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Encyclopedia > Tian'anmen Square

Tian'anmen Square (Simplified Chinese: 天安门广场; Traditional Chinese: 天安門廣場; pinyin: Tiān'ānmén Guǎngchǎng) is a very large plaza near the center of Beijing, China, named for the Tiananmen (literally, Gate of Heavenly Peace) which sits to its north, separating it from the Forbidden City. It is seen by many as the symbolic heart of the Chinese Nation. Outside of China, the square is best known for the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiǎntǐzì; also called 简化字/簡化字, jiǎnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin (拼音, pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration to roman script) for Standard Mandarin used in the... Beijing  listen (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; ; Postal System Pinyin: Peking), is the capital city of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Tiānānmén/Tiananmen (Simplified Chinese: 天安门, Traditional Chinese: 天安門; or the Gate of Heavenly Peace) is the principal entrance to the Imperial Palace Grounds, commonly called the Forbidden City, in Beijing, Peoples Republic of China. ... The Hall of Supreme Harmony (太和殿) at the centre of the Forbidden City The Forbidden City (Chinese: 紫禁城; pinyin: ; literally Purple Forbidden City), located at the exact center of the ancient City of Beijing, was the imperial palace during the mid-Ming and the Qing dynasties. ... The Unknown Rebel — This famous photo, taken by Associated Press photographer Jeff Widener, depicts a lone protester whose actions halted the progress of a column of advancing tanks for over half an hour. ...

Enlarge
Tiananmen Square as seen from the Tian'an gate
Contents

Download high resolution version (1280x430, 98 KB)Beijing Tiananmen Square 180 degree overview picture Viewpoint is from Tiananmen Gate, looking south. ... Download high resolution version (1280x430, 98 KB)Beijing Tiananmen Square 180 degree overview picture Viewpoint is from Tiananmen Gate, looking south. ...

Background

Built in 1417, the square is 880 metres south to north and 500 metres east to west. This gives it an area of 440,000 square metres. In 1651 (early Qing), the gate was renovated and renamed to its present form. During the Ming and Qing eras, there was no public square at Tiananmen, and instead the area was filled with offices for imperial ministries. These were badly damaged during the Boxer Rebellion and the area was cleared to produce the beginning of Tiananmen Square. Events Antipope Benedict XIII is deposed, and Pope Martin V is elected. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing the Empire of the... The Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Pinyin: míng cháo) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, though claims to the Ming throne (now collectively called the Southern Ming) survived until 1662. ... Boxer forces in Tianjin The Boxer Rebellion (Traditional Chinese: 義和團起義; Simplified Chinese: 义和团起义; pinyin: ) was an uprising against Western commercial and political influence in China during the final years of the 19th century. ...


Features

Enlarged in 1949 to the current size, its flatness is broken only by the 38 metre high Monument to the People's Heroes and the Mausoleum of Mao Zedong. The square lies between two ancient, massive gates: the Tian'anmen to the north and the Qianmen (Chinese: 前门; pinyin: Qiánmén; literally "Front Gate") to the south. Along the west side of the Square is the Great Hall of the People. Along the east side is the National Museum of Chinese History. Chang'an Avenue, which is used for parades, lies between the Tian'anmen and the Square. Trees line the east and west edges of the Square, but the square itself is open, with neither trees nor benches. 1949 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... Monument to the Peoples Heroes as seen from the southeast (2002). ... Mao Zedongs Mausoleum The Mausoleum of Mao Zedong (Simplified Chinese: 毛主席纪念堂; Pinyin: ) is the last resting place of Mao Zedong, Chairman of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China from 1943 and the chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China from 1945 until his... Pinyin (拼音, pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration to roman script) for Standard Mandarin used in the... Great Hall of the People by Day. ... Changan Avenue Changan Avenue is a major through route in Beijing, China. ...


The Square is lit with huge lamposts which also sport video cameras. It is heavily monitored by uniformed and plainclothes policemen.


Events

Tiananmen Square has been the site of a number of political events such as the proclamation of the People's Republic of China by Mao Zedong in October 1, 1949 and for mass rallies during the Cultural Revolution. It has also been the site of a number of protest movements, most notably the May Fourth Movement of 1919 for science and democracy, protests in 1976 after the death of Zhou Enlai, and the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. This is a Chinese name; the family name is Mao. ... A poster during the Cultural Revolution The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: 无产阶级文化大革命; Traditional Chinese: 無產階級文化大革命; pinyin: wú chǎn jiē jí wén huà dà gé mìng, literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wén huà dà gé mìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or simply 文革 wén gé... Students in Beijing rallied during the May Fourth Movement. ... 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... What is science? There are different theories of what science is. ... The Tiananmen incident took place in the Peoples Republic of China immediately following the April Fifth Movement. ... Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: 周恩来; Traditional Chinese: 周恩來; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Chinese Communist leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death. ... The Unknown Rebel — This famous photo, taken by Associated Press photographer Jeff Widener, depicts a lone protester whose actions halted the progress of a column of advancing tanks for over half an hour. ...


The protests of 1989 resulted in the killing of several thousand young Chinese in the square and adjacent areas and is thus sometimes called the Tiananmen Massacre. There have since been sources disputing the claim that students were shot in the square, such as Graham Earnshaw (http://www.earnshaw.com/memoirs/content.cfm?ID=16) and Columbia Journal Review (http://archives.cjr.org/year/98/5/tiananmen.asp)


Images from near and in the square

External links


 
 

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