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Encyclopedia > Thutmose II
Thutmose II
Preceded by:
Thutmose I
Pharaoh of Egypt
18th Dynasty
Succeeded by:
Hatshepsut
Praenomen of the Cartouche of Thutmose II preceded by Sedge and Bee symbols, Temple of Hatshepsut, Luxor
Reign 1493 BC to 1479 BC
(though disputed)
Praenomen



Aakheperenre
Great is the manefestation of Re
Nomen

Thutmose
Thoth is born
Horus
name


Image:srxtail2.GIF
Ka Nekhet User Pekhet
The strong bull, the great one of power
Nebty
name

Neter Nesyt
Divine of kingship
Golden
Horus

Sekhem Kheperu
Powerful of Forms
Consort(s) Hatshepsut, Iset
Issue Thutmose III, Neferure
Father Thutmose I
Mother Mutnofret
Died 1479 BC
Burial KV42 (now considered unlikely)

Thutmose II (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis II and meaning Thoth is Born) was the fourth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. He built some minor monuments and initiated at least two minor campaigns but did little else during his rule and was probably strongly influenced by his wife, Hatshepsut. His reign is generally dated from 1493 to 1479 BC. Thutmose II's body was found in the Deir el-Bahri Cache above the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut and can be viewed today in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Aakheperkare Great is the Soul of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Thoth is born Horus name Kanekhet meri maat Mighty Bull, Beloved of Maat Nebty name Kham neseret aa pehet Crowned with the royal serpent, Great of power Golden Horus Nefer Reneput Sankhibu Good of Years, Making Hearts to Live Consort... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. ... Maatkare[1] Truth is the Ka of Re Nomen Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut[1] Joined with Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies Horus name Wesretkau [1] Mighty of Kas Nebty name Wadjrenput[1] Flourishing of years Golden Horus Netjeretkhau [1] Divine of appearance Consort(s) Thutmose II Issue Neferure Father Thutmose I... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (853x1280, 422 KB) Hieroglyphs on an obelisk on the last floor of the Temple of Hatshepsut, on Luxors west bank, Egypt. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (853x1280, 422 KB) Hieroglyphs on an obelisk on the last floor of the Temple of Hatshepsut, on Luxors west bank, Egypt. ... For other uses, see Cartouche (disambiguation). ... Maatkare[1] Truth is the Ka of Re Nomen Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut[1] Joined with Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies Horus name Wesretkau [1] Mighty of Kas Nebty name Wadjrenput[1] Flourishing of years Golden Horus Netjeretkhau [1] Divine of appearance Consort(s) Thutmose II Issue Neferure Father Thutmose I... Luxor on Nile, at Luxor Temple with mosque. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... (Redirected from 1493 BC) Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC 1500s BC - 1490s BC - 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC 1440s BC Events and Trends Egypt conquers Nubia and the Levant (1504 BC - 1492 BC). ... (Redirected from 1479 BC) Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1520s BC 1510s BC 1500s BC 1490s BC 1480s BC - 1470s BC - 1460s BC 1450s BC 1440s BC 1430s BC 1420s BC Events and Trends Significant People Hatshepsut of Egypt starts her rule Categories: 1470s... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... Thoth (Ramesseum, Luxor) Thoth (his Greek name derived from the Egyptian *, written by Egyptians as ) was considered one of the most important deities of the Egyptian pantheon, often depicted with the head of an ibis. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... Image File history File links Srxtail2. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... Maatkare[1] Truth is the Ka of Re Nomen Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut[1] Joined with Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies Horus name Wesretkau [1] Mighty of Kas Nebty name Wadjrenput[1] Flourishing of years Golden Horus Netjeretkhau [1] Divine of appearance Consort(s) Thutmose II Issue Neferure Father Thutmose I... Iset (or Isis) was a queen of the eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. ... Menkheperre Lasting is the Manifestation of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Neferkheperu Thoth is born, beautiful of forms Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes Nebty name Wahnesytmireempet Enduring in kingship like Re in heaven Golden Horus Sekhempahtydsejerkhaw Powerful of strength, holy of diadems Consort(s) Hatshepsut-Meryetre, Nebtu... Neferure was the daughter of Thutmose II and his officially recognized wife Hatshepsut, the only child the two ever had together. ... Aakheperkare Great is the Soul of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Thoth is born Horus name Kanekhet meri maat Mighty Bull, Beloved of Maat Nebty name Kham neseret aa pehet Crowned with the royal serpent, Great of power Golden Horus Nefer Reneput Sankhibu Good of Years, Making Hearts to Live Consort... Mutnofret (“Mut is Beautiful”) was a queen during the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. ... (Redirected from 1479 BC) Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1520s BC 1510s BC 1500s BC 1490s BC 1480s BC - 1470s BC - 1460s BC 1450s BC 1440s BC 1430s BC 1420s BC Events and Trends Significant People Hatshepsut of Egypt starts her rule Categories: 1470s... KV42 was constructed for Hatshepsut-Meryetre, the wife of Thutmose III, but she was not buried in the tomb. ... Thoth (Ramesseum, Luxor) Thoth (his Greek name derived from the Egyptian *, written by Egyptians as ) was considered one of the most important deities of the Egyptian pantheon, often depicted with the head of an ibis. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. ... Maatkare[1] Truth is the Ka of Re Nomen Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut[1] Joined with Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies Horus name Wesretkau [1] Mighty of Kas Nebty name Wadjrenput[1] Flourishing of years Golden Horus Netjeretkhau [1] Divine of appearance Consort(s) Thutmose II Issue Neferure Father Thutmose I... Aakheperenre Great is the manefestation of Re Nomen Thutmose Thoth is born Horus name Ka Nekhet User Pekhet The strong bull, the great one of power Nebty name Neter Nesyt Divine of kingship Golden Horus Sekhem Kheperu Powerful of Forms Consort(s) Hatshepsut, Iset Issue Thutmose III, Neferure Father Thutmose... Djeser-Djeseru – the focal point of the complex Deir el-Bahri (Arabic دير البحري dayr al-baḥrī, literally meaning, “The Northern Monastery”) is a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt. ... Tomb DB320 is located next to Deir el-Bahri, in the Theban Necropolis, opposite modern Luxor contained an extraordinary cache of mummified remains and funeral equipment of more than 50 kings, queens, royals and various nobility. ... Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut Mortuary temples (or memorial temples) were temples constructed adjacent to, or in the vicinity of, royal tombs in the Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom periods of Ancient Egypt. ... Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to the most extensive collection of pharaonic antiquities in the world. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Family

