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Encyclopedia > Thylacine
Thylacine[1]
Fossil range: Early Pliocene to Holocene

Conservation status

Extinct  (1936) (IUCN 2.3)[2]
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Infraclass: Marsupialia
Order: Dasyuromorphia
Family: Thylacinidae
Genus: Thylacinus
Species: T. cynocephalus
Binomial name
Thylacinus cynocephalus
(Harris, 1808)

The Thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus, pronounced /ˈθaɪləsaɪn/) was the largest known carnivorous marsupial of modern times. Native to Australia and New Guinea, it is thought to have become extinct in the 20th century. It is commonly known as the Tasmanian Tiger (due to its striped back), the Tasmanian Wolf, and colloquially the Tassie (or Tazzy) Tiger or simply the Tiger.[a] It was the last extant member of its genus, Thylacinus, although a number of related species have been found in the fossil record dating back to the early Miocene. The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period, which began approximately 11,550 calendar years BP (about 9600 BC) and continues to the present. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn2. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Orders Superorder Ameridelphia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Superorder Australidelphia Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Marsupials are mammals in which the female typically has a pouch (called the marsupium, from which the name Marsupial derives) in which it rears its young through early infancy. ... Families †Thylacinidae Dasyuridae Myrmecobiidae The order Dasyuromorphia (meaning hairy tail[1]) is made up of most carnivorous marsupials, including quolls, dunnarts, the Numbat, the Tasmanian Devil, and the recently extinct Thylacine. ... Binomial name Thylacinus cynocephalus (Harris, 1808) The Tasmanian Tigers is the name of the Tasmanian state cricket team. ... Binomial name Thylacinus cynocephalus (Harris, 1808) The Tasmanian Tigers is the name of the Tasmanian state cricket team. ... Latin name redirects here. ... George Prideaux Robert Harris (1775 - 1810) was a deputy surveyor and naturalist in Tasmania, Australia from 1803. ... Carnivorism redirects here. ... This article is about mammals. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period, which began approximately 11,550 calendar years BP (about 9600 BC) and continues to the present. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... A colloquialism is an informal expression, that is, an expression not used in formal speech or writing. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Thylacinus cynocephalus (Harris, 1808) The Tasmanian Tigers is the name of the Tasmanian state cricket team. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 24-5 million years before the present. ...


The Thylacine became extinct on the Australian mainland thousands of years before European settlement of the continent, but survived on the island of Tasmania along with a number of other endemic species, including the Tasmanian Devil. Intensive hunting encouraged by bounties is generally blamed for its extinction, but other contributory factors may have been disease, the introduction of dogs, and human encroachment into its habitat. Despite being officially classified as extinct, sightings are still reported. The Australian continental shelf (light blue) is contiguous with New Guinea, but not with other Pacific islands like New Zealand. ... // Prehistory and aboriginal legends Humans first arrived in Australia through Indonesia and New Guinea, either by paddling canoes across the Timor Sea or by crossing a land bridge across what is now Torres Strait, between New Guinea and Australia. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ... For other uses, see Tasmanian Devil (disambiguation). ... A bounty is often offered by a group as an incentive for the accomplishment of a task by someone usually not associated with the group. ...


Like the tigers and wolves of the Northern Hemisphere, from which it inherited two of its common names, the Thylacine was an apex predator. As a marsupial, it was not related to these placental mammals, but due to convergent evolution it displayed the same general form and adaptations. Its closest living relative is the Tasmanian Devil. For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... Apex predators (also alpha predators, superpredators, or top-level predators) are predators that, as adults, are not normally preyed upon in the wild in significant parts of their ranges. ... Orders Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia Xenarthra Dermoptera: Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Placentalia and Eutheria are terms used to describe major groupings within the animal class of Mammalia. ... In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. ... A biological adaptation is an anatomical structure, physiological process or behavioral trait of an organism that has evolved over a period of time by the process of natural selection such that it increases the expected long-term reproductive success of the organism. ... For other uses, see Tasmanian Devil (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Evolution

Illustration of Thylacinus potens, meaning the Powerful Thylacine, which existed during the Miocene. It is the Thylacine's largest known relative.

The modern Thylacine first appeared about 4 million years ago. Species of the Thylacinidae family date back to the beginning of the Miocene; since the early 1990s, at least seven fossil species have been uncovered at Riversleigh, part of Lawn Hill National Park in north-west Queensland.[3][4] Dickson's Thylacine (Nimbacinus dicksoni), is the oldest of the seven discovered fossil species, dating back to 23 million years ago. This thylacinid was much smaller than its more recent relatives.[5] The largest species, the Powerful Thylacine (Thylacinus potens) which grew to the size of a wolf, was the only species to survive into the late Miocene.[6] In late Pleistocene and early Holocene times, the modern Thylacine was widespread (although never numerous) throughout Australia and New Guinea.[7] Image File history File linksMetadata 800px-Thylacinus_potens. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 800px-Thylacinus_potens. ... Riversleigh, in North West Queensland, is a 100 km² area containing fossil remains of ancient mammals of the Oligocene and Miocene. ... Lawn Hill is a national park in Queensland (Australia), 1837 km northwest of Brisbane. ... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd... Binomial name Nimbacinus dicksoni Dicksons Thylacine (Nimbacinus dicksoni) was an ancient relative of the modern but extinct Thylacine. ... Genus All extinct, see text The animals in the Thylacinidae family were all carnivorous marsupials from the order Dasyuromorphia. ... Binomial name Thylacinus potens (Woodburne, 1967) Thylacinus potens (powerful thylacine) was one of the largest species from the family Thylacinidae. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period, which began approximately 11,550 calendar years BP (about 9600 BC) and continues to the present. ...

