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Encyclopedia > Tiananmen Square protests of 1989
Tiananmen Square protests of 1989

Image File history File links Tianasquare. ...

The Unknown Rebel - This famous photo, taken on 5 June 1989 by photographer Jeff Widener, depicts Wang Weilin [1] who tried to stop the PLA's advancing tanks.
Chinese:
Literal meaning: June Fourth Incident
alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese:
Simplified Chinese:
Literal meaning: Tiananmen Incident

The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, widely known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, in China referred to as the June Fourth Incident to avoid confusion with the two other Tiananmen Square protests and as an act of official censorship[citation needed], were a series of demonstrations led by labor activists, students, and intellectuals in the People's Republic of China (PRC) between April 15 and June 4, 1989. While the protests lacked a unified cause or leadership, participants were generally against the authoritarianism and economic policies of the ruling Chinese Communist Party and voiced calls for democratic reform within the structure of the government. The demonstrations centered on Tiananmen Square in Beijing, but large-scale protests also occurred in cities throughout China, including Shanghai, which stayed peaceful throughout the protests. In Beijing, the resulting military crackdown on the protesters by the PRC government left many civilians dead or injured. The reported tolls ranged from 200–300 (PRC government figures), to 400–800 (The New York Times), and to 2,000–3,000 (Chinese student associations and Chinese Red Cross). Tank Man stops the advance of a column of tanks on 5 June 1989 in Beijing. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Tank man stops the advance of a column of tanks. ... Peoples Liberation Army redirects here. ... Map of eastern China and Taiwan, showing the historic distribution of Mandarin Chinese in light brown. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... The Tiananmen The Gate of Heavenly Peace is the front entrance into the Imperial City A close-up of the rooftop The Tiananmen or Tiananmen (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Tiānānmén; Manchu: Abkai elhe obure duka), is the main entrance to the Imperial City, the... Map of eastern China and Taiwan, showing the historic distribution of Mandarin Chinese in light brown. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Tiananmen Square has been the central point for several major historical protests. ... The labor movement (or labour movement) is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China and also the worlds largest political party. ... For the 1989 protest, see Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. ... Peking redirects here. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Red Cross redirects here. ...


Following the violence, the government conducted widespread arrests to suppress protestors and their supporters, cracked down on other protests around China, banned the foreign press from the country and strictly controlled coverage of the events in the PRC press. Members of the Party who had publicly sympathized with the protesters were purged, with several high-ranking members placed under house arrest, such as General Secretary Zhao Ziyang. The violent suppression of the Tiananmen Square protest caused widespread international condemnation of the PRC government.[2] In justice and law, house arrest is the situation where a person is confined (by the authorities) to his or her residence. ... The General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Central Committee (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会总书记 pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng Zhōngyāng Wěiyuánhuì Zǒngshūjì) is the highest ranking official within the Communist Party of China and heads the Secretariat of the Communist Party of China. ... Zhao Ziyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chao Tzu-yang) (October 17, 1919–January 17, 2005) was a politician in the Peoples Republic of China. ...

Contents

Naming of incident

History of the
People's Republic of China

The history of the Peoples Republic of China details the history of mainland China since October 1, 1949, when, after a near complete victory by the Communist Party of China (CPC) in the Chinese Civil War, Mao Zedong proclaimed the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) from atop Tiananmen... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ...


    1949–1976, The Mao Era
        Revolution
        Korean War
        Hundred Flowers Campaign
        Anti-Rightist Movement
        Great Leap Forward
            Three Years of Natural Disasters
        Cultural Revolution
            Lin Biao
            Gang of Four
            Tiananmen Incident
    1976–1989, Era of Reconstruction
        Economic reform
        Sino-Vietnamese War
        Tiananmen protests
    1989–2002, A Rising Power
        One Country, Two Systems
            Hong Kong (post 1997)
            Macau (post 1999)
        Chinese reunification
    2002–present, China Today
Main articles: History of China and History of the Peoples Republic of China The history of the Peoples Republic of China is often divided distinctly by historians into the Mao era and the post-Mao era. The Mao era lasted from the founding of the Peoples Republic... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... The Hundred Flowers Campaign, also termed the Hundred Flowers Movement, (Chinese: 百花运动, bǎihuā yùndòng) is the period referring to a brief interlude in the Peoples Republic of China from 1958 to 1966 during which the Communist Party authorities permitted or encouraged a variety of views and solutions... The Anti-Rightist Movement (反右派运动) of the Peoples Republic of China in the 1950s and early 1960s consisted of a series of campaigns to purge alleged rightists within the Communist Party of China and abroad. ... The Great Leap Forward (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social plan used from 1958 to 1960 which aimed to use Chinas vast population to rapidly transform mainland China from a primarily agrarian economy dominated by peasant farmers... The Three Years of Natural Disasters (Simplified:三年自然灾害; Traditional:三年自然災害; pinyin: sān nián zì rán zāi hài) refers to the period in the Peoples Republic of China between 1959 and 1961, in which a combination of poor economic policies and rounds of natural disasters caused widespread... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ... An artistic rendition of Mao Zedong and Lin Biao as his heir apparent in the style of socialist realism in the prime of the Cultural Revolution. ... The Gang of Four (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ) was a group of Communist Party of China leaders in the Peoples Republic of China who were arrested and removed from their positions in 1976, following the death of Mao Zedong, and were primarily blamed for the events of... This article is about the protest in 1976. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Economic reforms have triggered internal migrations within China. ... Combatants Peoples Republic of China Socialist Republic of Vietnam Commanders Yang Dezhi Văn Tiến Dũng Strength 300,000+[1] 100,000+ from regular army divisions and divisions of the Public Security Army Casualties Disputed. ... // After the June 4th Incident, a large number of overseas Chinese students were granted political refuge almost unconditionally by foreign governments. ... Portuguese name Portuguese: Um país, dois sistemas One country, two systems is an idea originally proposed by Deng Xiaoping during the early 1980s, then Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), for the reunification of China. ... The history of Hong Kong began as a coastal island geographically located in southern China. ... This article details the history of Macau. ... Chinese (re)unification (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a goal of Chinese nationalism that refers to the reunification of all of Greater China under a single political entity. ... // In November 2002 Jiang Zemin stepped down from the powerful Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China to make way for a younger fourth generation of leadership led by Hu Jintao. ...

   See also:
        History of China
        History of Beijing
        History of Shanghai
The History of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... There were cities in the vicinities of Beijing by the 1st millennium BC, and the capital of the State of Yan, one of the powers of the Warring States Period, was established at Ji (T: è–Š / S: è“Ÿ), near modern Beijing. ... 1888 German map of Shanghai History of Shanghai // Shanghai was founded in the 10th century. ...

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In the Chinese language, the incident is most commonly known as the June Fourth Movement (simplified Chinese: 六四运动; traditional Chinese: 六四運動), the June Fourth Incident (Chinese: 六四事件), or colloquially, simply Six-four (June 4th) (Chinese: 六四).[citation needed] The nomenclature of the former is consistent with the customary names of the other two great protest actions that occurred in Tiananmen Square: the May Fourth Movement of 1919, and the April Fifth Movement of 1976. In some contexts, "June Fourth Movement" refers more generally to all the student and civil unrest which occurred throughout China, in addition to the events in Beijing and specifically Tiananmen Square. Alternative names referring to either the entire movement or the protests in particular variations of "1989 democracy movement" (Chinese: 八九民运; pinyin: Bā-Jiǔ Mínyùn). Other names which have been used in the Chinese language, usually by sympathisers of the pro-democracy movement, include June Fourth Massacre (Chinese: 六四屠城; pinyin: Liù-Sì Túchéng or Chinese: 六四屠杀; pinyin: Liù-Sì Túshā). The government of the People's Republic of China has referred to the event as the Political Turmoil between Spring and Summer of 1989 (Chinese: 春夏之交的政治風波). Mao redirects here. ... Deng Xiaoping   (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904 – February 19, 1997) was a prominent Chinese politician and reformer, and the late leader of the Communist Party of China (CCP). ... Jiāng Zémín (Traditional Chinese: 江澤民, Simplified Chinese: 江泽民, Hanyu Pinyin: Jiāng Zémín, Wade-Giles: Chiang Tse-min, Cantonese (Jyutping): gong1 zaak6 man4) (born August 17, 1926) was the core of the third generation of Communist Party of China leaders, serving as General Secretary of the Communist... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Hu Hu Jintao (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; born December 21, 1942) is currently the Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China, holding the titles of General Secretary of the Communist Party of China since 2002, President of the... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Government of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Students in Beijing rallied during the May Fourth Movement. ... The April Fifth Movement was a mass movement that took place in the Peoples Republic of China and culminated on April 5, 1976. ... Civil disorder is a broad term that is typically used by law enforcement to describe one or more forms of disturbance caused by a group of people. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... State power within the government of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is divided among three bodies: the Communist Party of China, the state, and the Peoples Liberation Army, (PLA). ...


Background

Tiananmen Square as seen from the Tiananmen gate in 2004.
Tiananmen Square as seen from the Tiananmen gate in 2004.

Since 1978, Deng Xiaoping had led a series of economic and political reforms which had led to the gradual implementation of a market economy and some political liberalization that relaxed the system set up by Mao Zedong. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x430, 98 KB)Beijing Tiananmen Square 180 degree overview picture Viewpoint is from Tiananmen Gate, looking south. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x430, 98 KB)Beijing Tiananmen Square 180 degree overview picture Viewpoint is from Tiananmen Gate, looking south. ... Deng Xiaoping   (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904 – February 19, 1997) was a prominent Chinese politician and reformer, and the late leader of the Communist Party of China (CCP). ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... This article is about the term itself and its relationships. ... Mao redirects here. ...


Some students and intellectuals believed that the reforms had not gone far enough and that China needed to reform its political system. Since the previous economic reforms had only affected farmers and factory workers; the incomes of intellectuals lagged far behind those who had benefited from reform policies. They were also concerned about the social and political controls that the Communist Party of China still had. This group had also seen the political liberalization that had been undertaken in the name of glasnost by Mikhail Gorbachev, so they had been hoping for comparable reform. Literati redirects here. ... State power within the government of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is divided among three bodies: the Communist Party of China, the state, and the Peoples Liberation Army, (PLA). ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China and also the worlds largest political party. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ...


The Tiananmen Square protests in 1989 were in large measure sparked by the death of former Secretary General Hu Yaobang. Hu Yaobang's "resignation" from the position of Secretary General of the CPC had been announced on January 16, 1987. His forthright calls for "rapid reform" and his almost open contempt of "Maoist excesses" had made him a suitable scapegoat in the eyes of Deng Xiaoping and others, after the pro-democracy student protests of 1986–1987 (Spence 1999, 685). Included in his resignation was also a "humiliating self-criticism", which he was forced to issue by the Central Committee of the Communist Party. Hu Yaobang's sudden death, due to heart attack, on April 15, 1989 provided a perfect opportunity for the students to gather once again, not only to mourn the deceased Secretary General, but also to have their voices heard in "demanding a reversal of the verdict against him" and bringing renewed attention to the important issues of the 1986–1987 pro-democracy protests and possibly also to those of the Democracy Wall protests in 1978–1979 (Spence 1999, 697). Hu Yaobang (Chinese: 胡耀邦 Pinyin: Hú Yàobāng, Wade-Giles: Hu Yao-pang) (November 20, 1915 – April 15, 1989) was a leader of the Peoples Republic of China. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The Democracy Wall was a long brick wall on Changan street in the Xidan District of Beijing, which became the focus for democratic dissent. ...