Thutmose II was the son of Thutmose I and a minor wife, Mutnofret. He was, therefore, a lesser son of Thutmose I who chose to marry his fully royal half-sister, Hatshepsut, in order to secure his kingship. While he successfully put down rebellions in Nubia and the Levant and defeated a group of nomadic Bedouins, these campaign were specifically carried out by the king's Generals, and not by Thutmose II himself. This is often interpreted as evidence that Thutmose II was still a minor at his accession. Thutmose II fathered Neferure with Hatshepsut, but also managed to father a male heir, the famous Thutmose III, by a lesser wife named Isis before his death. Aakheperkare Great is the Soul of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Thoth is born Horus name Kanekhet meri maat Mighty Bull, Beloved of Maat Nebty name Kham neseret aa pehet Crowned with the royal serpent, Great of power Golden Horus Nefer Reneput Sankhibu Good of Years, Making Hearts to Live Consort... Maatkare[1] Truth is the Ka of Re Nomen Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut[1] Joined with Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies Horus name Wesretkau [1] Mighty of Kas Nebty name Wadjrenput[1] Flourishing of years Golden Horus Netjeretkhau [1] Divine of appearance Consort(s) Thutmose II Issue Neferure Father Thutmose I... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... Bedouin resting at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic badawi بدوي, a generic name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Sahara via the Western Desert, Sinai, and Negev to the eastern coast of the Arabian desert. ... Neferure was the daughter of Thutmose II and his officially recognized wife Hatshepsut, the only child the two ever had together. ... Thutmose III (also written as Tuthmosis III; called Manahpi(r)ya in the Amarna letters) (? - 1426 BC), was Pharaoh of Egypt in the Eighteenth Dynasty. ...