The skulls of the Thylacine (left) and the Timber Wolf, Canis lupus, are almost identical although the species are unrelated. Studies show the skull shape of the Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes, is even closer to that of the Thylacine.
The skulls of the Thylacine (left) and the Timber Wolf, Canis lupus, are almost identical although the species are unrelated. Studies show the skull shape of the Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes, is even closer to that of the Thylacine.[8]

An example of convergent evolution, the Thylacine showed many similarities to the members of the Canidae (dog) family of the Northern Hemisphere: sharp teeth, powerful jaws, raised heels and the same general body form. Since the Thylacine filled the same ecological niche in Australia as the dog family did elsewhere, it developed many of the same features. Despite this, it is unrelated to any of the Northern Hemisphere predators — its closest living relative is the Tasmanian Devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).[9] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x1088, 878 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thylacine ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x1088, 878 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thylacine ... Binomial name Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 The Wolf or Grey Wolf (Canis lupus) is a mammal of the Canidae family and the ancestor of the domestic dog. ... This article is about the animal called the Red Fox. ... In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Cynotherium † Dusicyon † Dasycyon † Fennecus (Part of Vulpes) Lycalopex (Part of Pseudalopex) Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes The Canidae (′kanə′dÄ“, IPA: ) family is a part of the order Carnivora within the mammals (Class Mammalia). ... A digitigrade is an animal that stands or walks on its digits, or toes. ... Two lichens on a rock, in two different ecological niches In ecology, a niche; (pronounced nich, neesh or nish)[1] is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in its ecosystem[1]. The ecological niche; describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of...

They are easy to tell from a true dog because of the stripes on the back but the skeleton is harder to distinguish. Zoology students at Oxford had to identify 100 zoological specimens as part of the final exam. Word soon got around that, if ever a 'dog' skull was given, it was safe to identify it as Thylacinus on the grounds that anything as obvious as a dog skull had to be a catch. Then one year the examiners, to their credit, double bluffed and put in a real dog skull. The easiest way to tell the difference is by the two prominent holes in the palate bone, which are characteristic of marsupials generally.

Richard Dawkins, The Ancestor's Tale Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... The Ancestors Tale cover The Ancestors Tale (subtitled A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life) is a 2004 popular science book by Richard Dawkins, with contributions from Dawkins research assistant Yan Wong. ...

Discovery and taxonomy

The indigenous peoples of Australia made first contact with the Thylacine. Numerous examples of Thylacine engravings and rock art have been found dating back to at least 1000 BCE.[10] Petroglyph images of the Thylacine can be found at the Dampier Rock Art Precinct on the Burrup Peninsula in Western Australia. By the time the first explorers arrived, the animal was already rare in Tasmania. Europeans may have encountered it as far back as 1642 when Abel Tasman first arrived in Tasmania. His shore party reported seeing the footprints of "wild beasts having claws like a "Tyger".[11] Marc-Joseph Marion du Fresne, arriving with the Mascarin in 1772, reported seeing a "tiger cat".[12] Positive identification of the Thylacine as the animal encountered cannot be made from this report since the Tiger Quoll (Dasyurus maculatus) is similarly described. The first definitive encounter was by French explorers on 13 May 1792, as noted by the naturalist Jacques Labillardière, in his journal from the expedition led by D'Entrecasteaux. However, it was not until 1805 that William Paterson, the Lieutenant Governor of Tasmania, sent a detailed description for publication in the Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser.[13] Language(s) Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religion(s) Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group... Aboriginal hollowed log coffin Indigenous Australian art is art produced by Indigenous Australians, covering works that pre-date European colonisation as well as contemporary art by Aboriginal Australians based on traditional culture. ... For other uses, see Petroglyph (disambiguation). ... The Burrup Peninsula, or Murujuga, is located on the north-western coast of Western Australia on the Dampier Archipelago. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person... Portrait of Tasman Abel Janszoon Tasman (1603 - October 10, 1659), was a Dutch seafarer, explorer, and merchant. ... Marc-Joseph Marion du Fresne (1724 - 1772) was a French explorer. ... Binomial name Dasyurus maculatus Kerr, 1792 Range of the Tiger Quoll: D.m. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Jacques Labillardière Jacques-Julien Houtou de Labillardière (1755–1834) was a French botanist noted for his descriptions of the flora of Australia. ... Antoine Raymond Joseph de Bruni DEntrecasteaux Antoine Raymond Joseph de Bruni DEntrecasteaux Antoine Raymond Joseph de Bruni DEntrecasteaux (1739–1793) was a French navigator who explored the Australian coast in 1792 while seeking traces of the lost expedition of La Pérouse. ... Colonel William Paterson (17 August 1755 - 21 June 1810) was a Scottish soldier, explorer, and botanist best known for leading early settlement in Tasmania. ... The Sydney Gazette was the first published newspaper in Australia. ...

An original 19th century print of a Thylacine. This depiction is not anatomically accurate.
An original 19th century print of a Thylacine. This depiction is not anatomically accurate.

The first detailed scientific description was made by Tasmania's Deputy Surveyor-General, George Harris in 1808, five years after first settlement of the island.[14] Harris originally placed the Thylacine in the genus Didelphis, which had been created by Linnaeus for the American opossums, describing it as Didelphis cynocephala, the "dog-headed opossum". Recognition that the Australian marsupials were fundamentally different from the known mammal genera led to the establishment of the modern classification scheme, and in 1796 Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire created the genus Dasyurus where he placed the Thylacine in 1810. To resolve the mixture of Greek and Latin nomenclature the species name was altered to cynocephalus. In 1824, it was separated out into its own genus, Thylacinus, by Temminck.[15] The common name derives directly from the genus name, originally from the Greek θύλακος (thylakos), meaning pouch or sack.[16][a] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 507 pixel Image in higher resolution (3456 × 2192 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 507 pixel Image in higher resolution (3456 × 2192 pixel, file size: 1. ... George Prideaux Robert Harris (1775 - 1810) was a deputy surveyor and naturalist in Tasmania, Australia from 1803. ... Binomial name Didelphis virginiana (Kerr, 1792) The Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is the only marsupial found in North America. ... A painting of Carolus Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, and who wrote under the Latinized name Carolus Linnaeus (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish scientist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of taxonomy. ... Genera Several; see text Didelphimorphia is the order of common opossums of the Western Hemisphere. ... An engraving of Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. ... Quolls (genus Dasyurus) are carnivorous marsupials, native to Australia and Papua New Guinea. ... Coenraad Jacob Temminck (March 31, 1778 - January 30, 1858) was a Dutch aristocrat and zoologist. ...


Description

Descriptions of the Thylacine vary, as evidence is restricted to preserved joey specimens; fossil records; skins and skeletal remains; black and white photographs and film of the animal in captivity; and accounts from the field. A joey of Tasmanian Pademelon looking out from the mothers pouch A joey is any infant marsupial. ...


