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Encyclopedia > Tiamat
Fertile Crescent
myth series
Mesopotamian
Levantine
Arabian
Mesopotamia
7 gods who decree
The great gods
Demigods & heroes
Spirits & monsters
Tales from Babylon
Primordial Beings 

Apsû & Tiamat
Lahmu & Lahamu
Anshar & Kishar
Mummu Semitic gods refers to the gods or deities of peoples generally classified as speaking a Semitic language. ... The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from mythologein to relate myths, from mythos, meaning a narrative, and logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... Image File history File links Palm_tree_symbol. ... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... In the Levantine pantheon, the Elohim are the sons of El the ancient of days (olam) assembled on the divine holy place, Mount Zephon (Jebel Aqra). ... Arabian mythology is the ancient beliefs of the Arabs. ... For other uses, see Mesopotamia (disambiguation). ... In Sumerian mythology and later for Assyrians and Babylonians, Anu (also An; (from Sumerian *An = sky, heaven)) was a sky-god, the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, spirits and demons, and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions. ... In Sumerian mythology, the Annuna, the fifty great gods, whose domain appears to be principally but not exclusively the underworld. ... The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ... In Sumerian mythology, the utukku were a type of spirits or demons that could be either benevolent or evil. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mesopotamian mythology. ... The apsû (also known as abzu or engur) was the name for the mythological underground freshwater ocean in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology. ... The apsû (also known as abzu or engur) was the name for the mythological underground freshwater ocean in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology. ... Lahmu is a deity from Akkadian mythology, first-born son of Apsu and Tiamat. ... Lahamu was the first-born daughter of Tiamat and Apsu in Akkadian mythology. ... In Akkadian mythology and Sumerian mythology, Anshar (also Anshur, Ashur, Asshur) (which means sky pivot or sky axle) is a sky god. ... In Akkadian mythology, Kishar is the daughter of Lahmu and Lahamu, two serpent-gods who were in turn the first children of Tiamat and Apsu. ... For other uses, see Mummu (disambiguation). ...

In Babylonian mythology, Tiamat is the sea, personified as a goddess,[1] and a monstrous embodiment of primordial chaos.[2] In the Enûma Elish, the Babylonian epic of creation, she gives birth to the first generation of gods; she later makes war upon them and is split in two by the storm-god Marduk, who uses her body to form the heavens and the earth. She was known as Thalattē (the Greek word for "sea") in the Hellenistic Babylonian Berossus' first volume of universal history, and some copyists of Enûma Elish slipped and substituted the ordinary word for "sea" for Tiamat.[3] The name Tiamat has several meanings. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mesopotamian mythology. ... Enûma EliÅ¡ is the Babylonian creation epic. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century... Thalassa, personification of the Mediterranean sea. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ...

Contents

Etymology of the name

Thorkild Jacobsen[4] and Walter Burkert both argue for a connection with the Akkadian word for sea tâmtu, following an early form ti'amtum.[5] The Babylonian epic Enuma Elish begins "When above" the heavens did not yet exist nor the earth below, Apsu the freshwater ocean was there, "the first, the begetter", and Tiamat, the saltwater sea, "she who bore them all"; they were "mixing their waters". Walter Burkert (born Neuendettelsau (Bavaria), February 2, 1931), the most eminent living scholar of Greek myth and cult, is an emeritus professor of classics at the University of Zurich, Switzerland who has also taught in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Enûma Elish is the creation epic of Babylonian mythology. ... In Sumerian mythology Abzu or Apsu was the god of fresh water, also representing the primeval water and sometimes the cosmic abyss. ...


This "mixing of the waters" is a natural feature of the middle Persian Gulf, where fresh waters from the Arabian aquifer mix and mingle with the salt waters of the sea.[citation needed] This characteristic is especially true of the region of Bahrain (whose name means in Arabic, "twin waters"), which is thought[attribution needed] to be the site of Dilmun, the original site of the Sumerian creation. Dilmun (sometimes transliterated Telmun) is associated with ancient sites on the islands of Bahrain in the Persian Gulf. ...


Tiamat's appearance

Though Tiamat is often described by modern authors as a sea serpent or dragon, no ancient texts exist in which there is a clear association with those kind of creatures. Though the Enûma Elish specifically states that Tiamat did give birth to dragons and serpents, they are included among a larger and more general list of monsters including scorpion men and merpeople, none of which imply that any of the children look like the mother or are even limited to aquatic creatures. Loch Ness Monster (Painting) by Heikenwaelder Hugo Sea serpents are a kind of sea monster either wholly or partly serpentine. ... It has been suggested that European dragon be merged into this article or section. ... Serpent is a word of Latin origin (serpens, serpentis) that is commonly used in a specifically mythic or religious context, signifying a snake that is to be regarded not as a mundane natural phenomenon nor as an object of scientific zoology, but as the bearer of some symbolic value. ... Scorpion men feature in several Babylonian and Sumerian myths, including the Enûma Elish and Gilgamesh. ... Merpeople refers to the mythological creatures known as Mermaids and Mermen. ...


Within the Enûma Elish her physical description includes, a tail, a thigh, "lower parts" (which shake together), a belly, an udder, ribs, a neck, a head, a skull, eyes, nostrils, a mouth, and lips. She has insides, a heart, arteries, and blood.


The depiction of Tiamat as a multi-headed dragon was popularized in the 1970s as a fixture of the Dungeons & Dragons roleplaying game thanks to earlier sources associating Tiamat with later mythological characters such as Lotan and others. In the Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game, Tiamat is a powerful draconic goddess, usually depicted as a European dragon with multiple heads. ... This article is about the role-playing game. ... A roleplaying game (RPG) is a type of game in which players assume the roles of characters and collaboratively create stories. ... This page is about the biblical creature; for other uses, see Leviathan (disambiguation). ...