Some archaeologists believe that Hatshepsut was the real power behind the throne during Thutmose II’s rule because of the similar domestic and foreign policies which were later pursued under her reign and because of her claim that she was her father’s intended heir. She is depicted in several raised relief scenes from a Karnak gateway dating to Thutmose II's reign both together with her husband and alone.[1] She later had herself crowned Pharaoh several years into the rule of her husband's young successor Thutmose III; this is confirmed by the fact that "the queen's agents actually replaced the boy king's name in a few places with her own cartouches" on the gateway.[2] Menkheperre Lasting is the Manifestation of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Neferkheperu Thoth is born, beautiful of forms Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes Nebty name Wahnesytmireempet Enduring in kingship like Re in heaven Golden Horus Sekhempahtydsejerkhaw Powerful of strength, holy of diadems Consort(s) Hatshepsut-Meryetre, Nebtu...


Dates and Length of Reign

Manetho's Epitome calls Thutmose "Chebron," (which is a reference to his prenomen, Aakheperenre) and gives him a reign of 13 Years, but this figure is highly disputed among scholars. Some Egyptologists prefer to shorten his reign by a full decade to only 3 Years because his Highest Year Date is only a Year 1 II Akhet day 8 stela.[3] The reign length of Thutmose II has been a controversial and much debated topic among Egyptologists with little consensus given the small number of surviving documents for his reign, but a 13 year reign is preferred by older scholars while newer scholars prefer a shorter 3-4 year reign for this king due to the minimal amount of scarabs and monuments attested under Thutmose II. It is still possible to estimate when Thutmose II's reign would have begun by means of a heliacal rise of Sothis in Amenhotep I's reign, which would give him a reign from 1493 BC to 1479 BC,[4] although uncertanty about how to interpret the rise also permits a date from 1513 BC to 1499 BC,[5] and uncertanty about how long Thutmose I ruled could also potentially place his reign several years earlier still. Nonetheless, scholars generally assign him a reign from 1493 or 1492 to 1479.[6][7] Egyptologist is the designation given to an archaeologist or historian who specialises in Egyptology, the scientific study of Ancient Egypt and its antiquities. ... The heliacal rising of a star (or other body such as the moon or a planet) occurs when it first becomes visible above the eastern horizon at dawn, after a period where it was hidden below the horizon or when it was just above the horizon but hidden by the... For other uses, see Sirius (disambiguation). ... Djeserkare Holy is the Soul of Re[1] Nomen Amenhotep Amun is Satisfied Horus name Kanaftau Bull who subdues the lands Nebty name Aaneru Who inspires great fear Golden Horus Uahrenput Enduring of years Consort(s) Ahmose-Meritamon Issue Amenemhat (died young), possibly Ahmes Father Ahmose I Mother Ahmose-Nefertari... (Redirected from 1493 BC) Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC 1500s BC - 1490s BC - 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC 1440s BC Events and Trends Egypt conquers Nubia and the Levant (1504 BC - 1492 BC). ... (Redirected from 1479 BC) Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1520s BC 1510s BC 1500s BC 1490s BC 1480s BC - 1470s BC - 1460s BC 1450s BC 1440s BC 1430s BC 1420s BC Events and Trends Significant People Hatshepsut of Egypt starts her rule Categories: 1470s... (Redirected from 1513 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1560s BC 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC - 1510s BC - 1500s BC 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC Events and Trends 1512 BC (approx. ... 1499 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Aakheperkare Great is the Soul of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Thoth is born Horus name Kanekhet meri maat Mighty Bull, Beloved of Maat Nebty name Kham neseret aa pehet Crowned with the royal serpent, Great of power Golden Horus Nefer Reneput Sankhibu Good of Years, Making Hearts to Live Consort...