Protests begin

An anonymous drawing posted in a pedestrian walkway underneath Chang An Avenue caricatures Deng Xiaoping (simplified Chinese: 邓小平; traditional Chinese: 鄧小平) (seated behind the lectern) as an old Chinese emperor.
An anonymous drawing posted in a pedestrian walkway underneath Chang An Avenue caricatures Deng Xiaoping (simplified Chinese: 邓小平; traditional Chinese: 鄧小平) (seated behind the lectern) as an old Chinese emperor.

Protests started out on a small scale, on April 16 and April 17, in the form of mourning for Hu Yaobang and demands that the party revise their official view of him. On April 18, 10,000 students staged a sit-in on Tian'anmen square, in front of the Great Hall of the People. On the same evening, a few thousand students gathered in front of Zhongnanhai, the residence of the government, demanding to see government leaders. They were dispersed by security. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Deng Xiaoping   (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904 – February 19, 1997) was a prominent Chinese politician and reformer, and the late leader of the Communist Party of China (CCP). ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... An aerial view of Zhongnanhai The Zhongnanhai (Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōngnánhăi) is a complex of buildings in Beijing, China which serves as the central headquarters for the Communist Party of China and the government of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The protests gained momentum after news of the confrontation between students and police spread; the belief by students that the Chinese media was distorting the nature of their activities also led to increased support (although one national newspaper, the Science and Technology Daily (simplified Chinese: 科技日报; traditional Chinese: 科技日報), published, in its issue dated April 19, an account of the April 18 sit-in). Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the night of April 21, the day before Hu's funeral, some 100,000 students marched on Tiananmen square, gathering there before the square could be closed off for the funeral. On April 22, they requested, in vain, to meet premier Li Peng, widely regarded to be Hu's political rival. On the same day, protests happened in Xi'an and Changsha. is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Li Peng (Simplified Chinese: 李鹏, Traditional Chinese: 李鵬, Wade-Giles: Li Peng) (b. ... Xian redirects here. ... Changsha (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang-sha) is the capital city of Hunan, a province of Southcentral China, located on the lower reaches of Xiangjiang river, a branch of the Yangtze River. ...


From April 21 to April 23, students from Beijing called for a strike at universities, which included teachers and students boycotting classes. The government, which was well aware of the political storm caused by the now-legitimized 1976 Tiananmen Incident, was alarmed. On April 26, following an internal speech made by Deng Xiaoping, the CPC's official newspaper People's Daily issued a front-page editorial titled Uphold the flag to clearly oppose any turmoil, attempting to rally the public behind the government, and accused "extremely small segments of opportunists" of plotting civil unrest.[3] The statement enraged the students, and on April 27 about 50,000 students assembled on the streets of Beijing, disregarding the warning of a crackdown made by authorities, and demanded that the government revoke the statement. is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Peking redirects here. ... This article is about the protest in 1976. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Peoples Daily (Chinese: 人民日报 Pinyin ) is the official newspaper of the Communist Party of China, published worldwide with a circulation of 3 to 4 million. ... Look up editorial, op-ed in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In Beijing, a majority of students from the city's numerous colleges and universities participated with support of their instructors and other intellectuals. The students rejected official Communist Party-controlled student associations and set up their own autonomous associations. The students viewed themselves as Chinese patriots, as the heirs of the May Fourth Movement for "science and democracy" of 1919. The protests also evoked memories of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1976 which had eventually led to the ousting of the Gang of Four. From its origins as a memorial to Hu Yaobang, who was seen by the students as an advocate of democracy, the students' activity gradually developed over the course of their demonstration from protests against corruption into demands for freedom of the press and an end to, or the reform of, the rule of the PRC by the Communist Party of China and Deng Xiaoping, the de facto paramount Chinese leader. Partially successful attempts were made to reach out and network with students in other cities and with workers.[citation needed] The following is a list of universities in mainland China. ... Students in Beijing rallied during the May Fourth Movement. ... The Tiananmen incident took place in the Peoples Republic of China immediately following the April Fifth Movement. ... The Gang of Four on trial The Gang of Four (Chinese: 四人帮; pinyin: ) was a group of Communist Party leaders in the Peoples Republic of China who were arrested and removed from their positions in 1976, following the death of Mao Zedong, and were blamed for the events of... Hu Yaobang (Chinese: 胡耀邦 Pinyin: Hú Yàobāng, Wade-Giles: Hu Yao-pang) (November 20, 1915 – April 15, 1989) was a leader of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Freedom of the Press (or Press Freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... Deng Xiaoping   (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904 – February 19, 1997) was a prominent Chinese politician and reformer, and the late leader of the Communist Party of China (CCP). ...


Although the initial protests were made by students and intellectuals who believed that the Deng Xiaoping reforms had not gone far enough and China needed to reform its political systems, they soon attracted the support of urban workers who believed that the reforms had gone too far. This occurred because the leaders of the protests focused on the issue of corruption, which united both groups, and because the students were able to invoke Chinese archetypes of the selfless intellectual who spoke truth to power.


Unlike the Tiananmen protests of 1987, which consisted mainly of students and intellectuals, the protests in 1989 commanded widespread support from the urban workers who were alarmed by growing inflation and corruption. In Beijing, they were supported by a large number of people. Similar numbers were found in major cities throughout mainland China such as Urumqi, Shanghai and Chongqing; and later in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Chinese communities in North America and Europe. ... Ürümqi (Uyghur: ئۈرۈمچى; Uyghur Latin script: Ürümqi; Chinese: 烏魯木齊; Pinyin: Wūlǔmùqí; population about 1. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Chungching, also Chungking) is the largest and most populous of the Peoples Republic of Chinas four provincial-level municipalities, and the only one in the less densely populated western half of China. ...


Protests escalate

"The Goddess of Democracy" carved by students from the Central Academy of Fine Arts and erected in the Square during the protest.
"The Goddess of Democracy" carved by students from the Central Academy of Fine Arts and erected in the Square during the protest.

On May 4, approximately 100,000 students and workers marched in Beijing making demands for free media reform and a formal dialogue between the authorities and student-elected representatives. The government rejected the proposed dialogue, only agreeing to talk to members of appointed student organizations. On May 13, two days prior to the highly-publicized state visit by the reform-minded Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, huge groups of students occupied Tiananmen Square and started a hunger strike, insisting the government withdraw the accusation made in the People's Daily editorial and begin talks with the designated student representatives. Hundreds of students went on hunger strikes and were supported by hundreds of thousands of protesting students and part of the population of Beijing, for one week. Goddess of Democracy, from the back of the statue. ... Goddess of Democracy, from the back of the statue. ... Goddess of Democracy The Goddess of Democracy (Chinese: 民主女神; pinyin: mínzhǔ nǚshén), also known as the Goddess of Democracy and Freedom, was a 10-metre (30 ft) high statue created during the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... State visits usually involve a military review. ... An approximately chronological list of leaders of the Soviet Union (heads of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and President of the Soviet Union). ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt or to achieve a goal such as a policy change. ...


Protests and strikes began at many colleges in other cities, with many students traveling to Beijing to join the demonstration. Generally, the demonstration at Tiananmen Square was well-ordered, with daily marches of students from various Beijing area colleges displaying their solidarity with the boycott of college classes and with the developing demands of the protest. The students sang "The Internationale", the world socialist anthem, on their way to and within the square.[4] The students even showed a surprising gesture of respect to the government by helping police arrest three men from Hunan Province, including Yu Dongyue, who had thrown ink on the large portrait of Mao that hangs from Tiananmen, just north of the square.[5][6] LInternationale in the original French. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Not to be confused with the unrelated provinces of Hainan, Henan, and Yunnan. ... Yu Dongyue (Chinese: 喻东岳; Hanyu Pinyin: Yù Dōngyuè) is a former Chinese journalist imprisoned for almost 17 years in China, for throwing red paint at the large portrait of Mao Zedong on Tiananmen Gate in Beijing during the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. ...

Zhao Ziyang speaks on May 19, 1989. Behind him (2nd from right in black) is present State Council Premier Wen Jiabao. This was Zhao's last public appearance before he was placed under house-arrest, where he remained until his death.
Zhao Ziyang speaks on May 19, 1989. Behind him (2nd from right in black) is present State Council Premier Wen Jiabao. This was Zhao's last public appearance before he was placed under house-arrest, where he remained until his death.

The students ultimately decided that in order to sustain their movement and impede any loss of momentum a hunger strike would need to be enacted. The students' decision to undertake the hunger strike was a defining moment in their movement. The hunger strike began in May 1989 and grew to include "more than one thousand persons" (Liu 1994, 315). The hunger strike brought widespread support for the students and "the ordinary people of Beijing rallied to protect the hunger strikers...because the act of refusing sustenance and courting government reprisals convinced onlookers that the students were not just seeking personal gains but (were) sacrificing themselves for the Chinese people as a whole" (Calhoun 1994, 113). Pictured here Zhao Ziyang during 1989 Democracy Protests (See Tiananmen Square Massacre), General Secretary of the Communist Party of China at the time. ... Zhao Ziyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chao Tzu-yang) (October 17, 1919–January 17, 2005) was a politician in the Peoples Republic of China. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The State Council (国务院, pinyin: Guówùyuàn), which is largely synonymous with the Central Peoples Government (中央人民政府), is the chief administrative authority of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Wen Jiabao (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wen Chia-pao) (born September 1942) is the Premier of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. ... A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt or to achieve a goal such as a policy change. ...


On May 19 at 4:50 am, General Secretary Zhao Ziyang (simplified Chinese: 赵紫阳; traditional Chinese: 趙紫陽) went to the Square and made a speech urging the students to end the hunger strike. Part of his speech was to become a famous quote, when he said, referring to the older generation of people in China, "We are already old, it doesn't matter to us any more." In contrast, the students were young and he urged them to stay healthy and not to sacrifice themselves so easily. Zhao's visit to the Square was his last public appearance. is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Central Committee (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会总书记 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng WÄ›iyuánhuì ZÇ’ngshÅ«jì) is the highest ranking official within the Communist Party of China and heads the Secretariat of the Communist Party of China. ... Zhao Ziyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chao Tzu-yang) (October 17, 1919–January 17, 2005) was a politician in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Zhao Ziyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chao Tzu-yang) (October 17, 1919–January 17, 2005) was a politician in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Partially successful attempts were made to negotiate with the PRC government, who were located nearby in Zhongnanhai, the Communist Party headquarters and leadership compound. Because of the visit of Mikhail Gorbachev, foreign media were present in mainland China in large numbers. Their coverage of the protests was extensive and generally favorable towards the protesters, but pessimistic that they would attain their goals. Toward the end of the demonstration, on May 30, a statue of the Goddess of Democracy was erected in the Square and came to symbolize the protest to television viewers worldwide. An aerial view of Zhongnanhai The Zhongnanhai (Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōngnánhăi) is a complex of buildings in Beijing, China which serves as the central headquarters for the Communist Party of China and the government of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Goddess of Democracy The Goddess of Democracy (Chinese: 民主女神; pinyin: mínzhǔ nǚshén), also known as the Goddess of Democracy and Freedom, was a 10-metre (30 ft) high statue created during the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. ...