The Thylacine resembled a large, short-haired dog with a stiff tail which smoothly extended from the body in a similar way to that of a kangaroo. Many European settlers drew direct comparisons with the Hyena, due to its unusual stance and general demeanour.[9] Its yellow-brown coat featured 13 to 21 distinctive dark stripes across its back, rump and the base of its tail, which earned the animal the nickname, "Tiger". The stripes were more marked in younger specimens, fading as the animal got older.[17] One of the stripes extended down the outside of the rear thigh. Its body hair was dense and soft, up to 15 mm (0.6 inches) in length; in juveniles the tip of the tail had a crest. Its rounded, erect ears were about 8 cm (3.1 inches) long and covered with short fur.[18] Colouration varied from light fawn to a dark brown; the belly was cream-coloured.[19] Species Macropus rufus Macropus giganteus Macropus fuliginosus Macropus antilopinus A kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae (macropods, meaning large foot). In common use the term is used to describe the largest species from this family, the Red Kangaroo, the Antilopine Kangaroo, and the Eastern and Western Grey Kangaroo... Subfamilies and Genera Hyaeninae Crocuta Hyaena Parahyaena Protelinae Proteles Hyenas or Hyænas are moderately large terrestrial carnivores native to Africa, Arabia, Asia and the Indian subcontinent. ...

The gape of the Thylacine's jaws was much wider than the placental carnivores'. The yawn could be used as a threat display similar to that of the Tasmanian Devil.

The mature Thylacine ranged from 100 to 180 cm (39–71 in) long, including a tail of around 50 to 65 cm (19.6–25.5 in).[20] The largest measured specimen was 290 cm (9 ft 6 in) from nose to tail.[19] Adults stood about 60 cm (23.6 in) at the shoulder and weighed 20 to 30 kg (44–66 lb).[20] There was slight sexual dimorphism with the males being larger than females on average.[21] The Tasmanian tiger. ... The Tasmanian tiger. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ...


The female Thylacine had a pouch with four teats, but unlike many other marsupials, the pouch opened to the rear of its body. Males had a scrotal pouch, unique amongst the Australian marsupials,[b] into which they could withdraw their scrotal sac.[17] A goat kid feeding on its mothers milk Teat is an alternative word for the nipple of a mammary gland, in humans referred to as a breast, from which milk is discharged. ... In some male mammals the scrotum is a protuberance of skin and muscle containing the testicles. ...


The Thylacine was able to open its jaws to an unusual extent: up to 120 degrees.[22] This capability can be seen in part in David Fleay's short black-and-white film sequence of a captive Thylacine from 1933. The jaws were muscular and powerful and had 46 teeth.[18] David Howells Fleay (6 January 1907 Ballarat, Victoria – 7 August 1993) was an Australian naturalist who pioneered the captive breeding of endangered species, and was the first person to captive breed the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). ...


Thylacine footprints could be distinguished from other native or introduced animals; unlike foxes, cats, dogs, wombats or Tasmanian Devils, Thylacines had a very large rear pad and four obvious front pads, arranged in almost a straight line.[23] The hindfeet were similar to the forefeet but had four digits rather than five. Their claws were non-retractable.[17] For other uses, see Wombat (disambiguation). ...

The Thylacine's footprint is easy to distinguish from those of native and introduced species.
The Thylacine's footprint is easy to distinguish from those of native and introduced species.

The early scientific studies suggested it possessed an acute sense of smell which enabled it to track prey,[23] but analysis of its brain structure revealed that its olfactory bulbs were not well developed. It is likely to have relied on sight and hearing when hunting instead.[17] Some observers described it having a strong and distinctive smell, others described a faint, clean, animal odour, and some no odour at all. It is possible that the Thylacine, like its relative, the Tasmanian Devil, gave off an odour when agitated.[24] Image File history File links Thylacine-footprint. ... Image File history File links Thylacine-footprint. ... The olfactory bulb is a structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the perception of odors. ...


The Thylacine was noted as having a stiff and somewhat awkward gait, making it unable to run at high speed. It could also perform a bipedal hop, in a similar fashion to a kangaroo — demonstrated at various times by captive specimens.[17] Guiler speculates that this was used as an accelerated form of motion when the animal became alarmed. The animal was also able to balance on its hind legs and stand upright for brief periods.[25] Look up Gait in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Although there are no recordings of Thylacine vocalisations, observers of the animal in the wild and in captivity noted that it would growl and hiss when agitated, often accompanied by a threat-yawn. During hunting it would emit a series of rapidly repeated guttural cough-like barks (described as "yip-yap", "cay-yip" or "hop-hop-hop"), probably for communication between the family pack members.[26] It also had a long whining cry, probably for identification at distance, and a low snuffling noise used for communication between family members.[27]


Ecology and behaviour

Little is known about the behaviour or habitat of the Thylacine. A few observations were made of the animal in captivity, but only limited, anecdotal evidence exists of the animal's behaviour in the wild. Most observations were made during the day whereas the Thylacine was naturally nocturnal. Those observations made in the 20th century may have been atypical as they were of a species already under the stresses that would soon lead to its extinction. Some behavioural characteristics have been extrapolated from the behaviour of its close relative, the Tasmanian Devil.

The Thylacine is believed to have preferred the woodlands and coastal heath. The striped pattern may have provided camouflage in woodland conditions, but it may have also served for identification purposes.
The Thylacine is believed to have preferred the woodlands and coastal heath. The striped pattern may have provided camouflage in woodland conditions,[17] but it may have also served for identification purposes.[28]

The Thylacine probably preferred the dry eucalyptus forests, wetlands, and grasslands in continental Australia.[23] Indigenous Australian rock paintings indicate that the Thylacine lived throughout mainland Australia and New Guinea. Proof of the animal's existence in mainland Australia came from a desiccated carcass that was discovered in a cave in the Nullarbor Plain in Western Australia in 1990; carbon dating revealed it to be around 3,300 years old.[29] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1134x831, 183 KB) Original caption: Beutelwolf (Thylacinus cynocephalus) Translation (partly): Thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) Size: 3. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1134x831, 183 KB) Original caption: Beutelwolf (Thylacinus cynocephalus) Translation (partly): Thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) Size: 3. ... This article is about the plant genus. ... The Australian continental shelf (light blue) is contiguous with New Guinea, but not with other Pacific islands like New Zealand. ... For the roadhouse along the Eyre Highway, see Nullarbor, South Australia NASA - Visible Earth, Nullarbor. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person... Radiocarbon dating is the use of the naturally occurring isotope of carbon-14 in radiometric dating to determine the age of organic materials, up to ca. ...