Argument for a Short Reign

Ineni, who was already aged by the start of Thutmose II's reign, lived through this ruler's entire reign into that of Hatshepsut.[8] In addition, Thutmose II is poorly attested in the monumental record and in the contemporary tomb autobiographies of New Kingdom officials. A clear count of monuments from his rule, which is the principal tool for estimating a king's reign when dated documents are not available, is nearly impossible because Hatshepsut usurped most of his monuments, and Thutmose III in turn reinscribed Thutmose II's name indiscriminately over other monuments.[9] However, apart from several surviving blocks of buildings erected by the king at Semna, Kumma and Elephantine, Thutmose II's only major monument consists of a limestone gateway at Karnak that once lay at the front of the Fourth Pylon's forecourt. Even this monument was not completed in Thutmose II's reign but in the reign of his son Thutmose III which hints at "the nearly ephemeral nature of Thutmose II's reign."[10] The gateway was later dismantled and its building blocks incorporated into the foundation of the Third Pylon by Amenhotep III.[11]In 1987, Luc Gabolde published an important study which statistically compared the number of surviving scarabs found under Thutmose I, Thutmose II and Hatshepsut.[12] While monuments can be usurped, scarabs are so small and comparatively insignificant that altering their names would be impractical and without profit; hence, they provide a far better insight into this period. Hatshepsut's reign is believed to have been for 21 Years and 9 Months. Gabolde highlighted, in his analysis, the consistently small number of surviving scarabs known for Thutmose II compared to Tuthmose I and Hatshepsut respectively; for instance, Flinders Petrie's older study of scarab seals noted 86 seals for Thutmose I, 19 seals for Thutmose II and 149 seals for Hatshepsut while more recent studies by Jaeger estimate a total of 241 seals for Thutmose I, 463 seals for Hatshepsut and only 65 seals for Thutmose II.[13] Hence, unless there was an abnormally low number of scarabs produced under Thutmose II, this would indicate that the king's reign was rather short-lived. On this basis, Gabolde estimated Thutmose I and II's reigns to be approximately 11 and 3 full years respectively. Consequently, the reign length of Thutmose II has been a much debated subject among Egyptologists with little consensus given the small number of surviving documents for his reign. Ineofficial of the 18th Dynasty, responsible for major constructions un Egypt| Thutmose II]], Hatshepsut, and Thutmose III. Ineni came from an aristocratic family and likely began his career as an architect under Amenhotep I. Amenhotep I commissioned Ineni to expand the Temple of Karnak. ... Maatkare[1] Truth is the Ka of Re Nomen Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut[1] Joined with Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies Horus name Wesretkau [1] Mighty of Kas Nebty name Wadjrenput[1] Flourishing of years Golden Horus Netjeretkhau [1] Divine of appearance Consort(s) Thutmose II Issue Neferure Father Thutmose I... Menkheperre Lasting is the Manifestation of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Neferkheperu Thoth is born, beautiful of forms Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes Nebty name Wahnesytmireempet Enduring in kingship like Re in heaven Golden Horus Sekhempahtydsejerkhaw Powerful of strength, holy of diadems Consort(s) Hatshepsut-Meryetre, Nebtu... Semna can refer to: Semna, a city in ancient Nubia above the second cataract Semna, one of the 12 members of the Circle of the Codex This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Elephantine Island, showing the nilometer (lower left) and the Aswan Museum. ... Pylon is the Greek term for a monumental gateway of an Egyptian temple. ... Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... A dung beetle, with a shovel-like head, rolling a dung ball with its hindlegs. ... Egyptologist Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie (3 June 1853 - 28 July 1942) was a pioneer of systematic methodology in archaeology. ... Egyptologist is the designation given to an archaeologist or historian who specialises in Egyptology, the scientific study of Ancient Egypt and its antiquities. ...


