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Encyclopedia > Tiber
Tiber River in Rome.

The Tiber (Italian Tevere, Latin Tiberis) is the third-longest river in Italy, rising in the Apennine mountains of Tuscany and flowing 406 kilometres through Umbria and Lazio to the Tyrrhenian Sea. It drains a basin estimated at 18,000 km². The river has achieved lasting fame as the main watercourse of the city of Rome, founded on its eastern banks. Picture taken by User:Leland on April 13, 2004. ... Picture taken by User:Leland on April 13, 2004. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... The Apennine Mountains (Greek: Απεννινος; Latin: Appenninus--in both cases used in the singular; Italian: Appennini) is a mountain range stretching 1000 km from the north to the south of Italy along its east coast, traversing the entire peninsula, and forming, as it were, the backbone of the country. ... For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ... “km” redirects here. ... Umbria is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany to the west, the Marche to the east and Lazio to the south. ... For the football club, see S.S. Lazio Lazio (Latium in Latin) is a regione of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzi, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5...

Contents

Physical characteristics

The course of the Tiber.
The course of the Tiber.

The river rises at Mount Fumaiolo in central Italy and flows in a generally southerly direction past Perugia and Rome to meet the sea at Ostia. Popularly called flavus ("the blond"), in reference to the yellowish colour of its water, the Tiber is heavily charged with sediment. Sedimentary deposition from the river has caused the coastline to advance at each mouth by about 3 km since Roman times, leaving the ancient port of Ostia Antica 6 km inland.[1][2] However, it does not form a proportionable delta, owing to a strong north-flowing sea current close to the shore, to the steep shelving of the coast, and to slow tectonic subsidence. The river goes from 2-6 meters deep (7-20 feet) Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Monte Fumaiolo is a mountain in Romagna, in the northern Apennines range of Italy. ... Location of Perugia in Italy Coordinates: , Country Region Province Province of Perugia Government  - Mayor Renato Locchi Area  - City 449 km²  (1,165 sq mi) Elevation 493 m (1,617 ft) Population (July 2006)[1]  - City 161,390  - Density 359/km² (929. ... Statue dedicated to Pier Paolo Pasolini. ... Ostia Antica was the harbor of ancient Rome and perhaps its first colonia. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ...


The river's main tributaries are the Chiascio, Nestore, Paglia, Nera and Aniene. It is connected with the Arno River by the Chiana Canal, enabling barges to pass between Rome and Florence. It splits into two channels at Ostia, the silted-up Fiumara and the canalised Fiumicino, with the intermediate landmass once being known as the Sacred Island or the Isle of Venus. The river's depth varies between about 2 and 6 m.[1][3][4] The Nera is a 116 km (72 mile) long river in Umbria, Italy, tributary to the Tiber. ... The Aniene River (in Latin: Anio, formerly called the Teverone) is a 98 km river in Lazio, Italy. ... Arno River in Florence, Italy The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ...


Name and legends

Roman depiction of the Tiber as a river-god with cornucopia.
Roman depiction of the Tiber as a river-god with cornucopia.

It is probable that the name Tiber is pre-Latin, like the Roman name of Tibur (modern Tivoli). It may be Etruscan or Italic in origin, possibly akin to the Celtic root-word dubr, "water".[5] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Cornucopia held by the Roman goddess Aequitas on the reverse of this antoninianus struck under Roman Emperor Claudius II. The cornucopia (Latin Cornu Copiae), literally Horn of Plenty and also known as the Harvest Cone, is a symbol of food and abundance dating back to the 5th century BC. In... Tivoli, the classical Tibur, is an ancient Italian town in Lazio, about 30 km from Rome, at the falls of the Aniene river, where it issues from the Sabine hills. ... Languages in Iron Age Italy, 6th century BC Etruscan was a language spoken and written in the ancient region of Etruria (current Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of what are now Lombardy, Veneto, and Emilia-Romagna (where the Etruscans were displaced by Gauls), in Italy. ... The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ...


A legendary king Tiberinus Silvius or Thebris, ninth in the king-list of Alba Longa, was said to have drowned in the Albula River, which was subsequently renamed in his honour.[5] The myth may have explained a memory of an earlier, perhaps pre-Indo-European name for the river, "white" (alba) with sediment. According to the legend, Jupiter made him a god and guardian spirit of the river (also called Volturnus, "rolling water"). This gave rise to the standard Roman depiction of the river as a powerfully built reclining river god with streams of water flowing from his hair and beard.[6] The River Tiber was also believed to be the river into which Romulus and Remus were thrown. A she wolf found and suckled them back to health. Eventually Romulus killed Remus and went on to found Rome in 753 B.C. Tiberinus Silvius (the Tibers child born in the woods) was the ninth in the legendary king-list of the city Alba Longa in Lazio. ... Alba Longa (in Italian sources occasionally written Albalonga) was an ancient city of Latium, in the Alban Hills founder and head of the Latin Confederation; it was destroyed by Rome around the middle of the 7th century BC. // Legendary history According to legend Alba Longa was founded by Ascanius or... Map showing the Neolithic expansions from the 7th to the 5th millennium BCE Europe in ca. ... For the planet see Jupiter. ... Mythological personifications of rivers (river gods, river goddesses) and of the sea or the ocean // [edit] Sea deities [edit] Greek Oceanus and Tethys Proteus Triton Nereids Poseidon/Neptune [edit] Vedic Sea deities are much less common in Vedic than in Greek mythology. ...


