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Encyclopedia > Thyroid hormone
thyroxine (T4)
thyroxine (T4)
Thyroxine, T4
Thyroxine, T4
Triiodothyronine, T3
Triiodothyronine, T3


The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. An important component in the synthesis is iodine. The major form of thyroid hormone in the blood is thyroxine (T4). The ratio of T4 to T3 released in the blood is roughly 20 to 1. Thyroxine is converted to the active T3 (three to four times more potent than T4) within cells by deiodinases (5'-iodinase). These are further processed by decarboxylation and deiodination to produce iodothyronamine (T1a) and thyronamine (T0a). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 508 pixel Image in higher resolution (1100 × 698 pixel, file size: 36 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thyroxine Thyroid hormone... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 508 pixel Image in higher resolution (1100 × 698 pixel, file size: 36 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thyroxine Thyroid hormone... Thyroxine, or 3:5,3:5 tetra­iodothyronine (often abbreviated as T4) is the major hormone secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. ... Image File history File links Triiodothyronine. ... Image File history File links Triiodothyronine. ... The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 558 pixel Image in higher resolution (1100 × 767 pixel, file size: 174 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thyroxine Thyroid hormone... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 558 pixel Image in higher resolution (1100 × 767 pixel, file size: 174 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thyroxine Thyroid hormone... Thyroxine, or 3:5,3:5 tetra­iodothyronine (often abbreviated as T4) is the major hormone secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. ... The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... Tyrosine (from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese[1][2]), 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... The thyroid gland and its relations In anatomy, the thyroid (IPA θaɪɹoɪd) is an endocrine gland. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Deiodinase (eg. ... A Decarboxylation is any chemical reaction in which a carboxyl group (-COOH) is split off from a compound as carbon dioxide (CO2). ... Thyronamines are decarboxyylated and deiodinated metabolites of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3-triiodothyronine (T3). ...

Contents

Circulation

Most of the thyroid hormone circulating in the blood is bound to transport proteins. Only a very small fraction of the circulating hormone is free (unbound) and biologically active, hence measuring concentrations of free thyroid hormones is of great diagnostic value. For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ...


When thyroid hormone is bound, it is not active, so the amount of free T3/T4 is what is important. For this reason, measuring total thyroxine in the blood can be misleading. Thyroxine, or 3:5,3:5 tetra­iodothyronine (often abbreviated as T4) is the major hormone secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ...

Type Percent
bound to thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) 70%
bound to transthyretin or "thyroxine-binding prealbumin" (TTR or TBPA) 10-15%
albumin 15-20%
unbound T4 (fT4) 0.03%
unbound T3 (fT3) 0.3%

T3 and T4 cross the cell membrane, probably via amino acid importins, and function via a well-studied set of nuclear receptors in the nucleus of the cell, the thyroid hormone receptors. Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) or transthyretin is the major binding protein of thyroid hormones in the bloodstream. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Transthyretin (TTR) is a serum and cerebrospinal fluid carrier of the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4). ... You may be looking for albumen, or egg white. ... The cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane, plasmalemma or phospholipid bilayer) is a selectively permeable lipid bilayer found in all cells. ... Nuclear receptors are a class of intracellular receptors which function as ligand activated transcription factors which up or down regulate the expression of genes. ... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... There are actually three functional thyroid hormone receptors designated alpha1, beta1 and beta2. ...


T1a and T0a are positively charged and do not cross the membrane; they are believed to function via the trace amine-associated receptor TAAR1 (TAR1, TA1), a G-protein-coupled receptor located in the cell membrane. Trace amine-associated receptors, abbreviated TAAR and previously abbreviated TAR and TA, are a class of G protein-coupled receptors identified in 2001. ... The seven transmembrane α-helix structure of a G-protein-coupled receptor. ... The cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane, plasmalemma or phospholipid bilayer) is a selectively permeable lipid bilayer found in all cells. ...


Another critical diagnostic tool is the amount of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) that is present. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ...


Function

The thyronines act on the body to increase the basal metabolic rate, affect protein synthesis and increase the body's sensitivity to catecholamines (such as adrenaline) by permissiveness. The thyroid hormones are essential to proper development and differentiation of all cells of the human body. These hormones also regulate protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism, affecting how human cells use energetic compounds. They also stimulate vitamin metabolism. Numerous physiological and pathological stimuli influence thyroid hormone synthesis. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the amount of energy expended while at rest in a neutrally temperate environment, in the post-absorptive state (meaning that the digestive system is inactive, which requires about twelve hours of fasting in humans). ... Protein synthesis is the creation of proteins using DNA and RNA. Biological and artificial methods for creation of proteins differ significantly. ... tyrosine is the precursor of catecholamines epinephrine norepinephrine dopamine Synthesis Catecholamines are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine containing catechol and amine groups. ... Epinephrine (INN) or adrenaline (BAN) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the...


