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Encyclopedia > Thunder storms
A shelf cloud associated with a heavy or severe thunderstorm over Enschede, The Netherlands.
A shelf cloud associated with a heavy or severe thunderstorm over Enschede, The Netherlands.
The setting sun illuminates the top of a classic anvil-shaped thunderstorm cloud, eastern Nebraska, United States.
The setting sun illuminates the top of a classic anvil-shaped thunderstorm cloud, eastern Nebraska, United States.

A thunderstorm, also called an electrical storm, is a form of weather characterized by the presence of lightning and its attendant thunder produced from a cumulonimbus cloud.[1] Thunderstorms are usually accompanied by heavy rainfall and they can also be accompanied by strong winds, hail and tornadoes. In the winter months, snowfall can occasionally take place in a thunderstorm. Such is often termed thundersnow. Rolling thunderstorm photographed on July 17, 2004 in Enschede, The Netherlands. ... Rolling thunderstorm photographed on July 17, 2004 in Enschede, The Netherlands. ... Underside of a shelf cloud in Minnesota which brought a temperature drop of 20° Fahrenheit (11° C) from 85° F to 65° F as it passed. ... Raadhuisstraat in Enschede, with the Grote Kerk in the background Enschede or Eanske in the local dialect (Twents) is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands, in the province of Overijssel, in the Twente region. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2421x1528, 914 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thunderstorm Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2421x1528, 914 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thunderstorm Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... A shelf cloud associated with a heavy or severe thunderstorm over Enschede, Netherlands A storm is any disturbed state of a planets atmosphere, especially affecting its surface, and strongly implying severe weather. ... Weather is a term that encompasses phenomena in the atmosphere of a planet. ... Double lightning. ... Thunder is the sound of the shockwave caused when lightning instantly heats the air around it to up to 30 000 °C (54 000 °F). ... Cumulonimbus cloud in central Oklahoma. ... For the singer, see Rain (singer). ... Wind, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century) Wind is the rough horizontal movement of air (as opposed to an air current) caused by uneven heating of the Earths surface. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... A tornado in central Oklahoma. ... Animation of snowcover changing with the seasons Snow covering a leaf. ... Thundersnow is a particularly rare meteorological phenomenon that includes the typical behavior of a thunderstorm, but with snow falling as the primary precipitation instead of rain. ...


Thunderstorms form when significant condensation—resulting in the production of a wide range of water droplets and ice crystals—occurs in an atmosphere that is unstable and supports deep, rapid upward motion. This often occurs in the presence of three conditions: sufficient moisture accumulated in the lower atmosphere, reflected by high temperatures; a significant fall in air temperature with increasing height, known as a steep adiabatic lapse rate; and a force such as mechanical convergence along a cold front to focus the lift.[2] The process to initiate vertical lifting can be caused by (1) unequal warming of the surface of the Earth, (2) orographic lifting due to topographic obstruction of air flow, and (3) dynamic lifting because of the presence of a frontal zone.[3] Layers of Atmosphere (NOAA) Air redirects here. ... Fig. ... The adiabatic lapse rate is the rate of temperature change that occurs in an atmosphere as a function of elevation, assuming that air behaves adiabatically. ... In the absence of a more specific context, convergence denotes the approach toward a definite value, as time goes on; or to a definite point, a common view or opinion, or toward a fixed or equilibrium state. ...


Thunderstorms have had a lasting and powerful influence on early civilizations. Romans thought them to be battles waged by Jupiter, who hurled lightning bolts forged by Vulcan. Thunderstorms were associated with the Thunderbirds, held by Native Americans to be a servant of the Great Spirit. [citation needed] Jupiter et Thétis - by Jean Ingres, 1811. ... Vulcan, in Roman mythology, is the son of Jupiter and Juno, and husband of Maia and Venus. ... Depiction of a Thunderbird on a Totem Pole The Thunderbird is a mythical creature common to Native American religion. ... A Hupa man. ... The Great Spiritpoo is a conception of a supreme being prevalent among Native American and First Nations cultures. ...