The Standing Committee of the Politburo, along with the party elders (retired but still-influential former officials of the government and Party), were, at first, hopeful that the demonstrations would be short-lived or that cosmetic reforms and investigations would satisfy the protesters. They wished to avoid violence if possible, and relied at first on their far-reaching Party apparatus in attempts to persuade the students to abandon the protest and return to their studies. One barrier to effective action was that the leadership itself supported many of the demands of the students, especially the concern with corruption. However, one large problem was that the protests contained many people with varying agendas, and hence it was unclear with whom the government could negotiate, and what the demands of the protesters were. The confusion and indecision among the protesters was also mirrored by confusion and indecision within the government. The official media mirrored this indecision as headlines in the People's Daily alternated between sympathy with the demonstrators and denouncing them. The Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国共产党中央政治局常务委员会 pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng Zhōngyāng Zhèngzhìjú Chángwù Wěiyuánhuì) is a committee whose membership varies between 5 and 9 and includes the top leadership of the Communist Party of China. ... The Eight Immortals were a group of elderly members of the Communist Party of China who held substantial power during the 1980s and 1990s. ... For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ... The Peoples Daily (Chinese: 人民日报 Pinyin ) is the official newspaper of the Communist Party of China, published worldwide with a circulation of 3 to 4 million. ...


Among the top leadership, General Secretary Zhao Ziyang was strongly in favour of a soft approach to the demonstrations while Li Peng was seen to argue in favour of a crackdown. Ultimately, the decision to forcefully intervene on the demonstrations was made by a group of Party elders who saw abandonment of single-party rule as a return of the chaos of the Cultural Revolution.[citation needed] Although most of these people had no official position, they were able to control the military. Deng Xiaoping was chairman of the Central Military Commission and was able to declare martial law; Yang Shangkun (simplified Chinese: 杨尚昆) was President of the People's Republic of China, which, although a symbolic position under the 1982 Constitution, was legally the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The Party elders believed that lengthy demonstrations were a threat to the stability of the country. The demonstrators were seen as tools of advocates of "bourgeois liberalism" who were pulling the strings behind the scenes, as well as tools of elements within the party who wished to further their personal ambitions.[citation needed] The General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Central Committee (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会总书记 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng WÄ›iyuánhuì ZÇ’ngshÅ«jì) is the highest ranking official within the Communist Party of China and heads the Secretariat of the Communist Party of China. ... Zhao Ziyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chao Tzu-yang) (October 17, 1919–January 17, 2005) was a politician in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Li Peng (Simplified Chinese: 李鹏, Traditional Chinese: 李鵬, Wade-Giles: Li Peng) (b. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system government in which a single political party forms the government and no other parties are permitted to run candidates for election. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军事委员会 pinyin: Zhōngyāng JÅ«nshì WÄ›iyuánhuì ) refers to one of two bodies within the Peoples Republic of China. ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... Yáng ShàngkÅ«n (May 25, 1907–September 14, 1998) was President of the Peoples Republic of China from 1988 to 1993, and was permanent Vice-chair of the Central Military Commission. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... The President of the Peoples Republic of China (Simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国主席; Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó ZhÇ”xí, or abbreviated Guójiā ZhÇ”xí 国家主席) is the head of state of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... Alternate cover US 1979 and 2002 reissue cover, also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ... Bourgeois liberalism was a term of disparagement used by Peoples Republic of China rulers of the late 1980s and early 1990s to refer to a perceived political and cultural threat -- in political terms as parliamentary democracy and in cultural terms as western popular culture. ...


Nationwide and outside mainland China

"Democratic songs dedicated to China" gathering in Hong Kong on May 27, 1989

At the beginning of the movement, the Chinese news media had a rare opportunity to broadcast the news freely and truly. Most of the news media were free to write and report however they wanted due to lack of control from the central and local governments. The news was spread quickly across the land. According to Chinese news media's report, students and workers in over 400 cities, including cities in Inner Mongolia, also organized and started to protest.[7] People also traveled to the capital to join the protest in the Square. Image File history File links Democracytochina. ... Image File history File links Democracytochina. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... News media satellite up-link trucks and photojournalists gathered outside the Prudential Financial headquarters in Newark, New Jersey in August, 2004 following the announcement of evidence of a terrorist threat to it and to buildings in New York City. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


University students in Shanghai also took to the streets to commemorate the death of Hu Yaobang and protest against certain policies of the government. In many cases, these were supported by the universities' Party committees. Jiang Zemin (simplified Chinese: 江泽民; traditional Chinese: 江澤民), then-Municipal Party Secretary, addressed the student protesters in a bandage and expressed his understanding, as he was a former student agitator before 1949. At the same time, he moved swiftly to send in police forces to control the streets and to purge Communist Party leaders who had supported the students. Hu Yaobang (Chinese: 胡耀邦 Pinyin: Hú Yàobāng, Wade-Giles: Hu Yao-pang) (November 20, 1915 – April 15, 1989) was a leader of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China and also the worlds largest political party. ... Jiāng Zémín (Traditional Chinese: 江澤民, Simplified Chinese: 江泽民, Hanyu Pinyin: Jiāng Zémín, Wade-Giles: Chiang Tse-min, Cantonese (Jyutping): gong1 zaak6 man4) (born August 17, 1926) was the core of the third generation of Communist Party of China leaders, serving as General Secretary of the Communist... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ...


On April 19, the editors of the World Economic Herald, a magazine close to reformists, decided to publish, in their April 24 #439 issue, a commemorative section on Hu. Inside was an article by Yan Jiaqi, which commented favourably on the Beijing student protests on April 18 and called for a reassessment of Hu's purge in 1987. On April 21, a party official of Shanghai asked the editor in chief, Qin Benli, to change some passages. Qin Benli refused, so Chen turned to Jiang Zemin, who demanded that the article be censored. By that time, a first batch of copies of the paper had already been delivered. The remaining copies were published with a blank page [8]. On April 26, the "People's Daily" published its editorial condemning the student protest. Jiang followed this cue and suspended Qin Benli. His quick rise to power following the 1989 protests has been attributed to his decisive handling of these two events. is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Yan Jiaqi 嚴家其 (born December 15, 1942) is a Chinese dissident and federalist. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jiāng Zémín (Traditional Chinese: 江澤民, Simplified Chinese: 江泽民, Hanyu Pinyin: Jiāng Zémín, Wade-Giles: Chiang Tse-min, Cantonese (Jyutping): gong1 zaak6 man4) (born August 17, 1926) was the core of the third generation of Communist Party of China leaders, serving as General Secretary of the Communist... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Student protest encompasses a wide range of activities that indicate student dissatisfaction with a given political or academic issue and mobilization to communicate this dissatisfaction to the authorities and society in general and hopefully remedy the problem. ...


In Hong Kong, on May 27, 1989, over 300,000 people gathered at Happy Valley Racecourse for a gathering called "Democratic songs dedicated for China." Many famous Hong Kong and Taiwanese celebrities sang songs and expressed their support for the students in Beijing. The following day, a procession of 1.5 million people, one fourth of Hong Kong's population, led by Martin Lee, Szeto Wah and other organization leaders, paraded through Hong Kong Island. is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Happy Valley Horse Racing Track is one of the two racecourses for horse racing in Hong Kong. ... For other persons named Martin Lee, see Martin Lee (disambiguation). ... Szeto Wah 司徒華 (born February 28, 1931), is currently the chairman of The Hong Kong Alliance in Support of Patriotic Democratic Movements in China (香港市民支援愛國民主運動聯合會), was a member of the Legislative Council from 1985 to 1997 and 1998 to 2004. ... The night view of the Island side as seen from the Kowloon side - the opposite side of the Victoria Harbour Hong Kong Island (Traditional Chinese: 香港島; Simplified Chinese: 香港岛; Cantonese Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2 dou2; Mandarin Pinyin: XiānggÇŽngdÇŽo) is the island where the colonial settlement of the Hong Kong territory...


Across the world, especially where Chinese lived, people gathered and protested. Many governments, such as those of the USA, Japan, etc., also issued warnings advising their own citizens not to go to the PRC.


Government crackdown on the protests

Although the government declared martial law on May 20, the military's entry into Beijing was blocked by throngs of protesters, and the army was eventually ordered to withdraw. [9]Meanwhile, the demonstrations continued. The hunger strike was approaching the end of the third week, and the government resolved to end the matter before deaths occurred. After deliberation among Communist party leaders, the use of military force to resolve the crisis was ordered, and a deep divide in the politburo resulted. General Secretary Zhao Ziyang was ousted from political leadership as a result of his support for the demonstrators. The military also lacked unity on the issue, and purportedly did not indicate immediate support for a crackdown, leaving the central leadership scrambling to search for individual divisions willing to comply with their orders.[citation needed] Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ... Zhao Ziyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chao Tzu-yang) (October 17, 1919–January 17, 2005) was a politician in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Soldiers and tanks from the 27th and 28th Armies of the People's Liberation Army were sent to take control of the city. The 27th Army was led by a commander related to Yang Shangkun. In a press conference, US President George H. W. Bush announced sanctions on the People's Republic of China, following calls to action from members of Congress such as US Senator Jesse Helms. The President suggested that intelligence he had received indicated some disunity in China's military ranks, and even the possibility of clashes within the military during those days. Intelligence reports also indicated that 27th and 28th units were brought in from outside provinces because the local PLA were considered to be sympathetic to the protest and to the people of the city. Reporters described elements of the 27th as having been most responsible for civilian deaths. After their attack on the square, the 27th reportedly established defensive positions in Beijing - not of the sort designed to counter a civilian uprising, but as if to defend against attacks by other military units. The locally-stationed 38th Army, on the other hand, was reportedly sympathetic to the uprising. They were supplied no ammunition, and were said to be torching their own vehicles as they abandoned them to join the protests.[citation needed] A Norwegian soldier (a Corporal, armed with an MP-5) A soldier is a person who has enlisted with, or has been conscripted into, the armed forces of a sovereign country and has undergone training and received equipment to defend that country or its interests. ... The US M1A1 Abrams tank is a typical modern main battle tank. ... The 27th Army was a military formation of the Peoples Volunteer Army (Chinese Peoples Volunteers (CPV) or Chinese Communist Forces (CCF)) during the Korean War. ... Peoples Liberation Army redirects here. ... Yáng ShàngkÅ«n (May 25, 1907–September 14, 1998) was President of the Peoples Republic of China from 1988 to 1993, and was permanent Vice-chair of the Central Military Commission. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Jesse Alexander Helms, Jr. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Entry of the troops into the city was actively opposed by many citizens of Beijing. Protesters burned public buses and used them as roadblocks to stop the military's progress. The battle continued on the streets surrounding the Square, with protesters repeatedly advancing toward the People's Liberation Army (PLA) and constructing barricades with vehicles, while the PLA attempted to clear the streets using tear gas, rifles, and tanks. Many injured citizens were saved by rickshaw drivers who ventured into the no-man's-land between the soldiers and crowds and carried the wounded off to hospitals. After the attack on the square, live television coverage showed many people wearing black armbands in protest of the government's action, crowding various boulevards or congregating by burnt out and smoking barricades. Meanwhile, the PLA systematically established checkpoints around the city, chasing after protesters and blocking off the university district. Peoples Liberation Army redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Japanese rickshaw (jinrikisha), 1886. ... Live television refers to television broadcasts of events or performances on a delay of between zero and fifteen seconds, rather than from video recordings or film. ...


Within the Square itself, there was a debate between those who wished to withdraw peacefully, including Han Dongfang, and those who wished to stand within the square, such as Chai Ling. Han Dongfang (韩东方 pinyin: Hán Dōngfāng) has been an advocate for workers rights in China for more than two decades during which time he has won numerous international awards including the 1993 Democracy Award from the U.S. National Endowment for Democracy. ... Chai Ling Chai Ling (Chinese: 柴玲; pinyin: Chái Líng) (1966-) was one of the leaders in the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. ...