Thyroid hormone leads to heat generation in human. However, the thyronamines function via some unknown mechanism to inhibit neuronal activity; this plays an important role in the hibernation cycles of mammals and the moulting behaviour of birds. One effect of administering the thyronamines is a severe drop in body temperature. This article is about cells in the nervous system. ... This article refers to the process of hibernation in biology. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... In birds, moulting or molting is the routine shedding of old feathers. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ...


Related diseases

Both excess and deficiency of thyroxine can cause disorders.

Hyperthyroidism (or overactive thyroid gland) is the clinical syndrome caused by an excess of circulating free thyroxine (T4) or free triiodothyronine (T3), or both. ... Graves disease is a thyroid disorder characterized by goiter, exophthalmos, orange-peel skin, and hyperthyroidism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hashimotos thyroiditis or chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease where the bodys own antibodies attack the cells of the thyroid. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... Illustration of the major elements in a prototypical synapse. ... For the professional wrestling stable, see Ravens Nest#Serotonin. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... Gamma-aminobutyric acid (usually abbreviated to GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter found in the nervous systems of widely divergent species. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ...

Medical use of thyroid hormones

Both T3 and T4 are used to treat thyroid hormone deficiency (hypothyroidism). They are both absorbed well by the gut, so can be given orally. Levothyroxine, the most commonly used synthetic thyroxine form, is a stereoisomer of physiological thyroxine, which is metabolised more slowly and hence usually only needs once-daily administration. Natural desiccated thyroid hormones, also under the commercial name Armour Thyroid, is derived from pig thyroid glands, it is a "natural" hypothyroid treatment containing 20% T3 and traces of T2, T1 and calcitonin. Also available are synthetic combinations of T3/T4 in different ratios (such as Thyrolar) and pure-T3 medications (Cytomel). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Levothyroxine, also known as L-thyroxine, synthetic T4 or 3,5,3,5-tetraiodo-L-thyronine, is a synthetic form of thyroxine (thyroid hormone). ... Stereoisomerism is the arrangement of atoms in molecules whose connectivity remains the same but their arrangement in space is different in each isomer. ... Desiccated thyroid or thyroid extract, refers to porcine (or mixed beef and pork) thyroid glands, dried and powdered for therapeutic use. ... Calcitonin is a 32 amino acid polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the parafollicular (also known as C) cells of the thyroid, and in many other animals in the ultimobranchial body. ...


Thyronamines have no medical usages yet, though their use has been proposed for controlled induction of hypothermia which causes the brain to enter a protective cycle, useful in preventing damage during ischemic shock. Hypothermia is a condition in which an organisms temperature drops below that Required fOr normal metabolism and Bodily functionS. In warm-blooded animals, core [[body Temperature]] is maintained nEar a constant leVel through biologic [[homEostasis]]. But wheN the body iS exposed to cold Its internal mechanismS may be unable... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... In medicine, ischemia (Greek ισχαιμία, isch- is restriction, hema or haema is blood) is a restriction in blood supply, generally due to factors in the blood vessels, with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue. ...


Synthetic thyroxine was first successfully produced by Charles Robert Harington and George Barger in 1926. Sir Charles Robert Harington (1 August 1897 - 4 February 1972) was a Welsh chemist. ... George Barger (4 April 1878 - 6 January 1939) was a chemist. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Production of the thyroid hormones

Thyroxine (3,5,3',5'-tetra­iodothyronine) is produced by follicular cells of the thyroid gland. It is produced as the precursor thyroglobulin (this is not the same as TBG), which is cleaved by enzymes to produce active T4. Thyroglobulin is a protein secreted by the thyroid gland. ... Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) or transthyretin is the major binding protein of thyroid hormones in the bloodstream. ...


Thyroxine is produced by attaching iodine atoms to the ring structures of tyrosine molecules. Thyroxine (T4) contains four iodine atoms. Triiodothyronine (T3) is identical to T4, but it has one less iodine atom per molecule. Tyrosine (from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese[1][2]), 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells...


Iodide is actively absorbed from the bloodstream by a process called 'iodine trapping'and concentrated in the thyroid follicles. (If there is a deficiency of dietary iodine, the thyroid enlarges in an attempt to trap more iodine, resulting in goitre.) Via a reaction with the enzyme thyroperoxidase, iodine is covalently bound to tyrosine residues in the thyroglobulin molecules, forming monoiodotyrosine (MIT) and diiodotyrosine (DIT). Linking two moieties of DIT produces thyroxine. Combining one particle of MIT and one particle of DIT produces triiodothyronine. An iodide ion is an iodine atom with a −1 (negative one) charge. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A goitre (BrE), or goiter (AmE) (Latin struma), also called a bronchocele, is a swelling in the neck (just below Adams apple or larynx) due to an enlarged thyroid gland. ... Thyroglobulin is a protein secreted by the thyroid gland. ...

