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Encyclopedia > Thymidine
The chemical structure of deoxythymidine
The chemical structure of deoxythymidine

Thymidine (more precisely called deoxythymidine can also be labelled deoxyribosylthymine, and thymine deoxyriboside) is a chemical compound, more precisely a pyrimidine deoxynucleoside. Deoxythymidine is the DNA nucleoside T, which pairs with deoxyadenosine (A) in double-stranded DNA. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1738x1991, 10 KB) Description: Chemical structure of Deoxythymidine. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1738x1991, 10 KB) Description: Chemical structure of Deoxythymidine. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance consisting of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... Pyrimidine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound similar to benzene and pyridine, containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six-member ring. ... The general structure of a section of DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the biological development of a cellular form of life or a virus. ...


Structure and properties

In its composition, deoxythymidine is deoxyribose (a pentose sugar) joined to the pyrimidine base thymine. Deoxyribose Deoxyribose, also known as D-Deoxyribose and 2-deoxyribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Magnified crystals of refined sugar Magnification of typical sugar In general use, non-scientists take sugar to mean sucrose, also called table sugar or saccharose, a white crystalline solid disaccharide. ... Pyrimidine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound similar to benzene and pyridine, containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six-member ring. ... For the similarly-spelled vitamin compound, see Thiamine Thymine, also known as 5-methyluracil, is a pyrimidine nucleobase. ...

Deoxythymidine can be phosphorylated with one, two or three phosphoric acid groups, creating respectively dTMP, dTDP or dTTP ((deoxy)thymidine mono- di- or triphosphate).

It exists in solid form as small white crystals or white crystalline powder, has a molecular weight of 242.229 u, and has a melting point of 185 °C. The stability of deoxythymidine under standard temperature and pressure (STP) is very high. In jewelry, a solid gold piece is the alternative to gold-filled or gold-plated jewelry. ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... Powder is a substance that has been crushed into very fine grains. ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The atomic mass unit (amu), unified atomic mass unit (u), or dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic masses and molecular masses. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who first proposed it in 1742. ... Temperature and air pressure can vary from one place to another on the Earth, and can also vary in the same place with time. ...

Deoxythymidine is non-toxic and as part of one of the four nucleotides in DNA it is a naturally occuring compound that exists in all living organisms and DNA viruses. RNA has uridine (uracil joined to ribose) instead. Uracil is chemically very similar to thymine, the latter being 5-methyluracil. Since thymine nucleotides are precursors of DNA, not RNA, the prefix "deoxy" is often left out, i.e., deoxythymidine is often just called thymidine.


Modified Analogs of Thymidine

Iododeoxyuridine 5-Iododeoxyuridine is a nucleoside and a thymidine analogue abbreviated IUdR. IUdR is a radiosensitizer and increases the amount of DNA damage received from ionizing radiation. ...

Azidothymidine (AZT) - the treatment against HIV, which blocks the process of reverse transcription from the virus's RNA into DNA to be incorporated into the host cell.


External links

  • Link page to external chemical sources.

Nucleic acids and Oligonucleotides edit
Nucleobases: Adenine | Thymine | Uracil | Guanine | Cytosine | Purine | Pyrimidine
Nucleosides: Adenosine | Uridine | Guanosine | Cytidine | Deoxyadenosine | Thymidine | Deoxyguanosine | Deoxycytidine
Nucleotides: AMP | UMP | GMP | CMP | ADP | UDP | GDP | CDP | ATP | UTP | GTP | CTP | cAMP | cGMP
Deoxynucleotides: dAMP | TMP | dGMP | dCMP | dADP | TDP | dGDP | dCDP | dATP | TTP | dGTP | dCTP
Ribonucleic acids: RNA | mRNA | tRNA | rRNA | ncRNA | sgRNA | shRNA | siRNA | snRNA | miRNA | snoRNA | LNA
Deoxyribonucleic acids: DNA | mtDNA | cDNA | plasmid | Cosmid | BAC | YAC | HAC
Analogues of nucleic acids: GNA | PNA | TNA| morpholino
←Amino acids Major families of biochemicals Carbohydrates→

  Results from FactBites:
Anti-Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Activity of beta -L-5-Iododioxolane Uracil Is Dependent on EBV Thymidine Kinase -- Kira ... (4006 words)
Use of antigen expressed in bacteria for detection of EBV-specific thymidine kinase antibodies in sera from the patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding the Epstein-Barr virus thymidine kinase gene.
Demonstration of viral thymidine kinase inhibitor and its effect on deoxynucleotide metabolism in cells infected with herpes simplex virus.
Targeted Deletion of Both Thymidine Phosphorylase and Uridine Phosphorylase and Consequent Disorders in Mice -- ... (5730 words)
The rate of conversion of thymidine to thymine was measured radiometrically as described previously (6).
Elevated concentrations of thymidine in the plasma and brains of TP mice.
The role of thymidine phosphorylase expression in the invasiveness of gastric carcinoma.
  More results at FactBites »



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