The assault on the square began at 10:30 p.m. on June 3, as armored personnel carriers (APCs) and armed troops with fixed bayonets approached from various positions. These APCs rolled on up the roads, firing ahead and off to the sides, perhaps killing or wounding their own soldiers in the process. BBC reporter Kate Adie spoke of "indiscriminate fire" within the square. Students who sought refuge in buses were pulled out by groups of soldiers and beaten with heavy sticks. Even students attempting to leave the square were beset by soldiers and beaten. Leaders of the protest inside the square, where some had attempted to erect flimsy barricades ahead of the APCs, were said to have "implored" the students not to use weapons (such as molotov cocktails) against the oncoming soldiers. Meanwhile, many students apparently were shouting, "Why are you killing us?" By 5:40 a.m. the following morning, June 4, the Square had been cleared. is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Armoured personnel carriers (APCs) are armoured fighting vehicles developed to transport infantry on the battlefield. ... For other uses, see bayonet (disambiguation). ... Kate Adie (born September 19, 1945) is a British journalist. ... Molotov cocktail is the generic name for a variety of crude incendiary weapons. ...


The suppression of the protest was immortalized in Western media by the famous video footage and photographs of a lone man in a white shirt standing in front of a column of tanks which were attempting to drive out of Tiananmen Square. Taken on June 5 as the column approached an intersection on the Avenue of Eternal Peace, the footage depicted the unarmed man standing in the center of the street, halting the tanks' progress. As the tank driver attempted to go around him, the "tank man" moved into the tank's path. He continued to stand defiantly in front of the tanks for some time, then climbed up onto the turret of the lead tank to speak to the soldiers inside. He reportedly said, "Why are you here? You have caused nothing but misery." After returning to his position blocking the tanks, the man was pulled aside by onlookers who perhaps feared he would be shot or run over. Time Magazine dubbed him The Unknown Rebel and later named him one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century. British tabloid the Sunday Express reported that the man was 19-year-old student Wang Weilin, however, the veracity of this claim is dubious. What happened to the 'tank man' following the demonstration is not known. In a speech to the President's Club in 1999, Bruce Herschensohn — former deputy special assistant to President Richard Nixon — reported that he was executed 14 days later. In Red China Blues: My Long March from Mao to Now, Jan Wong writes that the man is still alive and hiding in mainland China. In Forbidden City, Canadian children's author William Bell, claims the man was named Wang Ai-min and was killed on June 9 after being taken into custody. The last official statement from the PRC government about the tank man came from Jiang Zemin in a 1990 interview with Barbara Walters, when asked about the whereabouts of the tank man, Jiang responded that the young man was "I think never killed".[10] is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Changan Avenue Changan Avenue is a major through route in Beijing, China. ... Tank Man stops the advance of a column of tanks on 5 June 1989 in Beijing. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... TIME Magazines 100 most influential people of the 20th century (called the TIME 100 for short) is a list of the 20th centurys most influential politicians, artists, innovators, scientists and icons, compiled by TIME Magazine. ... This article is about the newspaper size. ... The Daily Express is a British newspaper, currently tabloid, and it is owned by Richard Desmond. ... Tank man stops the advance of a column of tanks. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Nixon redirects here. ... Death Penalty World Map Color Key: Blue: Abolished for all crimes Green: Abolished for crimes not committed in exceptional circumstances (such as crimes committed in time of war) Orange: Abolished in Practice Red: Legal Form of Punishment Execution of a soldier of the 8th Infantry at Prescott, Arizona, 1877 Execution... Jan Wong (pinyin: Huáng MíngzhÄ“n) 黃明珍(born 1953 in Montreal, Quebec) is a Canadian journalist of Chinese ancestry. ... William E. Bell is a Canadian childrens author who lives in Orillia, Ontario. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


After the crackdown in Beijing on June 4, protests continued in much of mainland China for several days. There were large protests in Hong Kong, where people again wore black in protest. There were protests in Guangzhou, and large-scale protests in Shanghai with a general strike. There were also protests in other countries, many adopting the use of black arm bands as well. However, the government soon regained control. Although no large-scale loss of life was reported in ending the protests in other cities, a political purge followed in which officials responsible for organizing or condoning the protests were removed, and protest leaders jailed. is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... CITIC Plaza Guangzhou (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; jyutping : Gwong²zau¹) is the capital and a sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Number of deaths

The number of dead and wounded remains unclear because of the large discrepancies between the different estimates. The Chinese government never released any exact official data or list of the deceased.


According to Nicholas D. Kristof "The true number of deaths will probably never be known, and it is possible that thousands of people were killed without leaving evidence behind. But based on the evidence that is now available, it seems plausible that about a dozen soldiers and policemen were killed, along with 400 to 800 civilians." One reason the number may never be known is suspicion that Chinese troops may have quickly removed and disposed of bodies. [11]


The Chinese government has maintained that there were no deaths within the square itself, although videos taken there at the time recorded the sound of gunshots. Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and State Council claimed that "hundreds of PLA soldiers died and more were injured."[citation needed] Yuan Mu, the spokesman of the State Council, said that a total of about 300 people died, most of them soldiers, along with a number of people he described as "ruffians."[12] According to Chen Xitong, Beijing mayor, 200 civilians and several dozen soldiers died.[13] Other sources stated that 3,000 civilians and 6,000 soldiers were injured.[14] In May 2007, CPPCC member from Hong Kong, Chang Ka-mun said 300 to 600 people were killed in Tiananmen Square. He echoed that "there were armed thugs who weren't students."[15] The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会; pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng WÄ›iyuánhuì) is the highest authority within the Communist Party of China between Party Congresses. ... Chen Xitong (陈希同) (born June 1930) was a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China and the Mayor of Beijing until he was removed from office on charges of corruption in 1995. ... The Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference (中国人民政治协商会议 Pinyin: Zhongguo renmin zhengzhi xieshang huiyi), abbreviated CPPCC, is an advisory body in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


However, foreign journalists who witnessed the incident have claimed that at least 3,000 people died. Some lists of casualties were created from underground sources with numbers as high as 5,000.[16]


Ambassador James Lilley's account of the massacre notes that State Department diplomats witnessed Chinese troops opening fire on unarmed people and based on visits to hospitals around Beijing a minimum of hundreds had been killed.[17]


A strict focus on the number of deaths within Tiananmen Square itself does not give an accurate picture of the carnage and overall death count since Chinese civilians were fired on in the streets surrounding Tiananmen Square. And students are reported to have been fired on after they left the Square, especially in the area near the Beijing concert hall.[11]


Statistics and estimates generated from different groups of sources would indicate:

  • 4,000 to 6,000 civilians killed - Edward Timperlake.[18]
  • 2,600 had officially died by the morning of June 4 (later denied) - the Chinese Red Cross.[13] An unnamed Chinese Red Cross official estimated that, in total, 5,000 people killed and 30,000 injured.[19]
  • 1,000 deaths - Amnesty International[13]
  • 7,000 deaths (6,000 civilians and 1,000 soldiers) - NATO intelligence.[18]
  • 10,000 deaths in total - Soviet Bloc estimates.[18]
  • in excess of 3,700 killed, excluding disappearance or secret deaths and those denied of medical treatment - PLA defector citing a document circulating among officers.[18]
  • 186 named individuals confirmed dead as at the end of June 2006 - Professor Ding Zilin.[20]

The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... This article is about the military alliance. ... During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ... Prof. ...

Aftermath

Arrests and purges

During and after the demonstration, the authorities attempted to arrest and prosecute the student leaders of the Chinese democracy movement, notably Wang Dan, Chai Ling, Zhao Changqing and Wuer Kaixi. Wang Dan was arrested, convicted, and sent to prison, then allowed to emigrate to the United States on the grounds of medical parole. As a lesser figure in the demonstrations, Zhao was released after six months in prison. However, he was once again incarcerated for continuing to petition for political reform in China. Wuer Kaixi escaped to Taiwan. He loves married life and he holds a job as a political commentator on national Taiwan television.[citation needed] Chai Ling escaped to France, and then to the United States. In a recent public speech given at the University of Michigan[21], Wang Dan commented on the current status of former student leaders: Chai Ling started a hi-tech company in the U.S. and was permitted to come back to China and do business, while Li Lu became an investment banker in Wall Street and started a company. As for himself, Wang Dan said his plan was to find an academic job in the U.S. after receiving his PhD from Harvard University, although he was eager to return to China if permitted. The Chinese democracy movement (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , abbreviated as Mínyùn 民运) is a loosely organized political movement in mainland China against continued one-party rule by the Communist Party of China. ... Wang in Taipei Wang Dan (Chinese: 王丹; pinyin: Wáng Dān) (born February 26, 1969), a leader of the Chinese democracy movement, was one of the most visible of the student leaders in the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. ... Chai Ling Chai Ling (Chinese: 柴玲; pinyin: Chái Líng) (1966-) was one of the leaders in the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. ... Zhao Changqing, (b. ... Wúěrkāixī (Traditional Chinese:吾爾開希; Uyghur: ئۆركەش دۆلەت ; 1968–) rose to fame as a Uyghur student leader in the Tiananmen protests of 1989. ... Medical parole is a form of parole which involves the release of a prisoner on the grounds that he or she is too ill to continue serving his or her prison sentence. ... Chai Ling Chai Ling (Chinese: 柴玲; pinyin: Chái Líng) (1966-) was one of the leaders in the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, UM, U-M or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan. ... Wang in Taipei Wang Dan (Chinese: 王丹; pinyin: Wáng Dān) (born February 26, 1969), a leader of the Chinese democracy movement, was one of the most visible of the student leaders in the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. ... Chai Ling Chai Ling (Chinese: 柴玲; pinyin: Chái Líng) (1966-) was one of the leaders in the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. ... Li Lu (李禄 Pinyin: Lǐ Lù) (born 1966) was an organizer and leader of the Chinese student dissidents who took part in the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. ... Elaborate marble facade of NYSE as seen from the intersection of Broad and Wall Streets For other uses, see Wall Street (disambiguation). ... Wang in Taipei Wang Dan (Chinese: 王丹; pinyin: Wáng Dān) (born February 26, 1969), a leader of the Chinese democracy movement, was one of the most visible of the student leaders in the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. ... PhD usually refers to the academic title Doctor of Philosophy PhD can also refer to the manga Phantasy Degree This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Harvard redirects here. ...


Smaller protest actions continued in other cities for a few days. Some university staff and students who had witnessed the killings in Beijing organised or spurred commemorative events upon their return to school. However, these were quickly put down, with those responsible being purged. Peking redirects here. ...


Chinese authorities summarily tried and executed many of the workers they arrested in Beijing. In contrast, the students - many of whom came from relatively affluent backgrounds and were well-connected - received much lighter sentences. Even Wang Dan, the student leader who topped the most wanted list, spent only seven years in prison. Nevertheless, many of the students and university staff implicated were permanently politically stigmatized, some never to be employed again.