  • DIT + MIT → r-T3 (biologically inactive)
  • MIT + DIT → triiodothyronine (usually referred to as T3)
  • DIT + DIT → thyroxine (referred to as T4)

Proteases digest iodinated thyroglobulin, releasing the hormones T4 and T3, the biologically active agents central to metabolic regulation. Thyroxine is supposedly a prohormone and a reservoir for the most active and main thyroid hormone T3. T4 is converted as required in the tissues by deiodinases. Deficiency of deiodinase can mimic an iodine deficiency. T3 is more active than T4 and is the final form of the hormone, though it is present in less quantity than T4. A prohormone is a chemical compound that is a precursor to an actual hormone (usually an anabolic like testosterone or some variant), which is taken in order to boost the body’s available hormone supply. ... Deiodinase (eg. ...


Anti-thyroid drugs

Iodine uptake against a concentration gradient is mediated by a sodium iodine symporter. Perchlorate and thiocyanate are drugs that can compete with iodine at this point.


Effects of thyroxine

  • Increases cardiac output
  • Increases heart rate
  • Increases ventilation rate
  • Increases basal metabolic rate
  • Potentiates the effects of catecholamines (i.e increases sympathetic activity)
  • Potentiates brain development
  • Thickens endometrium in females

Cardiac output (CO) is the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by a ventricle in a minute. ... Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the amount of energy expended while at rest in a neutrally temperate environment, in the post-absorptive state (meaning that the digestive system is inactive, which requires about twelve hours of fasting in humans). ... The endometrium is the inner membrane of the mammalian uterus. ...

References

  1. ^ Kirkegaard C, Faber J (1998). "The role of thyroid hormones in depression.". Eur J Endocrinol 138 (1): 1-9. doi:10.1530/eje.0.1380001. PMID 9461307. 
  2. ^ Dratman M, Gordon J (1996). "Thyroid hormones as neurotransmitters.". Thyroid 6 (6): 639-47. PMID 9001201. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

See also

For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ... Thyronamines are decarboxyylated and deiodinated metabolites of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3-triiodothyronine (T3). ... A goitre (BrE), or goiter (AmE) (Latin struma), also called a bronchocele, is a swelling in the neck (just below Adams apple or larynx) due to an enlarged thyroid gland. ... Graves-Basedow disease or known simply as Graves disease is a medical disorder that may manifest several different conditions including goitre and hyperthyroidism (over-activity of thyroid hormone production), infiltrative exophthalmos (protruberance of one or both eyes and associated problems) and infiltrative dermopathy (a skin condition usually of the lower...