In Tasmania it preferred the woodlands of the midlands and coastal heath, which eventually became the primary focus of British settlers seeking grazing properties for their livestock.[30] The animal had a typical home range of between 40 and 80 km².[19] It appears to have kept to its home range without being territorial; groups too large to be a family unit were sometimes observed together.[31] Heaths are anthropogenic habitats found primarily in northern and western Europe, where they have been created by thousands of years of human clearance of natural forest vegetation by grazing and burning on mainly infertile acidic soils. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ...


The Thylacine was a nocturnal and crepuscular hunter, spending the daylight hours in small caves or hollow tree trunks in a nest of twigs, bark or fern fronds. It tended to retreat to the hills and forest for shelter during the day and hunted in the open heath at night. Early observers noted that the animal was typically shy and secretive, with awareness to the presence of humans and generally avoiding contact, though it occasionally showed inquisitive traits.[26] A bat illustrating nocturnal features. ... Adult Firefly or Lightning Bug – a Crepuscular Beetle Photuris lucicrescens Crepuscular is a term used to describe animals that are primarily active during the twilight. ...


There is evidence for at least some year-round breeding (cull records show joeys discovered in the pouch at all times of the year), although the peak breeding season was in winter and spring.[17] They would produce up to four cubs per litter (typically two or three), carrying the young in a pouch for up to three months and protecting them until they were at least half adult size. Early pouch young were hairless and blind, but they had their eyes open and were fully furred by the time they left the pouch.[17] After leaving the pouch, and until they were developed enough to assist, the juveniles would remain in the lair while the female hunted.[32] Thylacines only once bred successfully in captivity, in Melbourne Zoo in 1899.[33] Their life expectancy in the wild is estimated to have been 5 to 7 years, although captive specimens survived up to 9 years.[23] Sumatran tiger at the Melbourne Zoo Seal exhibit The Royal Melbourne Zoological Gardens, commonly known as the Melbourne Zoo, contains more than 350 animal species from Australia and around the world. ...


Diet

Analysis of the skeleton suggests that, when hunting, the Thylacine relied on stamina rather than speed in the chase.
Analysis of the skeleton suggests that, when hunting, the Thylacine relied on stamina rather than speed in the chase.

The Thylacine was exclusively carnivorous. Its stomach was muscular with an ability to distend to allow the animal to eat large amounts of food at one time, probably an adaptation to compensate for long periods when hunting was unsuccessful and food scarce.[17] Analysis of the skeletal frame and observations of it in captivity point to it singling out a target animal and pursuing it until it was exhausted. Some studies conclude that the animal may have hunted in small family groups, with the main group herding prey in the general direction of an individual waiting in ambush.[14] Trappers reported it as an ambush predator.[17] Image File history File links Beutelwolfskelett_brehm. ... Image File history File links Beutelwolfskelett_brehm. ...


Prey included kangaroos, wallabies, wombats, birds and small animals such as potoroos and possums. A favourite prey animal may have been the once common Tasmanian Emu. The emu was a large, flightless bird which shared the habitat of the Thylacine and was hunted to extinction around 1850, possibly coinciding with the decline in Thylacine numbers.[34] Both Dingos[35] and foxes[36] have been noted to hunt the emu on the mainland.[c] Throughout the 20th century, the Thylacine was often characterised as primarily a blood drinker, but little reference is now made to this trait; its popularity seems to have originated from a single second-hand account.[37] European settlers believed the Thylacine to have preyed upon farmers' sheep and poultry.[d] In captivity, Thylacines were fed a wide variety of foods, including dead rabbits and wallabies as well as beef, mutton, and horseflesh and occasionally poultry.[38] For other uses, see Wallaby (disambiguation). ... The marsupial family Potoridae includes the bettongs, potoroos and rat-kangaroos. ... For other uses, see Possum (disambiguation). ... Trinomial name Dromaius novaehollandiae diemenensis Le Souef, 1907 Synonyms Dromaeius diemenensis (lapsus) Le Souef, 1907 Dromaeius novaehollandiae diemenensis (lapsus) The Tasmanian Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae diemenensis) is an extinct subspecies of the Emu. ... For other uses, see Dingo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see EMU. Binomial name (Latham, 1790) The Emu has been recorded in the areas shown in orange. ... The written history of Australia began when Dutch explorers first sighted the country in the 17th century. ... Species See text. ... Ducks amongst other poultry The Poultry-dealer, after Cesare Vecellio Poultry is the category of domesticated birds kept for meat, eggs, and feathers. ...


Extinction

The Thylacine is likely to have become extinct in mainland Australia about 2,000 years ago (possibly earlier in New Guinea).[e] The extinction is attributed to competition from indigenous humans and invasive Dingos. Doubts exist over the impact of the Dingo, however, as the two species would not have been in direct competition with one another. The Dingo is a primarily diurnal predator, while it is thought the Thylacine hunted mostly at night. In addition, the Thylacine had a more powerful build, which would have given it an advantage in one-to-one encounters.[39] Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... For other uses, see Dingo (disambiguation). ... A diurnal animal (dī-ŭrnəl) is an animal that is active during the daytime and sleeps during the night. ...


Rock paintings from the Kakadu National Park clearly show that Thylacines were hunted by early humans,[40] and it is believed that Dingos and Thylacines may have competed for the same prey. Their environments clearly overlapped: Thylacine sub-fossil remains have been discovered in proximity to those of Dingos. The adoption of the Dingo as a hunting companion by the indigenous peoples would have put the Thylacine under increased pressure.[7] Kakadu National Park is in the Northern Territory of Australia, 171 km east of Darwin. ...