The Party leadership expelled Zhao Ziyang from the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China (PSC), because he opposed martial law, and Zhao remained under house arrest until his death. Hu Qili, the other member of the PSC who opposed the martial law but abstained from voting, was also removed from the committee. He was, however, able to retain his party membership, and after "changing his opinion," was reassigned as deputy minister of Machine-Building and Electronics Industry. Another reform minded Chinese leader, Wan Li, was also put under house arrest immediately after he stepped out of an airplane at Beijing Capital International Airport upon returning from his shortened trip abroad, with the official excuse of "health reasons." When Wan Li was released from his house arrest after he finally "changed his opinion" he, like Qiao Shi, was transferred to a different position with equal rank but mostly ceremonial role. Zhao Ziyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chao Tzu-yang) (October 17, 1919–January 17, 2005) was a politician in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国共产党中央政治局常务委员会 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng Zhèngzhìjú Chángwù WÄ›iyuánhuì) is a committee whose membership varies between 5 and 9 and includes the top leadership of the Communist Party of China. ... Hu Qili (Simplified Chinese: 胡启立; Pinyin: ) was born in Shaanxi Province, China, in October of 1929. ... The Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国共产党中央政治局常务委员会 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng Zhèngzhìjú Chángwù WÄ›iyuánhuì) is a committee whose membership varies between 5 and 9 and includes the top leadership of the Communist Party of China. ... Wan Li (Traditional Chinese: 萬里; Simplified Chinese: 万里) (born 1916, died 1996) was the Chairman of the National Peoples Congress before his retirement in 1993, and was generally considered to be a moderate. ... Beijing Capital International Airport, (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (IATA: PEK, ICAO: ZBAA) is the main international airport that serves the capital city of Beijing, Peoples Republic of China. ... Wan Li (Traditional Chinese: 萬里; Simplified Chinese: 万里) (born 1916, died 1996) was the Chairman of the National Peoples Congress before his retirement in 1993, and was generally considered to be a moderate. ... Qiao Shi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: Qiáo Shí; Wade-Giles: Chiao Shih; born December 1924) is a politican in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The event elevated Jiang Zemin - then Mayor of Shanghai who was not involved in this event - to become PRC's President. Members of the government prepared a white paper explaining the government's viewpoint on the protests. An anonymous source within the PRC government smuggled the document out of China, and Public Affairs published it in January 2001 as the Tiananmen Papers. The papers include a quote by Communist Party elder Wang Zhen which alludes to the government's response to the demonstrations. Jiāng Zémín (Traditional Chinese: 江澤民, Simplified Chinese: 江泽民, Hanyu Pinyin: Jiāng Zémín, Wade-Giles: Chiang Tse-min, Cantonese (Jyutping): gong1 zaak6 man4) (born August 17, 1926) was the core of the third generation of Communist Party of China leaders, serving as General Secretary of the Communist... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... A white paper is an authoritative report. ... The Tiananmen Papers are presented as the formerly secret Chinese official documents relating to the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. ... Wáng Zhèn (王震) (1908—March 12, 1993), Chinese political figure, one of the Eight Immortals of the Communist Party of China. ...


Two news anchors who reported this event on June 4 in the daily 1900 hours (7:00 pm) news report on China Central Television were fired because they showed their sad emotions. Wu Xiaoyong, the son of a Communist Party of China Central Committee member, and former PRC foreign minister and vice premier Wu Xueqian were removed from the English Program Department of Chinese Radio International. Qian Liren, director of the People's Daily (the newspaper of the Communist Party of China), was also removed from his post because of reports in the paper which were sympathetic towards the students. is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... China Central Television or Chinese Central Television, commonly abbreviated as CCTV (simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the major television broadcaster in Mainland China. ... We dont know what the chinese radio international is therefore allowed me to type out some stuff to fill the box, please someone with some knowledge on the radio re-write this properly ... The Peoples Daily (Chinese: 人民日报 Pinyin ) is the official newspaper of the Communist Party of China, published worldwide with a circulation of 3 to 4 million. ...


Media coverage

The Tiananmen Square protests damaged the reputation of the PRC in the West. Western media had been invited to cover the visit of Mikhail Gorbachev in May, and were thus in an excellent position to cover some of the government crackdown live through networks such as the BBC and CNN. Protestors seized this opportunity, creating signs and banners designed for international television audiences. Coverage was further facilitated by the sharp conflicts within the Chinese government about how to handle the protests. Thus, broadcasting was not immediately stopped. For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ...


All international networks were eventually ordered to terminate broadcasts from the city during the crackdown, with the government shutting down the satellite transmissions. Broadcasters attempted to defy these orders by reporting via telephone. Footage was quickly smuggled out of the country, including the image of "the unknown rebel." The only network which was able to record some images during the night was TVE.[22][23] Tank Man stops the advance of a column of tanks on 5 June 1989 in Beijing. ... TVE may stand for: Televisión Española Township and Village Enterprise This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


CBS correspondent Richard Roth and his cameraman were imprisoned during the crackdown. Roth was taken into custody while in the midst of filing a report from the Square via mobile phone. In a frantic voice, he could be heard repeatedly yelling what sounded like "Oh, no! Oh, no!" before the phone was disconnected. He was later released, suffering a slight injury to his face in a scuffle with Chinese authorities attempting to confiscate his phone. Roth later explained he had actually been saying, "Let go!" This article is about the broadcast network. ...


Images of the protests - along with the collapse of Communism that was occurring at the same time in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe - would strongly shape Western views and policy toward the PRC throughout the 1990s and into the 21st century. There was considerable sympathy for the student protests among Chinese students in the West. Almost immediately, both the United States and the European Economic Community announced an arms embargo, and China's image as a reforming country and a valuable ally against the Soviet Union was replaced by that of a repressive authoritarian regime. The Tiananmen protests were frequently invoked to argue against trade liberalization with mainland China and by the United States' Blue Team as evidence that the PRC government was an aggressive threat to world peace and US interests. This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... An arms embargo serves one or more purposes. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... This article is about a political group. ...


Among overseas Chinese students, the Tiananmen Square protests triggered the formation of Internet news services such as the China News Digest and the NGO China Support Network. In the aftermath of Tiananmen, organizations such as the China Alliance for Democracy and the Independent Federation of Chinese Students and Scholars were formed, although these organizations would have limited political impact beyond the mid-1990s. Languages various Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The China Support Network (CSN) is a U.S.-based organization promoting democracy for mainland China. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Impact on domestic political trends

The Tiananmen square protests dampened the growing concept of political liberalization that was popular in the late 1980s; as a result, many democratic reforms that were proposed during the 1980s were swept under the carpet. Although there has been an increase in personal freedom since then, discussions on structural changes to the PRC government and the role of the Communist Party of China remain largely taboo. This article is about cultural prohibitions in general, for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ...


Despite early expectations in the West that PRC government would soon collapse and be replaced by the Chinese democracy movement, by the early 21st century the Communist Party of China remained in firm control of the People's Republic of China, and the student movement which started at Tiananmen was in complete disarray. The Chinese democracy movement (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , abbreviated as Mínyùn 民运) is a loosely organized political movement in mainland China against continued one-party rule by the Communist Party of China. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China and also the worlds largest political party. ...


In Hong Kong, the Tiananmen square protests led to fears that the PRC would not honour its commitments under one country, two systems in the impending handover in 1997. One consequence of this was that the new governor Chris Patten attempted to expand the franchise for the Legislative Council of Hong Kong which led to friction with the PRC. There have been large candlelight vigils attended by tens of thousands in Hong Kong every year since 1989 and these vigils have continued following the transfer of power to the PRC in 1997. Portuguese name Portuguese: Um país, dois sistemas One country, two systems is an idea originally proposed by Deng Xiaoping during the early 1980s, then Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), for the reunification of China. ... Christopher Francis Patten, Baron Patten of Barnes, CH, PC (born 12 May 1944 in Bath, Somerset) is a prominent British Conservative politician and a Patron of the Tory Reform Group. ... The Legislative Council (abbreviated as LegCo; Chinese: 立法會, Pinyin: Lìfǎ Huì; formerly 立法局, Lìfǎ Jú) is the unicameral legislature of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The protests also marked a shift in the political conventions which governed politics in the People's Republic. Prior to the protests, under the 1982 Constitution, the President was a largely symbolic role. By convention, power was distributed between the positions of President, Premier, and General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, all of whom were intended to be different people, in order to prevent the excesses of Mao-style dictatorship. However, after Yang Shangkun used his reserve powers as head of state to mobilize the military, the Presidency again became a position imbued with real power. Subsequently, the President became the same person as the General Secretary of the CPC, and wielded paramount power. In politics, a political convention is a meeting of a political party, typically to select party candidates. ... The General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Central Committee (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会总书记 pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng Zhōngyāng Wěiyuánhuì Zǒngshūjì) is the highest ranking official within the Communist Party of China and heads the Secretariat of the Communist Party of China. ... Mao redirects here. ... Yáng Shàngkūn (May 25, 1907–September 14, 1998) was President of the Peoples Republic of China from 1988 to 1993, and was permanent Vice-chair of the Central Military Commission. ...


In 1989, neither the Chinese military nor the Beijing police had adequate anti-riot gear, such as rubber bullets and tear gas commonly used in Western nations to break up riots.[24] After the Tiananmen Square protests, riot police in Chinese cities were equipped with non-lethal equipment for riot control.

A memorial depicting a destroyed bicycle and a tank track — symbol of the Tiananmen Square protests — in the Polish city of Wrocław
A memorial depicting a destroyed bicycle and a tank track — symbol of the Tiananmen Square protests — in the Polish city of Wrocław

Download high resolution version (2046x1117, 467 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2046x1117, 467 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Motto: Miasto spotkaÅ„ (the meeting place) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lower Silesian Powiat city county Gmina WrocÅ‚aw Established 10th century City Rights 1262 Government  - Mayor RafaÅ‚ Dutkiewicz Area  - City 292. ...

Economic impact

In the immediate aftermath of the protests, some within the Communist Party attempted to curtail free market reforms that had been undertaken as part of Chinese economic reform and reinstitute administrative economic controls. However, these efforts met with stiff resistance from provincial governors and broke down completely in the early 1990s as a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union and Deng Xiaoping's trip to the south. The continuance of economic reform led to economic growth in the 1990s, which allowed the government to regain much of the support that it had lost in 1989. In addition, none of the current PRC leadership played any active role in the decision to move against the demonstrators, and one major leadership figure Premier Wen Jiabao was an aide to Zhao Ziyang and accompanied him to meet the demonstrators. Today there are economic "sectors" in which business can thrive and this has opened up economic freedom and access to goods. A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Economic reforms have triggered internal migrations within China. ... Deng Xiaoping   (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904 – February 19, 1997) was a prominent Chinese politician and reformer, and the late leader of the Communist Party of China (CCP). ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ... The Premier ( Chinese: 总理 pinyin: zŏnglĭ), sometimes referred to as the Prime Minister, is the Chairman of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China and head of Central Peoples Government. ... Wen Jiabao (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wen Chia-pao) (born September 1942) is the Premier of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Zhao Ziyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chao Tzu-yang) (October 17, 1919–January 17, 2005) was a politician in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The protest leaders at Tiananmen were unable to produce a coherent movement or ideology that would last past the mid-1990s. Many of the student leaders came from relatively well off sectors of society and were seen as out of touch with common people. A number of them were socialists. Many of the organizations which were started in the aftermath of Tiananmen soon fell apart due to personal infighting. Several overseas democracy activists were supportive of limiting trade with mainland China which significantly decreased their popularity both within China and among the overseas Chinese community. A number of NGOs based in the U.S., which aim to bring democratic reform to China and relentlessly protest human rights violations that occur in China, remain. One of the oldest and most prominent of them, the China Support Network (CSN), was founded in 1989 by a group of concerned Americans and Chinese activists in response to Tiananmen Square. Democratization (British English: Democratisation) is the transition from an authoritarian or a semi-authoritarian political system to a democratic political system. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


Issues concerning the Tiananmen protests today

Forbidden topic in mainland China

Unlike the Cultural Revolution, about which people can still easily find information through government approved books, Internet sites, etc., this topic completely disappeared from any media (including books, magazines, newspapers and internet web sites) inside mainland China. It is a forbidden topic by the Chinese government. The Chinese government also reportedly brainwashed its citizens at the time into forgetting the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests, even to the point of beating several people (especially the victims' friends and families) to give them amnesia[25]. This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ... Brainwashing (also known as thought reform or as re-education) consists of any effort aimed at instilling certain attitudes and beliefs in a person — sometimes unwelcome beliefs in conflict with the persons prior beliefs and knowledge. ... For other uses, see Amnesia (disambiguation). ...