Mythology

Apsu (or Abzu, from Sumerian Ab = water, Zu = far) fathered upon Tiamat the Elder Gods Lahmu and Lahamu (the "muddy"), a title given to the gatekeepers at the Enki Abzu temple in Eridu. Lahmu and Lahamu, in turn, were the parents of the axis or pivot of the heavens (Anshar, from An = heaven, Shar = axle or pivot) and the earth (Kishar), and Anshar and Kishar were considered to meet on the horizon, becoming thereby the parents of Anu and Ki. Tiamat was the "shining" personification of salt water who roared and smote in the chaos of original creation. She and Apsu filled the cosmic abyss with the primeval waters. She is "Ummu-Hubur who formed all things". In Sumerian mythology Abzu or Apsu was the god of fresh water, also representing the primeval water and sometimes the cosmic abyss. ... Lahmu is a deity from Akkadian mythology, first-born son of Apsu and Tiamat. ... Lahamu was the first-born daughter of Tiamat and Apsu in Akkadian mythology. ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... In Akkadian mythology and Sumerian mythology, Anshar (also Anshur, Ashur, Asshur) (which means sky pivot or sky axle) is a sky god. ... In Akkadian mythology, Kishar is the daughter of Lahmu and Lahamu, two serpent-gods who were in turn the first children of Tiamat and Apsu. ... In Sumerian mythology and later for Assyrians and Babylonians, Anu (also An; (from Sumerian *An = sky, heaven)) was a sky-god, the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, spirits and demons, and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions. ... Ki (earth) in Sumerian mythology was the goddess and personification of the earth and underworld, chief consort of An (heaven) the sky god. ... For other uses, see Tiamat (disambiguation). ...


In the myth, the god Enki (later Ea) believed correctly that Apsu, upset with the chaos they created, was planning to murder the younger gods; and so slew him. This angered Kingu, their son, who reported the event to Tiamat, whereupon she fashioned monsters to battle the gods. These were her own offspring: giant sea serpents, storm demons, fish-men, scorpion-men and many others. Tiamat possessed the Tablets of Destiny, and in the primordial battle she gave them to Kingu, the god she had chosen as her lover and the leader of her host. The Gods gathered in terror, but Anu, (replaced later first by Enlil and, in the late version that has survived after the First Dynasty of Babylon, by Marduk, the son of Ea), first extracting a promise that he would be revered as "king of the Gods", overcame her, armed with the arrows of the winds, a net, a club, and an invincible spear. Enki (DEN.KI(G)) was a deity in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Babylonian mythology, originally chief god of the city of Eridu. ... Loch Ness Monster (Painting) by Heikenwaelder Hugo Sea serpents are a kind of sea monster either wholly or partly serpentine. ... In Mesopotamian mythology, the Tablet of Destinies (not, as frequently misquoted in general works, the Tablets of Destiny) was envisaged as a clay tablet inscribed with cuneiform writing, also impressed with cylinder seals, which, as a permanent legal document, conferred upon the god Enlil his supreme authority as ruler of... Kingu, also spelled Qingu, was a demon in Babylonian mythology, and the consort of the goddess Tiamat before she was slain by Marduk. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century...

And the lord stood upon Tiamat's hinder parts,
And with his merciless club he smashed her skull.
He cut through the channels of her blood,
And he made the North wind bear it away into secret places.

Slicing Tiamat in half, he made from her ribs the vault of heaven and earth. Her weeping eyes became the source of the Tigris and the Euphrates. With the approval of the elder gods, he took from Kingu the Tablets of Destiny, installing himself as the head of the Babylonian pantheon. Kingu was captured and was later slain with his red blood mixed with the red clay of the Earth to make the body of humankind, created to act as the servant of the younger Igigi Gods. The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: Euphrátēs; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת Pĕrāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: Fərat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other... A pantheon (from Greek Πάνθειον, temple of all gods, from πᾶν, all + θεός, god) is a set of all the gods of a particular religion or mythology, such as the gods of Hinduism, Norse, Egyptian, Shintoism, Greek, vodun, Yoruba Mythology and Roman mythology. ... Igigi was a Babylonian King who ruled from 2257 to (unknown) BCE. He fought for the power in Akkad after the death of Shar-kali-sharri. ...


There is evidence that the Babylonian version of the story is based upon a slightly modified version of an older Epic in which Enlil, not Marduk, was the God who slew Tiamat. [6] In mathematics, see epic morphism. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Thorkild Jacobsen, "The Battle between Marduk and Tiamat" Journal of the American Oriental Society, 88.1 (January-March 1968), pp 104-108.
  2. ^ Stephanie Dalley, Myths from Mesopotamia (Oxford University Press, 1987), p. 329.
  3. ^ Jacobsen 1968:105.
  4. ^ Jacobsen 1968:105.
  5. ^ The Orientalizing Revolution: Near Eastern Influences on Greek Culture in the Early Archaic Age 1993, p 92f. Burkert continues by making a linguistic connection to Tethys. The later form thalatth he finds to be clearly related to Greek thalassa, "sea".
  6. ^ Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 27.1 (1964), pp. 157-158.

Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century... In Greek mythology, Tethys was a Titaness and sea goddess who was both sister and wife of Oceanus. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Tiamat (254 words)
In Babylonian myths, Tiamat is a huge, bloated female dragon that personifies the saltwater ocean, the water of Chaos.
Tiamat flew into a rage when she learned about Apsu's death and wanted to avenge her husband.
Eventually, Tiamat was defeated by the young god Marduk, who was born in the deep freshwater sea.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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