This 1921 photo by Henry Burrell of a Thylacine with a chicken was widely distributed and may have helped secure the animal's reputation as a poultry thief. In fact the image is cropped to hide the fenced run and housing, and analysis by one researcher has concluded that this Thylacine is a mounted specimen, posed for the camera.
This 1921 photo by Henry Burrell of a Thylacine with a chicken was widely distributed and may have helped secure the animal's reputation as a poultry thief.
In fact the image is cropped to hide the fenced run and housing, and analysis by one researcher has concluded that this Thylacine is a mounted specimen, posed for the camera.[41]

Although long extinct on the Australian mainland by the time the European settlers arrived, the Thylacine survived into the 1930s in Tasmania. At the time of the first settlement, the heaviest distributions were in the north-east, north-west and north-midland regions.[30] From the early days of European settlement they were rarely sighted, but slowly began to be credited with numerous attacks on sheep; this led to the establishment of bounty schemes in an attempt to control their numbers. The Van Diemen's Land Company introduced bounties on the Thylacine from as early as 1830 and between 1888 and 1909 the Tasmanian government paid £1 a head for the animal (10 shillings for pups). In all they paid out 2,184 bounties, but it is thought that many more Thylacines were killed than were claimed for.[23] Its extinction is popularly attributed to these relentless efforts by farmers and bounty hunters.[23] However, it is likely that multiple factors led to its decline and eventual extinction, including competition with wild dogs (introduced by settlers),[42] erosion of habitat, the concurrent extinction of prey species, and a distemper-like disease that also affected many captive specimens at the time.[19][43] Image File history File links Thylacine-chicken. ... Image File history File links Thylacine-chicken. ... Henry Burrell (19 January 1873 — 29 July 1945) was an Australian naturalist who specialised in the study of monotremes. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... The Van Diemens Land Company was created by Royal Charter in 1824 and was granted 250 000 acres in northwest Tasmania in 1826. ... Tasmanian Coat of Arms featuring two Thylacines The form of the Government of Tasmania is prescribed in its Constitution, which dates from 1856, although it has been amended many times since then. ... This article is about coinage. ... For other uses, see Farmer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bounty hunter (disambiguation). ... Distemper can refer to Canine distemper, a disease of dogs Other forms of the distemper virus A mixture, used by artists, of paint usually with parts of an egg This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Whatever the reason, the animal had become extremely rare in the wild by the late 1920s. There were several efforts to save the species from extinction. Records of the Wilsons Promontory management committee dating to 1908 included recommendations for Thylacines to be reintroduced to several suitable locations on the Victorian mainland. In 1928, the Tasmanian Advisory Committee for Native Fauna had recommended a reserve to protect any remaining Thylacines, with potential sites of suitable habitat including the Arthur-Pieman area of western Tasmania.[44] Tidal River as viewed from the summit of Mount Oberon Looking south from Mount Oberon on Wilsons Promontory towards the southern tip of Australia Landsat 7 imagery of Wilsons Promontory. ... Arthur River is the name of both a geographical feature and a small township (Australian Postcode 7330) on the northern part of Tasmanias west coast, south of the town of Marrawah. ... The Pieman River is a river on the West Coast of Tasmania, Australia. ...


The last known wild Thylacine to be killed was shot in 1930, by farmer Wilf Batty in Mawbanna, in the North East of the state. The animal (believed to be a male) had been seen round Batty's hen houses for several weeks.[45]


"Benjamin" and searches

The last known Thylacine photographed at Hobart (formerly Beaumaris) Zoo in 1933. A scrotal sac is not visible in this or any other of the photos or film taken, leading to the supposition that "Benjamin" was a female, but the existence of a scrotal pouch in the Thylacine makes it impossible to be certain.
The last known Thylacine photographed at Hobart (formerly Beaumaris) Zoo in 1933. A scrotal sac is not visible in this or any other of the photos or film taken, leading to the supposition that "Benjamin" was a female, but the existence of a scrotal pouch in the Thylacine makes it impossible to be certain.

The last captive Thylacine, later referred to as "Benjamin" (although its sex has never been confirmed) was captured in 1933 and sent to the Hobart Zoo where it lived for three years. Frank Darby, who claimed to have been a keeper at Hobart Zoo, suggested "Benjamin" as having been the animal's pet name in a newspaper article of May 1968. However, no documentation exists to suggest that it ever had a pet name, and Alison Reid (the de facto curator at the zoo at the time) and Michael Sharland (the then publicist for the zoo) denied that Frank Darby had ever worked at the zoo or that the name Benjamin was ever used for the animal. Darby also appears to be the source for the claim that the last Thylacine was a male; photographic evidence suggests it was female.[46][f] This Thylacine died on 7 September 1936. It is believed to have died as the result of neglect — locked out of its sheltered sleeping quarters, it was exposed to a rare occurrence of extreme Tasmanian weather: baking heat during the day and freezing temperatures at night.[47] This Thylacine features in the last known motion picture footage of a living specimen: 62 seconds of black-and-white footage showing it pacing backwards and forwards in its enclosure, taken in 1933 by naturalist David Fleay.[48][g] National Threatened Species Day is held annually on 7 September in Australia, to commemorate the death of the last officially recorded Thylacine. It has been held since 1996.[49] Image File history File linksMetadata ThylacineHobart1933. ... Image File history File linksMetadata ThylacineHobart1933. ... The Hobart Zoo was an old-fashioned style Zoological Gardens located on the Queens Domain in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... David Howells Fleay (6 January 1907 Ballarat, Victoria – 7 August 1993) was an Australian naturalist who pioneered the captive breeding of endangered species, and was the first person to captive breed the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Although there had been a conservation movement pressing for the Thylacine's protection since 1901, driven in part by the increasing difficulty in obtaining specimens for overseas collections, political difficulties prevented any form of protection coming into force until 1936. Official protection of the species by the Tasmanian government was introduced on 10 July 1936, 59 days before the last known specimen died in captivity.[50] is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The results of subsequent searches indicated a strong possibility of the survival of the species in Tasmania into the 1960s. Searches by Dr. Eric Guiler and David Fleay in the north-west of Tasmania found footprints and scats that may have belonged to the animal, heard vocalisations matching the description of those of the Thylacine, and collected anecdotal evidence from people reported to have sighted the animal. Despite the searches, no conclusive evidence was found to point to its continued existence in the wild.[9]


The Thylacine held the status of "endangered species" until 1986. International standards state that any animal for which no specimens have been recorded for 50 years is to be declared extinct. Since no definitive proof of the Thylacine's existence had been found since "Benjamin" died in 1936, it now met that official criterion and was declared officially extinct by the IUCN.[2] The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is more cautious, listing it as "possibly extinct".[51] The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international agreement between Governments, drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the World Conservation Union (IUCN). ...