The official media in mainland China views the crackdown as a necessary reaction to ensure stability. It is common for Chinese youth to be entirely unaware of the Tiananmen protests.[26] Every year there is a large rally in Victoria Park, Causeway Bay, Hong Kong, where people remember the victims and demand that the CPC's official view be changed.


Petition letters over the incident have emerged from time to time, notably from Dr. Jiang Yanyong and Tiananmen Mothers, an organization founded by a mother of one of the victims killed in 1989 where the families seek vindication, compensation for their lost sons, and the right to receive donations, particularly from abroad.[27] Tiananmen Square is tightly patrolled on the anniversary of June 4 to prevent any commemoration on the Square. Jiang Yanyong Jiang Yanyong (Traditional Chinese: 蔣彥永, Simplified Chinese: 蒋彦永, Hanyu Pinyin: Jiǎng Yànyǒng, Wade-Giles: Chiang Yen-yung) (born 4 October 1931) is a Chinese physician from Beijing who publicized a coverup of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) epidemic in China. ... The Tiananmen Mothers is a group of Chinese democracy activists promoting a change in the governments position over the suppression of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


After the PRC Central Government reshuffle in 2004, several cabinet members mentioned Tiananmen. In October 2004, during President Hu Jintao's visit to France, he reiterated that "the government took determined action to calm the political storm of 1989, and enabled China to enjoy a stable development." He insisted that the government's view on the incident would not change. This is a Chinese name; the family name is Hu Hu Jintao (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; born December 21, 1942) is currently the Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China, holding the titles of General Secretary of the Communist Party of China since 2002, President of the...


In March 2004, Premier Wen Jiabao said in a press conference that during the 1990s there was a severe political storm in the PRC, amid the breakdown of the Soviet Union and radical changes in Eastern Europe. He stated that the Communist Central Committee successfully stabilized the open-door policy and protected the "Career of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics." Wen Jiabao (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wen Chia-pao) (born September 1942) is the Premier of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Cold War (1985-1991) discusses the period within the Cold War between the rise of Mikhail Gorbachev as Soviet leader in 1985 to the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. ...


History deleted inside mainland China

Currently, due to strong Chinese government censorship including Internet censorship, the news media is forbidden to report anything related to the protests. The event has been almost completely absent from Chinese media, including the Internet. No one is allowed to make any websites related to the protests.[citation needed] A search for Tiananmen Square protest information on the Internet in Mainland China largely returns no results apart from the government-mandated version of the events and the official view, which are mostly found on Websites of People's Daily and other heavily-controlled media. Censorship in the Peoples Republic of China is the limiting or suppressing of the publishing, dissemination, and viewing of certain information in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Internet censorship in the Peoples Republic of China is conducted under a wide variety of laws and administrative regulations. ... Within the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), there is heavy government involvement in the media, with many of the largest media organizations (namely CCTV, the Peoples Daily, and Xinhua) being agencies of the government of the PRC. There are certain taboos and red lines within the media in... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... ... The Peoples Daily (Chinese: 人民日报 Pinyin ) is the official newspaper of the Communist Party of China, published worldwide with a circulation of 3 to 4 million. ...


In January 2006, Google agreed to censor their mainland China site, Google.cn, to remove information about the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre,[28] as well as other topics such as Tibetan independence, the banned spiritual practice Falun Gong and the political status of Taiwan. When people search for those censored topics, it will list the following at the bottom of the page in Chinese, "According to the local laws, regulations and policies, part of the searching result is not shown." The uncensored Wikipedia articles on the 1989 protests, both in English and Chinese Wikipedia, have been attributed as a cause of the blocking of Wikipedia by the government in mainland China. Censorship by Google is Google corporations willful removal or lack of inclusion of certain information from its services. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Falun Gong practitioners enacting torture scenes in New York City Demonstration against persecution of Falun Gong at the 2004 Republican National Convention in New York City Arrest of People practicing the 5th. ... Falun Gong, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally Practice of the Wheel of Law) also known as Falun Dafa, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; lit. ... Taiwan Strait area The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan hinges on whether Taiwan, including the Pescadores (Penghu), should remain the effective territory of the Republic of China (ROC), become unified with the territories now governed by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), or become the Republic of... The Chinese Wikipedia logo The Chinese Wikipedia is the Chinese language edition of Wikipedia, run by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... On several occasions, the government and Internet service providers of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) have blocked access to Wikipedia in mainland China due to strict censorship laws enacted by the PRC. The blocks function in a similar way to a content filter. ...


In 2006, the American PBS program "Frontline" broadcast a segment filmed at Peking University, many of whose students participated in the 1989 protests. Four students were shown a picture of the Tank man, but none of them could identify what was happening in the photo. Some responded that it was a military parade, or an artwork. Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... Peking University (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), colloquially known in Chinese as Beida (北大, Běidà), was established in 1898. ...


On May 15, 2007, the leader of the pro-Beijing Democratic Alliance for Betterment of Hong Kong, Ma Lik, provoked much criticism when he said that "there was not a massacre" during the protests, as there was "no intentional and indiscriminate shooting." He said Hong Kong was "not mature enough" due to believing foreigners' rash claims that a massacre took place. He said that Hong Kong showed through its lack of patriotism and national identity that it would thus "not be ready for democracy until 2022."[29] His remarks were met with wide condemnation.[citation needed] Logo The Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong (DAB) (民主建港聯盟, 民建聯) is the largest pro-government political party in Hong Kong SAR of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Ma Lik (馬力) GBS JP is currently the Chairman of the Democratic Alliance for Betterment of Hong Kong (DAB), a pro-Beijing political party in Hong Kong. ... Ma Lik (馬力) GBS JP is currently the Chairman of the Democratic Alliance for Betterment of Hong Kong (DAB), a pro-Beijing political party in Hong Kong. ...


On June 4, 2007, the anniversary of the massacre, an ad reading, "Paying tribute to the strong-(willed) mothers of June 4 victims" was published in the Chengdu Evening News newspaper. The matter is currently being investigated by the Chinese government, and three editors have since been fired from the paper.[30][31] The clerk who approved the ad had reportedly never heard of the June 4 crackdown and had been told that the date was a reference to a mining disaster.[32]


EU-US arms embargo

The European Union and United States embargo on weapons sales to the PRC, put in place as a result of the violent suppression of the Tiananmen Square pro-democracy protests, still remains in place. The PRC has been calling for a lifting of the ban for many years and has had a varying amount of support from members of the Council of the European Union. In early 2004, France spearheaded a movement within the EU to lift the ban. Former German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder publicly added his voice to that of former French President Jacques Chirac to have the embargo lifted. For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ...   [] (born April 7, 1944), German politician, was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... “Chirac” redirects here. ...


The arms embargo was discussed at a PRC-EU summit in the Netherlands between December 7 and 9, 2004. In the run-up to the summit, the PRC had attempted to increase pressure on the EU Council to lift the ban by warning that the ban could hurt PRC-EU relations. PRC Vice Foreign Minister Zhang Yesui had called the ban "outdated", and he told reporters, "If the ban is maintained, bilateral relations will definitely be affected." In the end, the EU Council did not lift the ban. EU spokeswoman Françoise le Bail said there were still concerns about the PRC's commitment to human rights. But at the time, the EU did state a commitment to work towards lifting the ban.


The PRC continued to press for the embargo to be lifted, and some member states began to drop their opposition. Jacques Chirac pledged to have the ban lifted by mid-2005. However, the Anti-Secession Law of the People's Republic of China passing in March 2005 increased cross-strait tensions, damaging attempts to lift the ban, and several EU Council members changed their minds. Members of the U.S. Congress had also proposed restrictions on the transfer of military technology to the EU if they lifted the ban. Thus the EU Council failed to reach a consensus, and although France and Germany pushed to have the embargo lifted, the embargo was maintained. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political...


Britain took charge of the EU Presidency in July 2005, making the lifting of the embargo all but impossible for the duration of that period. Britain had always had some reservations on lifting the ban and wished to put it to the side, rather than sour EU-US relations further. Other issues such as the failure of the European Constitution and the ensuing disagreement over the European Budget and Common Agricultural Policy superseded the matter of the embargo in importance. Britain wanted to use its presidency to push for wholesale reform of the EU, so the lifting of the ban became even more unlikely. The election of José Manuel Barroso as European Commission President also made a lifting of the ban more difficult. At a meeting with Chinese leaders in mid-July 2005, he said that China's poor record on human rights would slow any changes to the EU's ban on arms sales to China.[33] Wikisource has original text related to this article: Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe The constitutional treaty as signed in Rome on 29 October 2004 by representatives of the EU member states The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE), commonly referred to as the European Constitution, was an unimplemented... The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a system of European Union agricultural subsidies and programmes. ... José Manuel Durão Barroso, GCC (pronounced  ) (born in Porto, March 23, 1956) is a Portuguese politician and the 11th President of the European Commission, being the first Portuguese person to hold the post. ... François-Xavier Ortoli, Romano Prodi, José Manuel Barroso and Jacques Delors The President of the European Commission is notionally the highest ranking unelected official within the European Union bureaucracy. ...


Political will also changed in countries that had previously been more in favor of lifting the embargo. Schröder lost the 2005 German federal election to Angela Merkel, who became chancellor on November 22, 2005 - Merkel made her position clear that she was strongly against lifting the ban. Jacques Chirac declared he would not stand again as a candidate for the French Presidency in 2007. His successor, Nicolas Sarkozy, is more pro-American and less in favour of lifting the embargo compared to Chirac. German federal elections took place on September 18, 2005 to elect the members of the 16th German Bundestag, the federal parliament of Germany. ...   (IPA: ) (born Angela Dorothea Kasner, 17 July 1954, in Hamburg, Germany), is the Chancellor of Germany. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ...


In addition, the European Parliament has consistently opposed the lifting of the arms embargo to the PRC. Though its agreement is not necessary for lifting the ban, many argue it reflects the will of the European people better as it is the only directly elected European body—the EU Council is appointed by member states. The European Parliament has repeatedly opposed any lifting of the arms embargo on the PRC: Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild...

  • The resolution of April 28, 2005, on the Annual Report on Human Rights in the World 2004 and the EU's policy on the matter,
  • The resolution of October 23, 2003, on the annual report from the Council to the European Parliament on the main aspects and basic choices of CFSP, it insisted on a peaceful resolution of the Taiwan issue through dialogue across the Taiwan Straits and called on China to withdraw missiles in the coastal provinces adjacent to the Taiwan Straits, and
  • The resolution on relations between the EU, China and Taiwan and security in the Far East of July 7, 2005. The EP has noted several times that the current human rights situation in China, with regards to fundamental civil, cultural and political freedoms does not meet even the international standards recognized by China.