Argument for a Long Reign

Thutmose's reign is still traditionally given 13 or 14 years. Although Ineni's autobiography can be interpreted to say that Thutmose reigned only a short time, it also calls Thutmose a "hawk in the nest," indicating that he was perhaps a child when he assumed the throne.[14] Since he lived long enough to father two children--Neferure and Thutmose III--this suggests that he may have had a longer reign of 13 years in order to reach adulthoood and start a family. The German Egyptologist, J. Von Beckerath, uses this line of argument to support the case of a 13 Year reign for Thutmose II.[15] Alan Gardiner noted that at one point, a monument had been identified by Georges Daressy in 1900[16] which was dated to Thutmose's 18th year, although it's precise location has not been identified.[17] This inscription is now usually attributed to Hatshepsut, who certainly did have an 18th year. von Beckerath observes that a Year 18 date appears in a fragmentary inscription of an Egyptian official and notes that the date likely refers to Hatshepsut's prenomen Maatkare, which had been altered from Aakheperenre Thutmose II, with the reference to the deceased Thutmose II being removed.[18] There is also the curious fact that Hatshepsut celebrated her Sed Jubilee in her Year 16 which von Beckerath believes occurred 30 Years after the death of Thutmose I, her father, who was the main source for her claim to power. This would create a gap of 13 to 14 Years where Tuthmose II's reign would fit in between Hatshepsut and Thutmose I's rule.[19] Neferure was the daughter of Thutmose II and his officially recognized wife Hatshepsut, the only child the two ever had together. ... Menkheperre Lasting is the Manifestation of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Neferkheperu Thoth is born, beautiful of forms Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes Nebty name Wahnesytmireempet Enduring in kingship like Re in heaven Golden Horus Sekhempahtydsejerkhaw Powerful of strength, holy of diadems Consort(s) Hatshepsut-Meryetre, Nebtu... Jürgen von Beckerath (born 19 February 1920) is a prominent German Egyptologist. ...


Campaigns

Upon Thutmose's coronation, Kush rebelled, as it had the habit of doing upon the transition of Egyptian kingship. The Nubian state had been completely subjugated by Thutmose I,[20] but some rebels from Khenthennofer rose up, and the Egyptian colonists retreated into a fortress built by Thutmose I.[21] On account of his relative youth at the time, Thutmose II dispatched an army into Nubia rather than leading it himself, but he seems to have easily crushed this revolt with the aid of his father's military generals.[22] This article is about the Nubian civilization. ...


Thutmose also seems to have fought against the Shasu Bedouin in the Sinai, in a campaign mentioned by Ahmose Pen-Nekhbet.[23] Although this campaign has been called a minor raid, there is a fragment which was recorded by Kurt Sethe which records a campaign in Upper Retenu, or Syria, which appears to have reached as far as a place called Niy where Thutmose I hunted Elephants after returning from crossing the Euphrates.[24] This quite possibly indicates that the raid against the Shasu was only fought en route to Syria.[25] Kurt Heinrich Sethe, a student of Adolf Erman, was a noted German Egyptologist and philologist. ... Retenu, also rendered Retchenu, was an Ancient Egyptian name for Canaan and Syria. ... Niya, Niye, and also Niy of Thutmose Is Ancient Egypt, also Nii of the Amarna letters, and Nihe, etc. ...