Unconfirmed sightings

Although the Thylacine is formally extinct, many people believe the animal still exists. Sightings are regularly claimed in Tasmania, other parts of Australia and even in the Western New Guinea area of Indonesia, near the Papua New Guinea border. The Australian Rare Fauna Research Association reports having 3,800 sightings on file from mainland Australia since the 1936 extinction date,[52] while the Mystery Animal Research Centre of Australia recorded 138 up to 1998, and the Department of Conservation and Land Management recorded 65 in Western Australia over the same period.[26] Independent Thylacine researchers Buck and Joan Emburg of Tasmania report 360 Tasmanian and 269 mainland post-extinction 20th century sightings, figures compiled from a number of sources.[53] On the mainland, sightings are most frequently reported in Southern Victoria.[54] Western New Guinea is the Indonesian western half of the island of New Guinea and consists of two provinces, Papua and West Papua. ...

An artist's depiction of two Thylacines from 1883.
An artist's depiction of two Thylacines from 1883.

Sightings of the Red Fox (first introduced as early as 1864 and again in around 2000)[55][56] in Tasmania are taken very seriously, despite only minimal evidence of the presence of the species on the island.[57][58][h] While the Fox Free Tasmanian Taskforce receives government funding, there is no longer any funding for searches for the Thylacine. The difficulty of locating foxes in the Tasmanian wilderness points to some chance of the Thylacine's survival away from human contact.[55] Image File history File links Beutelwol_brehm. ... Image File history File links Beutelwol_brehm. ... For other uses, see Red Fox (disambiguation). ...


Despite many sightings being instantly dismissed, some have generated a large amount of publicity. In 1982 a researcher with the Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service, Hans Naarding, observed what he believed to be a Thylacine for three minutes during the night at a site near Arthur River in the north west of the state. The sighting led to an extensive year-long government-funded search.[59] In January 1995, a Parks and Wildlife officer reported observing a Thylacine in the Pyengana region of North Eastern Tasmania in the early hours of the morning. Later searches revealed no trace of the animal.[60] In 1997, it was reported that locals and missionaries near Mount Carstensz in Western New Guinea,[i] had sighted Thylacines. The locals had apparently known about them for many years but had not made an official report.[61] In February 2005 Klaus Emmerichs, a German tourist, claimed to have taken digital photographs of a Thylacine he saw near the Lake St Clair National Park, but the authenticity of the photographs has not been established.[62] The photos were not published until April 2006, fourteen months after the sighting. The photographs, which showed only the back of the animal, were said, by those who studied them, to be inconclusive as evidence of the Thylacine's continued existence.[63][64] The logo of Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service is the Tasmanian Government body responsible for the care and administration of Tasmanias National Parks and wildlife. ... Western New Guinea is the Indonesian western half of the island of New Guinea and consists of two provinces, Papua and West Papua. ... The Nikon Coolpix 950 Casio Exilim Digital photography, as opposed to film photography, uses an electronic sensor to record the image as a piece of electronic data rather than as chemical changes on film. ... Cradle Mountain-Lake St Clair is a national park in Tasmania (Australia), 165 km northwest of Hobart. ...


Rewards

In 1983, Ted Turner offered a $100,000 reward for proof of the continued existence of the Thylacine.[65] However, a letter sent in response to an inquiry by a Thylacine-searcher, Murray McAllister, in 2000 indicated that the reward had been withdrawn.[66] In March 2005, Australian news magazine The Bulletin, as part of its 125th anniversary celebrations, offered a $1.25 million reward for the safe capture of a live Thylacine. When the offer closed at the end of June 2005 no one had produced any evidence of the animal's existence. An offer of $1.75 million has subsequently been offered by a Tasmanian tour operator, Stewart Malcolm.[63] Trapping is illegal under the terms of the Thylacine's protection, so any reward made for its capture is invalid, as a trapping licence would not be issued.[65] For other persons named Ted Turner, see Ted Turner (disambiguation). ... The Bulletin is an Australian weekly magazine, which has been published in Sydney since 1880. ...


Modern research and projects

Records of all specimens, many of which are in European collections, are now held in the International Thylacine Specimen Database. The Australian Museum in Sydney began a cloning project in 1999.[67] The goal was to use genetic material from specimens taken and preserved in the early 20th century to clone new individuals and restore the species from extinction. Several serious microbiologists have dismissed the project as a PR stunt and its chief proponent, Professor Mike Archer, received a 2002 nomination for the Australian Skeptics Bent Spoon Award for "the perpetrator of the most preposterous piece of paranormal or pseudo-scientific piffle".[68] Image File history File links Thylacine-tring. ... Image File history File links Thylacine-tring. ... The Walter Rothschild Zoological Museum was once the private museum of Lionel Walter, 2nd Baron Rothschild, and is located in the grounds of the former Rothschild family home of Tring Park, Tring, Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom. ... Map sources for Tring at grid reference SP924117 Tring is a small market town in the Chiltern Hills in Hertfordshire, England with a population of 13,000. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The International Thylacine Specimen Database (ITSD) was completed in April 2005 and is the culmination of a four year research project to catalogue and digitally photograph (where possible) all the known surviving specimen material held within museum, university and private collections of the Thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) or Tasmanian tiger. ... The Australian Museum is the oldest museum in Australia, centering on natural history and anthropology, with collections centering on vertebrate and invertebrate zoology, as well as minerology, palaeontology, and anthropology. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... For the cloning of human beings, see human cloning. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... For the cloning of human beings, see human cloning. ... The Bent Spoon Award is an award given by Australian Skeptics. ...

Skull detail from a complete skeleton at Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart, Tasmania.
Skull detail from a complete skeleton at Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart, Tasmania.

In late 2002 the researchers had some success as they were able to extract replicable DNA from the specimens.[69] On 15 February 2005, the museum announced that it was stopping the project after tests showed the DNA retrieved from the specimens had been too badly degraded to be usable.[70][71] In May 2005, Professor Michael Archer, the University of New South Wales Dean of Science, former director of the Australian Museum and evolutionary biologist, announced that the project was being restarted by a group of interested universities and a research institute.[63][72] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 569 pixelsFull resolution (2455 × 1745 pixel, file size: 685 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 569 pixelsFull resolution (2455 × 1745 pixel, file size: 685 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Hobart is the state capital and most populous city of the Australian island state of Tasmania. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of New South Wales, also known as UNSW or colloquially as New South, is a university situated in Kensington, a suburb in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ... The Australian Museum is the oldest museum in Australia, centering on natural history and anthropology, with collections centering on vertebrate and invertebrate zoology, as well as minerology, palaeontology, and anthropology. ...