The arms embargo has limited China's options from where it may seek military hardware. Among the sources that were sought included the former Soviet bloc that it had a strained relationship with as a result of the Sino-Soviet split. Other willing suppliers have previously included Israel and South Africa, but American pressure has restricted future co-operation.[citation needed] is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Taiwan Strait Area The Taiwan Strait or Formosa Strait is a 180km-wide Strait between mainland China and the island of Taiwan. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ...


Compensation

Although the Chinese government never officially acknowledged wrongdoing when it came to the incident, in April 2006 a payment was made to the family of one of the victims, the first publicized case of the government offering redress to a Tiananmen-related victim's family. The payment was termed a "hardship assistance", given to Tang Deying (唐德英) whose son, Zhou Guocong (simplified Chinese: 周国聪; traditional Chinese: 周國聰) died at the age of 15 while in police custody in Chengdu on June 6, 1989, two days after the Chinese Army dispersed the Tiananmen protestors. The woman was reportedly paid 70,000 yuan (approximately $8,700 USD), which is quite a significant amount in China. This has been welcomed by various Chinese activists, but was regarded by some as a measure to maintain social stability and not believed to herald a changing of the Party's official position.[34] Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Not to be confused with Chengde. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Han Dynasty cash coin Currency has been used in China since the New Stone Age, in which Chinese also invented paper money in the 9th century. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


References in culture

Execution, a painting inspired by the event became the most expensive Chinese contemporary art sold in 2007
Execution, a painting inspired by the event became the most expensive Chinese contemporary art sold in 2007

Censored books, films and TV shows in mainland China

  • In 2006, the film Summer Palace was banned in China, ostensibly because it was screened without permission, but likely also because of its mention of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.
  • In May of 2007, the book "Collection of June Fourth Poems" was banned in China.
  • In July of 2007, the book "Zhao Ziyang's words during his housearrest" was also banned in China.

Summer Palace (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is a 2006 film and the fourth feature film by director Lou Ye. ... <Collection of June Fourth Poems> collected various best-known poems that widespread in June Fourth (1989) Event of China (Tiananmen Square protests of 1989), it is collected and edited by exiled democratic leaders who themselves have participated in June Fourth Event, together with some international experts and scholars, and cost... Zhao Ziyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chao Tzu-yang) (October 17, 1919–January 17, 2005) was a politician in the Peoples Republic of China. ...

Songs

  • The Hooters recorded the American Civil War-era song "500 Miles" in 1989 on their album Zig Zag, with folk music trio Peter, Paul and Mary, and included new lyrics referencing the protest ("A hundred tanks along the square, One man stands and stops them there").
  • Billy Joel's history-themed song "We Didn't Start the Fire" ("China's under martial law")
  • Siouxsie and the Banshees - "The Ghost In You" (from the album Superstition -1991)
  • Leonard Cohen’s “Democracy” (“…from those nights in Tiananmen Square”)
  • Joan Baez's 1989 song "China"
  • Nevermore's "The Tiananmen Man"
  • Roger Waters's 1992 "Watching TV" on the solo album Amused to Death
  • Tenacious D's "Karate"
  • Ellis Paul's "Did Galileo Pray?" ("Truth will march in Birmingham/ It will block the tanks in Tiananmen")
  • System of a Down's "Hypnotize" ("Why Don't you ask the kids at Tiananmen square, Was fashion the reason why they were there?")
  • The Cure's "Faith" on the same day as the disaster, dedicated to the people who died.
  • Around the same time as the incident, many Taiwanese pop singers gathered to sing a special song called 歷史的傷口 The wound of the history. The song became one of many that even today regularly arouses feelings among many overseas Chinese, especially those who support democracy, for the devastating impact the protests resulted on China.
  • Rancid's "Arrested in Shanghai" from album Indestructible, there is a line in the lyrics: So I protest the massacres at the Tiannamen Square.
  • Rage Against the Machine's "Roll Right" which includes the lyrics; "Lick off the shot my stories shock you like Ellison, main line adrenalin, Gaza to Tiananmen"
  • "Tin Omen" by Canadian band Skinny Puppy contains references to the protests as well as the protests at the Kent State University in Ohio, USA.
  • Jin's "Same Cry" from his album "The Rest is History" paid tribute to those fallen protesters during the Tiananmen massacre.
  • Björn Afzelius song with the Swedish name "Himmelska fridens torg"(Tiananmen Square).
  • R.E.M.'s Shiny Happy People
  • Matchbox Twenty's How Far We've Come
  • (hed) pe 's Tiananmen Squared
  • John Vanderslice's Do you remember from his album Time Travel Is Lonely is regarding the Tank Man or Unknown Rebel incident
  • Janet Jackson's album Rhythm Nation opens with the sound of a television being flipped from channel to channel. One channel features a newsreader saying "... iananman Square today..."
  • Anti-Flag's "What's the difference" compares the Seattle Riots of 1999 at WTO Conference with Tiananmen: "Our leaders decry Tiananmen/And dare to speak of freedom/As they unleash our cops on us/So... what's... the fuckin' difference"
  • Tornts feat. Billy Bunks - Booze Bastards: "At the bar we in there, getting tanked like Tiananmen Square"
  • "Bells of Tianamen" by Jamaster A
  • Bob Geldof's "Chains Of Pain" : "Desperate deeds were done by men with guns in China/Boys in clean white shirts/They stopped the tanks in their dirt"

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Zig Zag is the fourth studio album by American rock band The Hooters and was released in 1989. ... Folk song redirects here. ... The trio Peter, Paul and Mary (often PP&M) is a musical group from the United States; they were one of the most successful folk-singing groups of the 1960s. ... William Joseph Martin Billy Joel (born May 9, 1949) is an American pianist and singer-songwriter. ... We Didnt Start the Fire is a song by Billy Joel that makes reference to a catalog of headline events during his lifetime, from March 1949 to 1989, when the song was released on his album Storm Front. ... Siouxsie and the Banshees are a British gothic rock band. ... Leonard Norman Cohen, CC (born September 21, 1934 in Westmount, Quebec) is a Canadian singer-songwriter, poet and novelist. ... Joan Chandos Baez (born January 9, 1941) is an American folk singer and songwriter known for her highly individual vocal style. ... Nevermore is a power/thrash/speed metal band that was formed in 1992 by ex-Sanctuary band members Warrel Dane, Jim Sheppard and touring guitarist, Jeff Loomis. ... George Roger Waters (born 6 September 1943) is an English rock musician; singer, bassist, guitarist, songwriter, and composer. ... Amused to Death is a solo album by former Pink Floyd member Roger Waters, released in 1992 (see 1992 in music). ... This article is about the band. ... Ellis Paul (born January 14, 1965) is an American singer-songwriter and folk musician. ... System of a Down (commonly referred to as System or abbreviated as SOAD) is an American rock band, formed in 1995 in Glendale, California. ... Hypnotize is the lead single for System of a Downs latest album of the same title, which was released on November 22, 2005 (see 2005 in music). ... This article is about the band. ... Faith is the title track from The Cures third album and is often said to be Robert Smiths most personal song. ... This article is about the history, geography, and people of the island known as Taiwan. ... Languages various Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Rancid is a punk band, formed in 1991 in Albany, California, by Matt Freeman and Tim Armstrong. ... Indestructible is the sixth album by Rancid, released on August 19, 2003 (see 2003 in music). ... Rage Against the Machine is an American rock band formed in Los Angeles, California in 1991. ... Tin Omen is a single by the band Skinny Puppy, taken from their 1989 album Rabies. ... Main articles: History of Canada, Timeline of Canadian history Canada has been inhabited by aboriginal peoples (known in Canada as First Nations) for at least 40,000 years. ... Skinny Puppy is a prominent industrial band, formed in Vancouver, BC, Canada in 1982. ... The Kent State shootings, also known as the May 4 massacre or Kent State massacre,[2][3][4] occurred at Kent State University in the city of Kent, Ohio, and involved the shooting of students by members of the Ohio National Guard on Monday, May 4, 1970. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Jin may refer to: In Chinese history: Jin (廑), a ruler of the Xia dynasty (2033 BC–1562 BC) Jin (state) (746 BC-403 BC) (晉), a state in northern China during the Spring and Autumn Period Jin Dynasty, used to refer to a number of Chinese dynastic kingdoms: Jìn Dynasty... The Rest Is History is Jins first album. ... R.E.M. is an American rock band formed in Athens, Georgia in 1980 by Bill Berry (drums), Peter Buck (guitar), Mike Mills (bass guitar), and Michael Stipe (vocals). ... Shiny Happy People is a song by the band R.E.M. It appeared on their 1991 album Out of Time and was released as a single in the same year. ... Matchbox Twenty (or MB20, MBT, matchbox twenty, originally spelled Matchbox 20) is a rock band formed in Orlando, Florida. ... How Far Weve Come is the lead single from Matchbox Twentys retrospective collection, Exile on Mainstream, which was released on October 2, 2007. ... (HÉ™d) P.E. meaning (HÉ™d) Planet Earth, are a quintet from Huntington Beach, California. ... John Vanderslice (born in Gainesville, Florida in 1967) is an American musician, formerly of mk Ultra but now performing with his own band. ... Time Travel is Lonely is the second album by John Vanderslice, released in 2001. ... Tank Man stops the advance of a column of tanks on 5 June 1989 in Beijing. ... This article is about the singer. ... Rhythm Nation was the second single by pop music diva Janet Jackson from her fourth studio album Rhythm Nation 1814. ... Anti-Flag is a political punk band from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America consisting of four members: Justin Sane (lead guitar, lead vocals), Chris #2 (bass, vocals), Chris Head (rhythm guitar, backing vocals), and Pat Thetic (drums). ... On November 30, 1999, the World Trade Organization convened in Seattle, Washington, USA, for what was to be the launch of a new millennial round of trade negotiations. ... Robert Frederick Xenon Geldof[1], KBE[2], known as Bob Geldof (born 5 October 1951) [3], is an Irish singer, songwriter, actor and political activist. ...

TV

  • CNN news anchor Kyra Phillips drew criticism in March 2006 when she compared the 2006 labor protests in France, in which it was later determined that no one was killed, to the Tiananmen Square protests, saying "Sort of brings back memories of Tiananmen Square, when you saw these activists in front of tanks."[35] CNN's Chris Burns told French Foreign Minister Philippe Douste-Blazy that her comments were "regrettable".[36]
  • In The Simpsons episode Goo Goo Gai Pan, there is a plaque that reads, "On this spot in 1989, nothing happened", in Tiananmen Square, a reference to the Chinese Government's denial of the protests.
  • In a flashback during an episode of Family Guy, Peter Griffin stood along side the "Tank Man" during the protests, but became scared and left, declaring that he only came to China "for some fireworks".
  • In the movie Superbad while discussing Jonah Hill's compulsion to draw pictures of penises, during the montage the picture of the 'Tank Man' is depicted as a penis and testicles in front of the column of tanks.

The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Kyra Tizzone (b. ... The 2006 labor protests in France occurred throughout France during February, March, and April 2006 as a result of opposition to a measure set to deregulate labor. ... Philippe Douste-Blazy at the United Nations summit on September 16, 2005 Philippe Douste-Blazy (b. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Goo Goo Gai Pan is the twelfth episode from the sixteenth season of The Simpsons, which originally aired on March 13, 2005. ... Family Guy is an Emmy Award-winning American animated television series about a dysfunctional family in the fictional town of Quahog, Rhode Island. ... Tank Man stops the advance of a column of tanks on 5 June 1989 in Beijing. ... Superbad, the 1997 creation of web designer Ben Benjamin, is an artistic work that was produced using the tools and methods of web design. ...