Mummy

The mummified head of Thutmose II
The mummified head of Thutmose II

Thutmose II's mummy was discovered in the Deir el-Bahri cache, revealed in 1881. He was interred along with those of other 18th and 19th dynasty leaders including Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, Thutmose I, Thutmose III, Ramesses I, Seti I, Ramesses II, and Ramesses IX, as well as the 21st dynasty pharaohs Psusennes I, Psusennes II, and Siamun. Image File history File links ThutmoseII-mummy-head-drawing. ... Image File history File links ThutmoseII-mummy-head-drawing. ... Djeser-Djeseru – the focal point of the complex Deir el-Bahri (Arabic دير البحري dayr al-baḥrī, literally meaning, “The Northern Monastery”) is a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt. ... Nebpehtire[4] The Lord of Strength is Re Nomen Ahmose[3] The Moon is Born Horus name Aakheperu[5] Great of Developments[6] Nebty name Tutmesut[5] Perfect of Birth[6] Golden Horus Tjestawy[5] He who Knots Together the Two Lands[6] Consort(s) Ahmose-Nefertari Gods Wife... Djeserkare Holy is the Soul of Re[1] Nomen Amenhotep Amun is Satisfied Horus name Kanaftau Bull who subdues the lands Nebty name Aaneru Who inspires great fear Golden Horus Uahrenput Enduring of years Consort(s) Ahmose-Meritamon Issue Amenemhat (died young), possibly Ahmes Father Ahmose I Mother Ahmose-Nefertari... Aakheperkare Great is the Soul of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Thoth is born Horus name Kanekhet meri maat Mighty Bull, Beloved of Maat Nebty name Kham neseret aa pehet Crowned with the royal serpent, Great of power Golden Horus Nefer Reneput Sankhibu Good of Years, Making Hearts to Live Consort... Menkheperre Lasting is the Manifestation of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Neferkheperu Thoth is born, beautiful of forms Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes Nebty name Wahnesytmireempet Enduring in kingship like Re in heaven Golden Horus Sekhempahtydsejerkhaw Powerful of strength, holy of diadems Consort(s) Hatshepsut-Meryetre, Nebtu... Menpehtyre Eternal is the Strength of Re[2] Nomen Ra-messes Re has fashioned him[1] Consort(s) Queen Sitre Issue Seti I Died 1290 BC Burial KV16 Menpehtyre Ramesses I (traditional English: Ramesses or Rameses ) was the founding Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 19th dynasty. ... Menmaatre Eternal is the Strength of Re[1] Nomen Seti Merenptah He of the god Seth, beloved of Ptah[2] Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset-Seankhtawy Nebty name Wehemmesut Sekhemkhepesh Derpedjetpesdjet Golden Horus Wehemkhau Weserpedjutemtawnebu[3] Consort(s) Queen Tuya Issue Tia, Amennefernebes, Ramesses II, Henutmire (?) Father Ramesses I Mother Sitre... Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name [2] Kanakht Merymaa Golden Horus [2] Userrenput-aanehktu[1] Consort(s) Henutmire, Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issue Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen see also: List of children... Tomb Interior of Ramesses IX Neferkare Ramesses IX (also written Ramses and Rameses) (1124 BC – 1106 BC) was the eighth king of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. ... Gold burial mask of King Psusennes I, discovered 1940 by Pierre Montet. ... nomen or birth name Titkheperure Psusennes II [Greek Ψουσέννης], or Hor-Pasebakhaenniut II [Egyptian ḥr-p3-sb3-ḫˁỉ-<n>-nỉwt], is the final king of the Twenty-first dynasty of Egypt. ... Neterkheperre-setepenamun Siamun was the Sixth pharaoh of Egypt during the Twenty-first dynasty. ...


The mummy was unwrapped by Gaston Maspero on July 1, 1886. There is a strong familial resemblance to the mummy of Thutmose I, his likely father, as the mummy face and shape of the head are very similar. The body of Thutmose II suffered greatly at the hands of ancient tomb robbers, with his left arm broken off at the shoulder-joint, the forearm separated at the elbow joint, and his right arm chopped off below the elbow. His anterior abdominal wall and much of his chest had been hacked at, possibly by an axe. In addition, his right leg had been severed from his body.[26] All of these injuries were sustained post-mortem, though the body also showed signs that Thutmose II did not have an easy life, as the following quote by Gaston Maspero attests: Gaston Camille Charles Maspero (June 23, 1846 - June 30, 1916), French Egyptologist, was born in Paris, his parents being of Lombard origin. ...