The International Thylacine Specimen Database (ITSD) was completed in April 2005 and is the culmination of a four-year research project to catalog and digitally photograph, if possible, all known[j] surviving Thylacine specimen material held within museum, university and private collections. The master records are held by the Zoological Society of London.[2] The International Thylacine Specimen Database (ITSD) was completed in April 2005 and is the culmination of a four year research project to catalogue and digitally photograph (where possible) all the known surviving specimen material held within museum, university and private collections of the Thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) or Tasmanian tiger. ... The Zoological Society of London (sometimes known by the abbreviation ZSL) is a learned society founded in April 1826 by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Lord Auckland, Sir Humphry Davy, Joseph Sabine, Nicholas Aylward Vigors and other eminent naturalists. ...


Cultural references

The Tasmanian Coat of Arms features Thylacines as supporters.
The Tasmanian Coat of Arms features Thylacines as supporters.

The Thylacine has been used extensively as a symbol of Tasmania. The animal is featured on the official Tasmanian Coat of Arms. It is used in the official logos of Tourism Tasmania and the Launceston City Council. Since 1998, it has been prominently displayed on Tasmanian vehicle license plates. Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Tasmania. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Tasmania. ... The coat of arms of Tasmania. ... Launceston is a city in the north of the state of Tasmania, Australia, population approximately 90,000 (Greater urban and 99,100 statistical division), located at the juncture of the North Esk, South Esk, and Tamar rivers. ... Australian vehicle number plates are issued by the states, territories, and also the Commonwealth government and the armed forces. ...


The plight of the Thylacine was featured in a campaign for The Wilderness Society entitled We used to hunt Thylacines. The animal is featured on Cascade Brewery beer products and in their television advertisements. In video games, Ty the Tasmanian Tiger is the star of his own trilogy. In the early 1990s' Cartoon TV show "Taz-Mania" the character, Wendell T. Wolf, was supposedly the last surviving Tasmanian wolf. Tiger Tale is a children's book based on an Aboriginal myth about how the Thylacine got its stripes. The Thylacine is the mascot for Tasmanian Tigers state cricket team and has also appeared in postage stamps from Australia, Equatorial Guinea, and Micronesia.[73] The Wilderness Society (TWS) is an Australian not-for-profit non-governmental environmental advocacy whose mission is protecting, promoting and restoring wilderness and its natural processes. ... The Cascade Brewery, with Mount Wellington in the background Cascade Brewery is the oldest brewery in Australia. ... Ty the Tasmanian Tiger is the first title in a video game series for the PlayStation 2, Xbox, and GameCube produced by Krome Studios in 2002. ... Taz-Mania is a 1991-1997 cartoon show, produced and directed by Art Vitello broadcast in the United States on FOX and elsewhere around the world. ... Tiger Tale is a childrens picture book illustrated by Marion Isham and written by Steve Isham. ... The Tasmanian Tigers are the official first-class cricket team of Tasmania, Australia. ...


See also

Mammals Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... Cryptozoology (from Greek: κρυπτός, kryptós, hidden; ζῷον, zôon, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge or study – zoology) is the search for animals hypothesized to exist, but for which conclusive proof is missing. ... Following is a complete list of Australian vertebrate extinctions from 1788 to the present. ... The Red Kangaroo is the largest macropod and is one of Australias heraldic animals, appearing with the Emu on the Coat of Arms of Australia. ...

Notes

a. ^  As well as the common alternative names, the Thylacine was referred to by a range of other names, which often makes clear identification of the species in records difficult. Other names by which it is occasionally identified include Marsupial Wolf, Hyena, Zebra Wolf, Kangaroo Wolf, Zebra Opossum, Marsupial Tiger, Tiger Cat, Tasmanian Pouched Wolf and Hyena Opussum.


b. ^  The scrotal pouch is almost unique within the marsupials — the only other marsupial species to have this feature is the Water Opossum, Chironectes minimus which is found in Mexico, Central and South America. Binomial name Chironectes minimus (Zimmermann, 1780) The Water Opossum or Yapok (Chironectes minimus) is a marsupial of the family Didelphidae. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


c. ^  Some writers go further to postulate that the mature Thylacine's jaw and bipedal hop were specialised for hunting the emu and either breaking its neck or severing the jugular vein.


d. ^  Based on the lack of reliable first hand accounts, Robert Paddle argues that the predation on sheep and poultry may have been exaggerated, suggesting the Thylacine was used as a convenient scapegoat for the mismanagement of the sheep farms, and the image of it as a poultry killer impressed on the public consciousness by a striking photo taken by Henry Burrell in 1921.[74]


e. ^  Accounts of Thylacine survival in southern Australia persisted into the 1840s from both Indigenous and European sources.[75]


f. ^  Robert Paddle, author of The Last Tasmanian Tiger, was unable to uncover any records of any Frank Darby been employed by Beaumaris/Hobart Zoo during the time that Reid or her father were in charge, and noted several inconsistencies in the story Darby told during his interview in 1968.[46]


g. ^  Fleay was bitten on the buttock whilst shooting the film, having ignored the threat yawn and hissing vocalisations made by the animal.[48]


h. ^  Four fox carcasses, a scat sample and some possible footprints have been discovered on the island since 2001.


i. ^  Dingos, the Thylacine's possible competitor, are now rare, if not extinct, in Western New Guinea.[76]


j. ^  Skins occasionally turn up in private ownership, such as the Wilson skin purchased by the National Museum of Australia in 1987.[44]

