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Encyclopedia > Tiananmen Square
Tiananmen Square as seen from the Tian'an Gate
Tiananmen Square as seen from the Tian'an Gate

Tiananmen Square (simplified Chinese: 天安门广场; traditional Chinese: 天安門廣場; pinyin: Tiān'ānmén Guǎngchǎng) is the large plaza near the center of Beijing, China, named after the Tiananmen (literally, Gate of Heavenly Peace) which sits to its north, separating it from the Forbidden City. It has great cultural significance as a symbol because it was the site of several key events in Chinese history (See below: Events). Outside of China, the square is widely known for the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, commonly referred to as the Tiananmen Square Massacre,[1] were a series of demonstrations led by students, intellectuals, and labor activists in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) between April 15 and June 4, 1989. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x430, 98 KB)Beijing Tiananmen Square 180 degree overview picture Viewpoint is from Tiananmen Gate, looking south. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x430, 98 KB)Beijing Tiananmen Square 180 degree overview picture Viewpoint is from Tiananmen Gate, looking south. ... The Tiananmen The Gate of Heavenly Peace is the front entrance into the Imperial City A close-up of the rooftop The Tiananmen or Tiananmen (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Tiānānmén; Manchu: Abkai elhe obure duka), is the main entrance to the Imperial City, the... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Plaza is a Spanish word related to field which describes an open urban public space, such as a city square. ... “Peking” redirects here. ... The Tiananmen The Gate of Heavenly Peace is the front entrance into the Imperial City A close-up of the rooftop The Tiananmen or Tiananmen (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Tiānānmén; Manchu: Abkai elhe obure duka), is the main entrance to the Imperial City, the... For other uses, see Forbidden City (disambiguation). ... The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, commonly referred to as the Tiananmen Square Massacre,[1] were a series of demonstrations led by students, intellectuals, and labor activists in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) between April 15 and June 4, 1989. ...


The square is 880 metres (2887 feet) south to north and 500 metres (1640 feet) east to west, a total area of 440,000 square metres (108.7 acres), which makes it the largest open-urban square in the world. This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of measure known as the acre. ... Tiananmen Square, Beijing The Macroplaza, Monterrey Prato della Valle, Padova Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan Place de la Concorde, Paris Palace Square, St. ...

Contents

History

Gate of China, viewed from the south. Area shown in photo is approximately the site of the present Mao Zedong Mausoleum on Tiananmen Square.
Gate of China, viewed from the south. Area shown in photo is approximately the site of the present Mao Zedong Mausoleum on Tiananmen Square.

The Tiananmen was built in 1417 in the Ming Dynasty. In 1699 (early Qing Dynasty), the Tiananmen was renovated and renamed to its present form. During the Ming and Qing eras, there was no public square at Tiananmen, and instead the area was filled with offices for imperial ministries. These were badly damaged during the Boxer Rebellion and the area was cleared to produce the beginning of Tiananmen Square. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mao Zedongs Mausoleum The Chairman Mao Memorial Hall (Simplified Chinese: 毛主席纪念堂; pinyin: Máo ZhÅ­xí Jìniàntáng), commonly known as the Mausoleum of Mao Zedong is the last resting place of Mao Zedong, Chairman of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China from 1943 and the... The Tiananmen The Gate of Heavenly Peace is the front entrance into the Imperial City A close-up of the rooftop The Tiananmen or Tiananmen (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Tiānānmén; Manchu: Abkai elhe obure duka), is the main entrance to the Imperial City, the... For other uses, see Ming. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... For other uses, see Ming. ... Combatants Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution): Empire of Japan Russian Empire British Empire France United States German Empire Kingdom of Italy Austro-Hungarian Empire Righteous Harmony Society Qing Dynasty (China) Commanders Edward Seymour Alfred Graf von Waldersee Ci Xi Strength 20,000 initially 49,000 total 50,000-100...


Near the centre of today's square, close to the site of the Mao Zedong Mausoleum, once stood one of the most important gates of Beijing. This gate was known as the "Great Ming Gate" (大明门) during the Ming Dynasty, "Great Qing Gate" (大清门) during the Qing Dynasty, and "Gate of China" (中华门) during the Republic of China era. Unlike the other gates in Beijing, such as the Tiananmen and the Qianmen, this was a purely ceremonial gateway, with three arches but no ramparts, similar in style to the ceremonial gateways found in the Ming Dynasty Tombs. This gate had a special status as the "Gate of the Nation", as can be seen from its successive names. It normally remained closed, except when the Emperor passed through. Commoner traffic was diverted to two side gates at the northern and eastern ends of today's square, respectively. Because of this diversion in traffic, a busy marketplace, called Chessgrid Streets (棋盘街) developed in the big, fenced square to the south of this gate. Mao Zedongs Mausoleum The Chairman Mao Memorial Hall (Simplified Chinese: 毛主席纪念堂; pinyin: Máo ZhÅ­xí Jìniàntáng), commonly known as the Mausoleum of Mao Zedong is the last resting place of Mao Zedong, Chairman of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China from 1943 and the... For other uses, see Ming. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... The Gate of China in Beijing (Chinese: 中华门; pinyin: ) is a historical ceremonial gateway in Beijing, China, located near the centre of todays Tiananmen Square. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... “Peking” redirects here. ... The Tiananmen The Gate of Heavenly Peace is the front entrance into the Imperial City A close-up of the rooftop The Tiananmen or Tiananmen (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Tiānānmén; Manchu: Abkai elhe obure duka), is the main entrance to the Imperial City, the... The Qianmen in Beijing The Qianmen (Simplified Chinese: 前门; Traditional Chinese: 前門; pinyin: Qiánmén; literally Front Gate) is the common name for the gateway known formally as Zhengyangmen (Simplified Chinese: 正阳门; Traditional Chinese: 正陽門; pinyin: Zhèngyángmén). ... Standing in the Spirit Way at the Ming Tombs looking back towards the entry gate. ...