He had scarcely reached the age of thirty when he fell a victim to a disease of which the process of embalming could not remove the traces. The skin is scabrous in patches, and covered with scars, while the upper part of the skull is bald; the body is thin and somewhat shrunken, and appears to have lacked vigour and muscular power.[27]

See also

Archaeological evidence indicates that a distinct culture was developing in the Nile valley from before 5000 BC. What is now called the Pharaonic Period is dated from around 3100 BC, when Egypt became a unified state, until its survival as an independent state ceased in 332 BC, with its conquest... The Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt family tree is complex and unclear, especially at its end. ... ...

References

  1. ^ Betsy Bryan "The 18th Dynasty before the Amarna Period" in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Oxford University Press, 2000, p.236
  2. ^ Betsy Bryan, op. cit., p.236
  3. ^ J. Von Beckerath, Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten, MÄS 46 (Philip von Zabern, Mainz: 1997), p.201
  4. ^ Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988, p.204
  5. ^ Helk, Wolfgang. Schwachstellen der Chronologie-Diskussion. pp.47-9. Göttinger Miszellen, Göttingen, 1983
  6. ^ Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. p.204. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988
  7. ^ Shaw, Ian; and Nicholson, Paul. The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. p. 289. The British Museum Press, 1995
  8. ^ Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. II p. 47. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1906
  9. ^ Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. pp. 216. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988
  10. ^ Betsy Bryan, op. cit., pp.235-236
  11. ^ Betsy Bryan, op. cit., p.236
  12. ^ Gabolde, Luc (1987). "La Chronologie du règne de Thoutmosis II, ses conséquences sur la datation des momies royales et leurs répercutions sur l'histoire du développement de la Vallée des Rois". SAK 14: 61–87. 
  13. ^ Gabolde, op. cit., pp.67-68
  14. ^ Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. II p. 47. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1906
  15. ^ J. Von Beckerath, Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten, MÄS 46 (Philip von Zabern, Mainz: 1997)
  16. ^ G. Daressy, ASAE 1, 1900, 90(20)
  17. ^ Gardiner, Alan. Egypt of the Pharaohs. p. 180 Oxford University Press, 1964
  18. ^ Beckerath, Chronologie, p.121
  19. ^ J. Von Beckerath, Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten, MÄS 46 (Philip von Zabern, Mainz: 1997), p.121
  20. ^ Steindorff, George; and Seele, Keith. When Egypt Ruled the East. p.35. University of Chicago, 1942
  21. ^ Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. II p. 49. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1906
  22. ^ Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. II p. 50. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1906
  23. ^ Gardiner, Alan. Egypt of the Pharaohs. p. 180 Oxford University Press, 1964
  24. ^ Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. II p. 51. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1906
  25. ^ ibid
  26. ^ Smith, G Elliot. The Royal Mummies, p.28-29. Duckworth, 2000 (reprint).
  27. ^ Maspero, Gaston. History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, Volume 4 (of 12), Project Gutenberg EBook, Release Date: December 16, 2005. EBook #17324. http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/1/7/3/2/17324/17324-h/v4c.htm

  Results from FactBites:
 
Thutmose II - Biocrawler (186 words)
Thutmose II was the son of Thutmose the I and a minor wife, Mutnofret.
Thutmose was not fully royal and he married his fully royal half-sister, Hatshepsut, to secure his rule.
Thutmose II had two daughters with Hatshepsut, Nefrure and Meritre, but managed to father a male heir, Thutmose III, by a lesser wife named Isis before his death.
Thutmose III - ArchaeoWiki (1027 words)
Thutmose III was the fifth ruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty in the New Kingdom of ancient Egypt.
Thutmose III was probably married early to one Satiah, a commoner who first appears as his wife early in his third decade, soon after the death of Hatshepsut.
The tomb of Thutmose III in the Valley of the Kings, KV 34, appears to have been started only once the co-rule with Hatshepsut was ended with her death in his Year 21—relatively late, considering the earlier foundation of the pharaoh's mortuary complex.
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