External links

The endocrine system is an integrated system of small organs that involve the release of extracellular signaling molecules known as hormones. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... An endocrine gland is one of a set of internal organs involved in the secretion of hormones into the blood. ... Peptide hormones are a class of peptides that are secreted into the blood stream and have endocrine functions in living animals. ... Steroid hormones are steroids which act as hormones. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), also called thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF) or protirelin, is a tripeptide hormone that stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin by the anterior pituitary. ... Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), also called corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin, is a polypeptide hormone involved in the stress response. ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GNRH1 also called LHRH) is a peptide hormone responsible for the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary. ... Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), also known as growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF or GHRF), is a 44-amino acid peptide hormone produced in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. ... Somatostatin is a hormone. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... The posterior pituitary (also called the neurohypophysis) comprises the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as vasopressin, argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone found in most mammals, including humans. ... Oxytocin (Greek: quick birth) is a mammalian hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... The Alpha subunit of glycoprotein hormones is a peptide formed by gene found on chromosome 6. ... Follicle stimulating hormone Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone synthesised and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland. ... Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone primarily associated with lactation. ... Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor polypeptide with 241 amino acid residues. ... Pronunciation (IPA): /əˈdrinoʊˌkɔrtɪkoʊˈtrɒpɪk ˈhɔrmoʊn, əˈdrinoʊˌkɔrtɪkoʊˈtroʊpɪk ˈhɔrmoʊn/ Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone produced and secreted by the pituitary gland. ... Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is a peptide hormone produced by cells in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. ... For other uses, see Endorphin (disambiguation). ... Lipotropin is a pituitary hormone It comes in two forms: gamma lipotropin (γ-LPH) beta lipotropin (β-LPH) It is derived from proopiomelanocortin. ... It has been suggested that HTPA be merged into this article or section. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, near or at + -renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines... Adrenaline redirects here. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, near or at + -renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines... Aldosterone, is a steroid hormone (mineralocorticoid family) produced by the outer-section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland, and acts on the kidney nephron to conserve sodium, secrete potassium,increase water retention, and increase blood pressure. ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the Zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). ... Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), is a natural steroid prohormone produced from cholesterol by the adrenal glands, the gonads, adipose tissue, brain and in the skin (by an autocrine mechanism)]. DHEA is the precursor of androstenedione, testosterone and estrogen. ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT axis for short) is part of the endocrine system responsible in part for the regulation of metabolism. ... The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... Thyroxine, or 3:5,3:5 tetra­iodothyronine (often abbreviated as T4) is the major hormone secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. ... Calcitonin is a 32 amino acid polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the parafollicular (also known as C) cells of the thyroid, and in many other animals in the ultimobranchial body. ... Categories: Anatomy stubs | Endocrine system ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot na Refseq Location Pubmed search Parathyroid hormone (PTH), or parathormone, is secreted by the parathyroid glands as a polypeptide containing 84 amino acids. ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (also HPTA) is a way of referring to the combined effects of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads as if these individual endocrine glands were a single entity. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a dimeric glycoprotein that inhibits the development of the Müllerian ducts in a male embryo. ... Inhibin is a peptide that is an inhibitor of FSH synthesis and secretion and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. ... // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... Estradiol (17β-estradiol) (also oestradiol) is a sex hormone. ... Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. ... Inhibin is a peptide that is an inhibitor of FSH synthesis and secretion and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. ... Activin is a peptide that enhances FSH synthesis and secretion and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... Glucagon ball and stick model A microscopic image stained for glucagon. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... Somatostatin is a hormone. ... The pineal gland (also called the pineal body or epiphysis) is a small endocrine gland in the brain. ... Melatonin, 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is a hormone found in all living creatures from algae[1] to humans, at levels that vary in a diurnal cycle. ... The placenta (Latin for cake, referencing its appearance in humans) is an ephemeral organ present in placental vertebrates, such as eutherial mammals and sharks during gestation (pregnancy). ... Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a peptide hormone produced in pregnancy, that is made by the embryo soon after conception and later by the syncytiotrophoblast (part of the placenta). ... Human placental lactogen (HPL), also called human chorionic somatomammotropin, is a polypeptide placental hormone. ... Estriol. ... Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Not to be confused with rennin, the active enzyme in rennet. ... Erythropoietin (IPA pronunciation: , alternative pronunciations: ) or EPO is a glycoprotein hormone that is a cytokine for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... E1 - Alprostadil I2 - Prostacyclin A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. ... In anatomy, the atrium (plural: atria) is the blood collection chamber of a heart. ... Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or atriopeptin, is a polypeptide hormone involved in the homeostatic control of body water and sodium. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... In humans, gastrin is a hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid by the stomach. ... Ghrelin is a hormone produced by P/D1 cells lining the acer of the human stomach that stimulate appetite. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25-30 cm long connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... Cholecystokinin (from Greek chole, bile; cysto, sac; kinin, move; hence, move the bile-sac (gall bladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. ... Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is a member of the secretin family of hormones. ... Secretin is a peptide hormone produced in the S cells of the duodenum. ... Motilin is a polypeptide hormone secreted by the small intestine that increases gastrointestinal motility and stimulates the production of pepsin. ... VIP is a peptide hormone containing 28 amino acid residues. ... Not to be confused with ilium (bone). ... An editor has expressed a concern that the topic of this article may be unencyclopedic. ... Adipose tissue is one of the main types of connective tissue. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Leptin (from the Greek word leptos, meaning thin) is a 16 kDa protein hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure, including the regulation (decrease) of appetite and (increase) of metabolism. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Adiponectin (also referred to as Acrp30, apM1) is a protein hormone that modulates a number of metabolic processes, including glucose regulation and fatty acid catabolism. ... Resistin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue. ... Thymus, see Thyme. ... Thymosin is a hormone secreted from the thymus. ... Thymopoietin is a protein involved in the induction of CD90 in the thymus. ... Front view of a skeleton of an adult human Back view of a skeleton of an adult human The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. ... Osteocalcin is a protein found in bone and dentin; that plays a role in mineralization and calcium ion homeostasis ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are polypeptides with high sequence similarity to insulin. ... Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a polypeptide protein hormone similar in molecular structure to insulin. ... Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) is a protein hormone similar in molecular structure to insulin. ... Nerve growth factor (NGF), is a small secreted protein which induces the differentiation and survival of particular target neurons (nerve cells). ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is exactly as it states; a neurotrophic factor usually derived in the brain. ... Neurotrophin-3, or NT-3 is a neurotrophic factor, in the NGF (Nerve Growth Factor)-family of neurotrophins. ...

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