III.56
  38. ^ Tacitus, Annals, IV.7, IV.8
  39. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 62
  40. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals IV.67
  41. ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 37
  42. ^ Tacitus, Annals IV.2
  43. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LVII.21
  44. ^ Tacitus, Annals IV.39
  45. ^ Tacitus, Annals IV.40, IV.41
  46. ^ Tacitus, Annals IV.41
  47. ^ Tacitus, Annals V.3
  48. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 53, 54
  49. ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 65
  50. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LVII.22
  51. ^ Boddington, Ann (January 1963). "Sejanus. Whose Conspiracy?". The American Journal of Philology 84 (1): 1–16. Retrieved on 2007-07-23. 
  52. ^ a b Cassius Dio, Roman History LVIII.10
  53. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals VI.19
  54. ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 43, 44, 45
  55. ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 60, 62, 63, 64
  56. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 41
  57. ^ Tacitus, Annals VI.46
  58. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LVII.23
  59. ^ a b c Tacitus, Annals VI.50, VI.51
  60. ^ Tacitus, Annals VI.50
  61. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 76
  62. ^ a b c Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.1
  63. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals IV.6
  64. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 37
  65. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 61
  66. ^ Tacitus, Annals, I.6
  67. ^ Tacitus, Annals I.72, I.74, II.27-32, III.49-51, III.66-69
  68. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 26-32
  69. ^ Velleius Paterculus, Roman History, II.103-105, II.129-130
  70. ^ Velleius Paterculus, Roman History II.127-128
  71. ^ Cruttwell, C.T. (1877). A History of Roman Literature. Oxford, Book 3, chapter 1.
  72. ^ Tacitus, Annals IV.45, III.72
  73. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 47
  74. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 21
  75. ^ Tacitus, Annals IV.37-38, IV.55-56
  76. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XVIII.2.3

For other uses, see January (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

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Tiberius

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Primary sources

  • Tacitus, Annals, I–VI, English translation
  • Suetonius, Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius, Latin text with English translation
  • Cassius Dio, Roman History Books 57-58, English translation
  • Velleius Paterculus, Roman History Book II, Latin text with English translation
  • Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book 18, especially ch.6, English translation

Secondary material

  • Syme, Ronald (1986), The Augustan Aristocracy, Oxford: Clarendon Press, ISBN 978-0198148593
  • Seager, Robin (1972), Tiberius, London: Eyre Methuen, ISBN 978-0413276001
  • Ehrenberg, V. & Jones, A.H.M. (1955), Documents Illustrating the Reigns of Augustus and Tiberius, Oxford
  • Shotter, David (1992), Tiberius Caesar, London: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-07654-4

Ronald Syme Sir Ronald Syme (11 March 1903 – 4 September 1989), New Zealand-born historian, was the preeminent classicist of the 20th century. ...

Biographical sketches

  • De Imperatoribus Romanis
  • RomansOnline
  • UNRV

Other material

  • Tacitus and Tiberius
  • Suetonius and the reign of Tiberius: a comparison with other sources
  • Pictures of Tiberius' villa on Capri
  • Gallery of the Ancient Art: Tiberius
Tiberius
Julio-Claudian dynasty
Born: 16 November 42 BC Died: 16 March AD 37
Political offices
Preceded by
Marcus Licinius Crassus Dives and Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus
Consul of the Roman Empire together with Publius Quinctilius Varus
13 BC
Succeeded by
Marcus Valerius Messalla Barbatus Appianus and Quirinius
Preceded by
Gaius Marcius Censorinus and Gaius Asinius Gallus
Consul of the Roman Empire together with Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso
7 BC
Succeeded by
D. Laelius Balbus and Gaius Antistius Vetus
Preceded by
Augustus
Roman Emperor
1437
Succeeded by
Caligula
Julio-Claudian Dynasty
1437
Preceded by
Lucius Pomponius Flaccus and Gaius Caelius Rufus
Consul of the Roman Empire together with Germanicus
18
Succeeded by
Marcus Junius Silanus Torquatus and Lucius Norbanus Balbus
Preceded by
Marcus Valerius Messalla Barbatus and Marcus Aurelius Cotta Maximus Messalinus
Consul of the Roman Empire together with Julius Caesar Drusus
21
Succeeded by
Decimus Haterius Agrippa and Gaius Sulpicius Galba
Preceded by
Marcus Vinicius and Lucius Cassius Longinus
Consul of the Roman Empire together with Sejanus
31
Succeeded by
Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Lucius Arruntius Camillus Scribonianus
Persondata
NAME Tiberius
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Tiberius Caesar Augustus; Tiberius Claudius Nero
SHORT DESCRIPTION Roman emperor
DATE OF BIRTH 16 November 42 BC
PLACE OF BIRTH
DATE OF DEATH 16 March AD 37
PLACE OF DEATH Misenum, Campania, Italy

is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events October 3 - First Battle of Philippi: The Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesars assassins Marcus Junius Brutus and Cassius. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For alternate uses, see Number 37. ... Misemen is the site of an ancient port in Campania, in southern Italy. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Tib.htm (6306 words)
Tiberius Claudius Nero was born on 16 November 42 B.C. to Ti.
Tiberius, despite having a natural son, was required to adopt his nephew, Germanicus, the son of his brother Drusus and married to M. Antony's daughter, Antonia.
"Julians, Claudians and the Accession of Tiberius." Latomus 30 (1971): 1117-23.
Tiberius (3544 words)
Tiberius was thus in the most formal manner associated with the emperor in the conduct of the government on the civil side; but Tacitus goes too far when he says that this promotion marked him out as the heir to the throne.
Tiberius was already invested with the necessary powers, and it may even be that the senate was not permitted the satisfaction of giving a formal sanction to his accession.
The principal authorities for the reign of Tiberius are Tacitus and Suetonius.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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