Citations

  1. ^ Groves, Colin (16 November 2005). in Wilson, D. E., and Reeder, D. M. (eds): Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition, Johns Hopkins University Press, 23. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ a b c World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). Thylacinus cynocephalus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 2006-07-15. Database entry includes justification for why this species is listed as extinct 1986
  3. ^ Riversleigh. Australian Museum (1999). Retrieved on 21 November, 2006.
  4. ^ Is there a fossil Thylacine?. Australian Museum (1999). Retrieved on 21 November, 2006.
  5. ^ Lost Kingdoms: Dickson's Thylacine (Nimbacinus dicksoni). Australian Museum (1999). Retrieved on 21 November, 2006.
  6. ^ Lost Kingdoms: Powerful Thylacine (Thylacinus potens). Australian Museum (1999). Retrieved on 21 November, 2006.
  7. ^ a b C.N. Johnson and S, Wroe (2003-11). "Causes of extinction of vertebrates during the Holocene of mainland Australia: arrival of the dingo, or human impact?". The Holocene 13 (6): 941–948. doi:10.1191/0959683603hl682fa. 
  8. ^ L Werdelin (1986). "Comparison of Skull Shape in Marsupial and Placental Carnivores". Australian Journal of Zoology 34 (2): 109–117. 
  9. ^ a b c Threatened Species: Thylacine - Tasmanian tiger, Thylacinus cynocephalus. Parks and Wildlife Service, Tasmania (2003-12). Retrieved on 22 November, 2006.
  10. ^ Anna Salleh (2004-12-15). Rock art shows attempts to save thylacine. ABC Science Online. Retrieved on 21 November, 2006.
  11. ^ Rembrants. D. (1682). "A short relation out of the journal of Captain Abel Jansen Tasman, upon the discovery of the South Terra incognita; not long since published in the Low Dutch". Philosophical Collections of the Royal Society of London, (6), 179-86. Quoted in Paddle (2000) p.3
  12. ^ Roth H.L. (1891). "Crozet's Voyage to Tasmania, New Zealand, etc....1771–1772.". London. Truslove and Shirley. Quoted in Paddle (2000) p.3
  13. ^ Robert Paddle (2000). The Last Tasmanian Tiger: The History and Extinction of the Thylacine. Cambridge University Press, 3. ISBN 0-521-53154-3. 
  14. ^ a b Information sheet: Thylacine Thylacinus cynocephalus. Victoria Museum (2005-04). Retrieved on 21 November, 2006.
  15. ^ Robert Paddle (2002). The Last Tasmanian Tiger: The History and Extinction of the Thylacine. Cambridge University Press, 5. ISBN 0-521-53154-3. 
  16. ^ T. F. Hoad (Ed.) (1986). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-863120-0. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Joan Dixon. Fauna of Australia chap.20 vol.1b. Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS). Retrieved on 22 November, 2006.
  18. ^ a b Australia's Thylacine: What did the Thylacine look like?. Australian Museum (1999). Retrieved on 21 November, 2006.
  19. ^ a b c d Dr. Eric Guiler (2006). Profile - Thylacine. Zoology Department, University of Tasmania. Retrieved on 21 November, 2006.
  20. ^ a b Sally Bryant and Jean Jackson Threatened Species Unit, Parks and Wildlife Service, Tasmania (1999). Tasmania's Threatened Fauna Handbook. Bryant and Jackson, 190–193. ISBN 0-7246-6223-5. 
  21. ^ Menna Jones (1997-12). "Character displacement in Australian dasyurid carnivores: size relationships and prey size patterns". Ecology. Ecological Society of America. Retrieved on 27 November 2006. 
  22. ^ AFP (2003-10-21). Extinct Thylacine May Live Again. Discovery Channel. Retrieved on 28 November, 2007.
  23. ^ a b c d e f Wildlife of Tasmania: Mammals of Tasmania: Thylacine, or Tasmanian tiger, Thylacinus cynocephalus. Parks and Wildlife Service, Tasmania (2006). Retrieved on 21 November, 2006.
  24. ^ Paddle (2000). p.49
  25. ^ Tasmanian Tiger. Archives Office of Tasmania (1930). Retrieved on 27 November, 2006.
  26. ^ a b c Greg Heberle (2004). "Reports of alleged thylacine sightings in Western Australia". Conservation Science W. Aust. 5 (1): 1–5. Retrieved on 21 November 2006. 
  27. ^ Paddle (2000). p.65–66
  28. ^ Paddle (2000). p.42–43
  29. ^ Mummified thylacine has national message. National Museum of Australia, Canberra (2004-06-16). Retrieved on 21 November, 2006.
  30. ^ a b Australia's Thylacine: Where did the Thylacine live?. Australian Museum (1999). Retrieved on 21 November, 2006.
  31. ^ Paddle (2000). p.38–39
  32. ^ Paddle (2000). p.60
  33. ^ Paddle (2000). p.228–231
  34. ^ Paddle (2000). p.81
  35. ^ Pople, A. R., G. C. Grigg, S. C. Cairns, L. A. Beard and P. Alexander (2000). "Trends in the numbers of red kangaroos and emus on either side of the South Australian dingo fence: evidence for predator regulation?". Wildlife Research 27 (3): 269–276. doi:10.1071/WR99030 10.1071/WR99030. 
  36. ^ Emu. Retrieved on 2006-09-19.
  37. ^ Paddle (2000). p.29–35
  38. ^ Paddle (2000). p.96
  39. ^ Introducing the Thylacine. The Thylacine Museum. Retrieved on 23 May, [[2007]].
  40. ^ Paddle (2000) Plate 2.1 p.19
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Dr Colin Groves is a Professor of Biological Anthropology at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2206 (MMCCVI in Roman Numerals) will be a year in the Common Era (CE or AD) according to the Gregorian Calendar, corresponding to 5966/7 in the Hebrew Calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Guiler, E. (1985). Thylacine: The Tragedy of The Tasmanian Tiger. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-554603-2
  • Guiler, E. & Godard, P. (1998). Tasmanian Tiger: A lesson to be learnt. Abrolhos Publishing. ISBN 0-9585791-0-5
  • Guiler, E. R. (1961a). "Breeding season of the Thylacine." Journal of Mammalogy 42(3): 396–397.
  • Guiler, E. R. (1961b). "The former distribution and decline of the Thylacine." Australian Journal of Science 23(7): 207–210.
  • Lord, C. (1927). "Existing Tasmanian marsupials." Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 61: 17–24.
  • Lowry, D. C. (1967). "Discovery of a Thylacine (Tasmanian Tiger) Carcase In a Cave Near Eucla, Western Australia." Helictite.
  • Paddle, R. (2000). The Last Tasmanian Tiger: The History and Extinction of the Thylacine. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-53154-3
  • Park, A. (1986). "A Tasmanian Tiger Extinct or Merely Elusive." Australian Geographic 1(3): 66–83.
  • Pearce, R (1976). "Thylacines in Tasmania." Australian Mammal Society Bulletin 3: 58.
  • Smith, S. J. (1980). "The Tasmanian Tiger - 1980. A report on an investigation of the current status of thylacine Thylacinus cynocephalus, funded by the World Wildlife Fund Australia." Hobart: National Parks and Wildlife Service, Tasmania.

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