See also

Zhang Zhixin (Chinese: 张志新; Pinyin: Zhāng Zhìxīn; December 5, 1930-- April 4, 1975) was a famous dissident during the Cultural Revolution for criticizing idolization of Mao Zedong. ... The history of the Peoples Republic of China details the history of mainland China since October 1, 1949, when, after a near complete victory by the Communist Party of China (CPC) in the Chinese Civil War, Mao Zedong proclaimed the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) from atop Tiananmen... Students in Beijing rallied during the May Fourth Movement. ... The April Fifth Movement was a mass movement that took place in the Peoples Republic of China and culminated on April 5, 1976. ... The Hong Kong Alliance in Support of Patriotic Democratic Movements in China (the Alliance) (香港市民支援愛國民主運動聯合會 or 支聯會) is a pro-democratic organization that was established on May 21, 1989 with the purpose of supporting patriotic democratic movements in China. ... The Sharpeville massacre, also known as the Sharpeville shootings, occurred on March 21, 1960, when South African police opened fire on a crowd of black protesters. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Excerpt from Executive Order 12711, April 11, 1990 Section 1. ... The Yanan Rectification Movement (Chinese: 整风运动, Zhèngfēng yùndòng) also known as the Rectification Movement (Chinese: 延安整風), Zheng Feng or Cheng Feng was the first deceptive ideology movement initiated by the Communist Party of China. ... Falun Gong practitioners enacting torture scenes in New York City Demonstration against persecution of Falun Gong at the 2004 Republican National Convention in New York City Arrest of People practicing the 5th. ... The Tiananmen Square self-immolation incident was an incident occurring on January 23, 2001, in Tiananmen Square, Beijing in which six people engaged in self-immolation. ... Tank Man stops the advance of a column of tanks on 5 June 1989 in Beijing. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Binyan 1989, p.35.
  2. ^ Nathan, Andrew J. (January/February 2001). The Tiananmen Papers. Foreign Affairs.
  3. ^ Xinhua: Full text of the 4-26 Editorial
  4. ^ Amnesty International, 30 August 1989. Preliminary Findings on Killings of Unarmed Civilians, Arbitrary Arrests and Summary Executions Since 3 June 1989, p.19
  5. ^ The Gate of Heavenly Peace, movie script, 1995
  6. ^ Interview with Liu Binyan (June 1999)
  7. ^ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/tankman/view/ Tens of Millions of Protesters
  8. ^ Kate Wright, the Political Fortunes of the World Economic Herald, Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, nr 23, pp 121-132 (1990)
  9. ^ {http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB16/documents/09-01.htm US State Dept Documents}
  10. ^ TIME 100: The Unknown Rebel
  11. ^ a b A Reassessment of How Many Died In the Military Crackdown in Beijing, The New York Times, June 21, 1989
  12. ^ China Makes Zhao Purge Formal, But He Still Gets to Be a Comrade, New York Times, July 1, 1989
  13. ^ a b c How Many Really Died? Time magazine, June 04, 1990
  14. ^ 六四民運 (June4th 1989 Archive) (Chinese).
  15. ^ Damon Pang, `Massacre' remarks trigger sharp exchange at City Forum, The Standard, May 21, 2007
  16. ^ CSN warns Americans about the AP's "climb down" on Tiananmen numbers, CSN, May 18, 2004
  17. ^ Lilley, James, China Hands, 322.
  18. ^ a b c d Timperlake, Edward. [1999] (1999). Red Dragon Rising. Regnery Publishing. ISBN 0895262584
  19. ^ Sino-American Relations: One Year After the Massacre at Tiananmen Square. [2005] (1991). US congress publishing. No ISBN digitized archive via Stanford University
  20. ^ List of casualties, Ding Zilin, Retrieved 2007-05-21 (Chinese)
  21. ^ Blog: A talk by Wang Dan (Chinese) (2007-11-20)
  22. ^ Interview with Eugenio Bregolat, Spanish ambassador in Beijing during the Tiananmen Square protests (Spanish) (2007-08-09)
  23. ^ Eugenio Bregolat. "TVE in Tiananmen", La Vanguardia, 2007-06-04. Retrieved on 2007-09-04. (Spanish) 
  24. ^ Chinese human rights official says the crackdown 'completely correct' Rebecca MacKinnon, "Tiananmen Ten Years Later." CNN, 2 June 1999.
  25. ^ The Tank Man, Part 6:The Struggle to Control Information, Frontline, April 11, 2006
  26. ^ The Tank Man, Part 6:The Struggle to Control Information, Frontline, April 11, 2006
  27. ^ Relatives of dead at Tiananmen seek review, The Associated Press, International Herald Tribune, May 31, 2006
  28. ^ Google censors itself for China, BBC News, January 25, 2006
  29. ^ Ambrose Leung, "Fury at DAB chief's Tiananmen tirade", Page 1, South China Morning Post, May 16, 2007
  30. ^ China investigates Tiananmen ad. Reuters (2007-06-05). Retrieved on 2007-06-05.
  31. ^ Chengdu Evening News editors fired over Tiananmen ad. Reuters (2007-06-07). Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  32. ^ Young clerk let Tiananmen ad slip past censors: paper. Reuters (2007-06-06). Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  33. ^ Daniel Griffiths, EC leader urges China to reform, BBC News, July 15, 2005
  34. ^ China makes 1989 Tiananmen payout. BBC News (2006-04-30).
  35. ^ "French protests 'Tiananmen'", FIN24, 2006-03-28. Retrieved on 2007-03-29. 
  36. ^ "OBSERVER: Just a little comment", Financial Times, 30 Mar 2006. Retrieved on 2007-03-29. 

This article is about a journal. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The Standard,29 September 2004 Mr. ... CSN might be an acronym or abbreviation for: Concrete Syntax Notation Comcast SportsNet Comunidad Sudamericana de Naciones (Spanish, South American Community of Nations) Cable Science Network Cell Signaling Networks Confédération des syndicats nationaux Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional Crosby, Stills & Nash (and Young) Confederate States Navy Calvary Satelite Network... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Prof. ... La Vanguardia is a Spanish newspaper based in Barcelona. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... The South China Morning Post, together with its Sunday edition, the Sunday Morning Post, is the dominant English-language newspaper in Hong Kong, with a circulation of 104,000. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • The New Emperors: China in the Era of Mao and Deng, Harrison E. Salisbury, New York, 1992, Avon Books, ISBN 0-380-72025-6.
  • The Tiananmen Papers, The Chinese Leadership's Decision to Use Force Against their Own People—In their Own Words, Compiled by Zhang Liang, Edited by Andrew J. Nathan and Perry Link, with an afterword by Orville Schell, PublicAffairs, New York, 2001, hardback, 514 pages, ISBN 1-58648-012-X An extensive review and synopis of The Tiananmen papers in the journal Foreign Affairs may be found at Review and synopsis in the journal Foreign Affairs.
  • June Fourth: The True Story, Tian'anmen Papers/Zhongguo Liusi Zhenxiang Volumes 1–2 (Chinese edition), Zhang Liang, ISBN 962-8744-36-4
  • Red China Blues: My Long March from Mao to Now, Jan Wong, Doubleday, 1997, trade paperback, 416 pages, ISBN 0-385-48232-9 (Contains, besides extensive autobiographical material, an eyewitness account of the Tiananmen crackdown and the basis for an estimate of the number of casualties.)
  • Spence, Jonathan D. The Search for Modern China. New York: Norton, 1999.
  • Craig C. Calhoun. "Science, Democracy, and the Politics of Identity." In Popular Protest and Political Culture in Modern China. Edited by Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom and Elizabeth J. Perry, 140-7. Boulder, Col.: Westview Press, 1994.
  • Liu Xiaobo. "That Holy Word, "Revolution." In Popular Protest and Political Culture in Modern China. Edited by Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom and Elizabeth J. Perry, 140-7. Boulder, Col.: Westview Press, 1994.
  • Spence, Jonathan D. "Testing the Limits." In "The Search for Modern China". 701. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999
  • Black, George, and Robin Munro. Black Hands of Beijing: Lives of Defiance in China's Democracy Movement. New York: John Wiley, 1993.
  • Binyan, Liu, and Ruan Ming and Xu Gang. ""Tell the World" What happened in China and Why." New York: Random House, 1989.

Harrison Salisbury, American journalist, was the first regular New York Times correspondent in Moscow after World War II. Vietnam War Opposition During the Vietnam War, Harrison was the first mainstream, well known and respected journalist to oppose the war after visiting Saigon in 1966 (as opposed to the constantly criticized... An early Avon Books edition from the 1940s of the Simon Templar mystery short story collection, The Saint Intervenes. ... Perry Link is a Sinologist at Princeton University, specializing in modern Chinese literature. ... Orville Hickock Schell III (born May 20, 1940) is the Dean at the University of California, Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism and author of numerous works on the history of China. ... This article is about a journal. ... Jan Wong (pinyin: Huáng Míngzhēn) 黃明珍(born 1953 in Montreal, Quebec) is a Canadian journalist of Chinese ancestry. ... W. W. Norton & Company is an American book publishing company that has remained independent since its founding. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Tiananmen Square protests of 1989
  • "The Tank Man", 2006 PBS documentary
  • Human Rights in China's Section on 1989 Democracy movement
  • BBC Creative archive footage Clip 1, Clip 2 (accessible from the UK only)
  • BBC's "On This Day" report about Tiananmen Protests
  • BBC's "Witnessing Tiananmen: Clearing the square" with eyewitness accounts of Tiananmen
  • The U.S. "Tiananmen Papers" - US Perceptions of the crisis
  • Graham Earnshaw's eye witness account of events on the night of June 4
  • Eyewitness account of the massacre from a Marxist's Perspective
  • The Myth of Tiananmen And the Price of a Passive Press, by Jay Mathews, Columbia Journalism Review
  • The Tiananmen Square Confrontation, Alternative Insight
  • The Virtual Museum of China '89
  • Eyeballing Tiananmen Square Massacre - Photo Gallery
  • Tiananmen Square, 1989 The Declassified History
  • Victims of June 4th Massacre
  • The Gate of Heavenly Peace - Feature-length Documentary


  Results from FactBites:
 
Koves Technologies, LLC :: Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 (3874 words)
Unlike the Tiananmen protests of 1987, which consisted largely of students and intellectuals, the protests in 1989 commanded widespread support from the urban workers who were alarmed by growing inflation and corruption.
Generally, the demonstration at Tiananmen Square was well-ordered, with daily marches of students from various Beijing area colleges displaying their solidarity with the boycott of college classes and with the developing demands of the protest.
The Tiananmen protests were frequently invoked to argue against trade liberalization with China and by the blue team as evidence that the Chinese government was an aggressive threat to world peace and United States interests.
FRONTLINE: the tank man: watch the full program online | PBS (741 words)
On June 5, 1989, one day after the Chinese army's deadly crushing of the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests in Beijing, a single, unarmed young man stood his ground before a column of tanks on the Avenue of Eternal Peace.
Drawing on interviews with Chinese and Western eyewitnesses, Thomas recounts the amazing events of the spring of 1989, when a student protest that began in Tiananmen Square, the symbolic central space of the nation, spread throughout much of the rest of China.
In the face of official silence about 1989 and the Tank Man, the program concludes with Thomas' quest to find out what became of the Tank Man and who he was.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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