In the early 1950s, the Gate of China (as it was then known) was demolished along with the Chessgrid Streets to the south, completing the expansion of Tiananmen Square to (approximately) its current size.


Features

The Tian'anmen Square in Beijing
The Tian'anmen Square in Beijing

Enlarged in 1949 to the current size, its flatness is broken only by the 38-metre (125-foot) high Monument to the People's Heroes and the Mausoleum of Mao Zedong. The square lies between two ancient, massive gates: the Tian'anmen to the north and the Zhengyangmen, better known as Qianmen (simplified Chinese: 前门; traditional Chinese: 前門; pinyin: Qiánmén; literally "Front Gate") to the south. Along the west side of the Square is the Great Hall of the People. Along the east side is the National Museum of China. Chang'an Avenue, which is used for parades, lies between the Tian'anmen and the Square. Trees line the east and west edges of the Square, but the square itself is open, with neither trees nor benches. Image File history File linksMetadata Tiananmen_Square. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Tiananmen_Square. ... Monument to the Peoples Heroes The Monument to the Peoples Heroes (Chinese: 人民英雄纪念碑; Pinyin: ), Beijing, is a ten-story obelisk that was erected as a national monument of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Mao Zedongs Mausoleum The Chairman Mao Memorial Hall (Simplified Chinese: 毛主席纪念堂; pinyin: Máo ZhÅ­xí Jìniàntáng), commonly known as the Mausoleum of Mao Zedong is the last resting place of Mao Zedong, Chairman of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China from 1943 and the... The Qianmen in Beijing The Qianmen (Simplified Chinese: 前门; Traditional Chinese: 前門; pinyin: Qiánmén; literally Front Gate) is the common name for the gateway known formally as Zhengyangmen (Simplified Chinese: 正阳门; Traditional Chinese: 正陽門; pinyin: Zhèngyángmén). ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... {{Unreferenced|date=March 20 double cheese double lettuce double meat // Great Hall of the People was built in September 1959, which was one of the Ten Great Constructions completed for the 10th Anniversary of the Peoples Republic. ... The National Museum of China, a four-storied main building with two symmetrical wings, runs more than 300 meters north and south along the eastern side of Tiananmen Square. ... Changan Avenue Changan Avenue is a major through route in Beijing, China. ...


The Square is lit with huge lampposts which also sport video cameras[citation needed]. It is heavily monitored by uniformed and plain clothes policemen.


Events

A People's Armed Police Guard on Tienanmen Square.
A People's Armed Police Guard on Tienanmen Square.

Tiananmen Square has been the site of a number of political events. These include the proclamation of the People's Republic of China by Mao Zedong on October 1, 1949; annual mass military displays on all subsequent National Days until October 1st 1959; the 1984 military parade for the 35th anniversary of the People's Republic of China and the 50th anniversary in 1999; and for mass rallies during the Cultural Revolution. It has also been the site of a number of protest movements. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 539 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1381 pixel, file size: 325 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 539 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1381 pixel, file size: 325 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Peoples Armed Police Force (Abbreviation: PAP; Simplified Chinese: 人民武装警察部队; pinyin: Renmin wuzhuang jingcha budui) is a paramilitary police force primarily responsible for law enforcement within the Peoples Republic of China. ... Mao redirects here. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution [1] in the Peoples Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into wide-scale social, political, and economic chaos, which grew to include large sections of Chinese society and eventually brought the entire country to...

The protests of 1989 resulted in the killing of Chinese protesters in the streets to the west of the square and adjacent areas. Some Western reporters who were on the square during the unfolding events reported that they saw no one actually die on the square itself, though did see bloodied people but could not confirm whether they were either dead or injured (Graham Earnshaw and Columbia Journal Review). However, Chinese expatriates who left the country after the killings said that the total number of deaths ended up being in the thousands. This was a combination of the hundreds killed on the spot and the "miniature" purge that followed. Students in Beijing rallied during the May Fourth Movement. ... This article is about the protest in 1976. ... Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Communist Party of China leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death in January 1976, and Chinas foreign minister from 1949... The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, commonly referred to as the Tiananmen Square Massacre,[1] were a series of demonstrations led by students, intellectuals, and labor activists in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) between April 15 and June 4, 1989. ... The Tiananmen Square self-immolation incident was an incident occurring on January 23, 2001, in Tiananmen Square, Beijing in which six people engaged in self-immolation. ...


Images from near and in the square

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Coordinates: 39°54′12″N, 116°23′30″E Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


 
 

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