History

The city of Rome was founded in 753 BC on the banks of the Tiber about 25 km from the sea at Ostia. The island Isola Tiberina in the center of Rome, between Trastevere and the ancient center, was the site of an important ancient ford and was later bridged. Legend says Rome's founders, the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, were abandoned on its waters, where they were rescued by a she-wolf. A view from the south on the Tiber Island. ... Logo of the rione A typical narrow alley in Trastevere seen from the lower slopes of the Gianicolo hill Piazza Santa Maria in Trastevere at night Trastevere is rione XIII of Rome, on the west bank of the Tiber, south of Vatican City. ... This page describes the ancient heroes who founded the city of Rome. ...


The river marked the boundary between the lands of the Etruscans to the west, the Sabines to the east and the Latins to the south. Benito Mussolini, born in Romagna, adjusted the boundary between Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna, so that the springs of the Tiber would lie in Romagna. Mussolini placed an antique Roman column at the point where the river arises, inscribed QUI NASCE IL TEVERE SACRO AI DESTINI DI ROMA ("Here is born the Tiber, sacred to the destinies of Rome"). The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... Sabine (in Latin and in Italian, Sabina) is a sub-region of Latium, Italy, on the North-East of Rome toward Rieti. ... The Latins were an ancient Italic people who migrated to central Italy, (Latium Vetus - Old Latium), in the 2nd millennium B.C., maybe from the Adriatic East Coast and Balkanic Area, perhaps from pressures by Illyrian peoples. ... “Mussolini” redirects here. ... Emilia-Romagna is an administrative region of Northern Italy comprising the two historic regions of Emilia and Romagna. ... For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ... Emilia-Romagna is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ...


The Tiber was critically important to Roman trade and commerce, as ships could reach as far as 100 km upriver; there is evidence that it was used to ship grain from the Val Teverina as long ago as the 5th century BC.[1] It was later used to ship stone, timber and foodstuffs to Rome. The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ...


During the Punic Wars of the 3rd century BC, the harbour at Ostia became a key naval base. It later became Rome's most important port, where wheat, olive oil, and wine were imported from Rome's colonies around the Mediterranean.[1] Wharves were also built along the riverside in Rome itself, lining the riverbanks around the Campus Martius area. The Romans connected the river with a sewer system (the Cloaca Maxima) and with an underground network of tunnels and other channels, to bring its water into the middle of the city. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage. ... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... Ostia Antica was the harbor of ancient Rome and perhaps its first colonia. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For the Popeye character, see Olive Oyl. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... The Campus Martius, or Field of Mars, was a publicly owned area of ancient Rome about 2 km² (600 acres) in extent. ... The Cloaca Maxima was one of the worlds earliest sewage systems. ...

View of the Tiber looking towards the Vatican City.

The heavy sedimentation of the river made it difficult to maintain Ostia, prompting the emperors Claudius and Trajan to establish a new port on the Fiumicino in the 1st century AD. They built a new road, the via Portuensis, to connect Rome with Fiumicino, leaving the city by Porta Portese ('the port gate'). Both ports were eventually abandoned due to silting. Image File history File links View of Tiber and the Vatican State Picture taken by User:Abelson in March 2004. ... Image File history File links View of Tiber and the Vatican State Picture taken by User:Abelson in March 2004. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... The 1st century was that century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


Several popes attempted to improve navigation on the Tiber in the 17th and 18th century, with extensive dredging continuing into the 19th century. Trade was boosted for a while but by the 20th century silting had resulted in the river only being navigable as far as Rome itself.[1] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


The Tiber was once notorious for its floods — the Campus Martius is a flood plain and would regularly flood to a depth of several metres. The river is now confined between high stone embankments which were begun in 1876. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Floodplain. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


"Swimming the Tiber"

Because the river is identified with Rome, the term "swimming the Tiber" has come to be the Protestant shorthand term for converting to Roman Catholicism. This is most common if the person who converts had been Anglican, the reverse of which is referred to as "Swimming the Thames." Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Anglicanism commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, the churches that are in full communion with the see of Canterbury. ... This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ...


Photo gallery

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 226 pixelsFull resolution (2373 × 669 pixel, file size: 123 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Citerna is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Perugia in the Italian region Umbria, located about 50 km northwest of Perugia. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e "Tiber River." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006
  2. ^ "Tiber". World Encyclopedia. Philip's, 2005.
  3. ^ "Tiber". The Columbia Encyclopedia (2004)
  4. ^ "Tiber". The Hutchinson Encyclopedia, Helicon (2001)
  5. ^ a b "Tiber". Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names. John Everett-Heath. Oxford University Press 2005.
  6. ^ Tiber. Bloomsbury Dictionary of Myth (1996)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tiber Island (81 words)
Upon Tiber Island, since 293 BC, the Temple of Aesculapius, the god of healing.
Inevitably many sick were cared for on the island and the tradition still continues until this day, a hospital still being there today.
Take a close look at the model and you can see that Tiber Island used to have large structures built at either end of it, looking like the stern and bow of a ship.
Encyclopedia4U - Tiber - Encyclopedia Article (521 words)
The River Tiber (Italian Tevere), the second longest (252 miles) in Italy after the Po, flows through the Campagna and Rome in its course from Mount Fumaiolo to the Tyrrhenian Sea, which it reaches in two branches that cross the suburbs of Ostia-Isola Sacra (south) and Fiumicino (north).
It is probable that the name 'Tiber' is pre-Latin, like the Roman name of Tibur (modern Tivoli) A mythic king Tiberinus, ninth in the legendary king-list of Alba Longa, was said to have drowned in the Albula river, which was subsequently renamed the Tiber.
Popularly called flava, "the blonde river", the Tiber is heavily charged with sediment but doesn't form a proportionable delta, owing to a strong north-flowing sea current close to the shore, to the steep shelving of the coast, and to slow tectonic subsidence.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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