According to Encyclopedia Britannica, if the quantity of water that is condensed in and subsequently precipitated from a cloud is known, then the total energy of a thunderstorm can be calculated. In an average thunderstorm, the energy released amounts to about 10,000,000 kilowatt-hours (3.6 x 1013 Joule), which is equivalent to a 20-kiloton nuclear warhead. A large, severe thunderstorm might be 10 to 100 times more energetic. To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here energies between 1013 joules and 1014 joules. ... The joule (IPA pronunciation: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ...

Contents

Classification

A single cell thunderstorm.
A single cell thunderstorm.
A lightning strike during a thunderstorm in Denver.
A lightning strike during a thunderstorm in Denver.

There are four main types of thunderstorms: single cell, multicell, squall line (also called multicell line) and supercell. Which type forms depends on the instability and relative wind conditions at different layers of the atmosphere ("wind shear"): Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x846, 36 KB) Summary A thunderstorm over Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia Photo taken by User:Bidgee Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x846, 36 KB) Summary A thunderstorm over Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia Photo taken by User:Bidgee Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1303x1519, 872 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Denver, Colorado Thunderstorm User talk:Merovingian User talk:Dina User talk:Kusma User talk:RyanGerbil10 User talk:Ombudsman... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1303x1519, 872 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Denver, Colorado Thunderstorm User talk:Merovingian User talk:Dina User talk:Kusma User talk:RyanGerbil10 User talk:Ombudsman... Wind shear is a difference in wind speed or direction between two points in the atmosphere. ...

  • Single cell storms form when the atmosphere is unstable, but there is little or no wind shear, meaning precipitation falls back down through the updraft that led to it, cooling it and eventually killing it. These storms are short lived, and last for less than an hour after becoming strong enough to produce lightning. Days with suitable weather conditions often see the repeated forming and dissipation of such storms, leading them to be known as "pulse" storms.[4]
  • Multicell storms are groups of cells in different stages of development which have merged into a larger system. The cloud becomes divided into updraft and downdraft regions separated by a gust front. The gust front may extend for several miles ahead of the storm, bringing with it increases in wind speed and atmospheric pressure, decreases in temperature, and shifts in wind direction. The storm itself will have different portions sequentially going through the various thunderstorm stages. In many cases the immature cells develop along a flanking line, resulting in what is known as a line multicell.[5]
  • Squall line or multicell line storms are formed as an organized line or lines of multicell storms frequently with a gust front. This kind of storm is also known as "Wind of the Stony Lake" (Traditional Chinese:石湖風, Simplified Chinese: 石湖风) in southern China.[6] They often arise from convective updrafts in or near mountain ranges and linear weather boundaries, usually strong cold fronts or troughs of low pressure. Occasionally, squall lines are also formed near the outer rain band of the tropical cyclones. The squall line is propelled by its own outflow, which reinforces continuous development of updrafts along the leading edge. Squall lines tend to be hundreds of miles long, sometimes stretching across the Midwestern United States, covering five states at a time. These lines can move swiftly and in some parts of the line, bow echoes can form, bringing with it high winds, dangerous lightning, and possibly tornadoes. Heavy rain, hail and damaging winds such as derechos can occur in a squall line.[7]
  • Supercell storms are large, severe quasi-steady-state storms which form when the wind speed and direction vary with height ("wind shear") separates downdrafts from updrafts (i.e., precipitation is not falling through the updraft) and contain a strong, rotating updraft (a "mesocyclone"). These storms normally have such powerful updrafts that the top of the cloud (or anvil) can reach miles into the air and can be 15 miles wide. These storms produce destructive tornadoes, sometimes F3 or higher, extremely large hailstones (4 inch—10 cm—diameter), straight-line winds in excess of 80 mph (130 km/h), and flash floods. In fact, most tornadoes occur from this kind of thunderstorm.s.[8]

Multicell or squall line systems may form within a meteorologically important feature known as mesoscale convective system (MCS) stretching for hundreds of kilometres. The mesoscale convective complex is a closely related phenomenon. They are large enough to have a pronounced effect on the upper-level and surface weather pattern, and may influence forecasts over a large area. MCS systems are common in the Midwest region of the United States and the Canadian Prairies during the summer months and produce much of the region's important agricultural rainfall.[citation needed] Prior to the discovery of the MCS phenomenon, the individual thunderstorms were thought of as independent entities, each being effectively impossible to predict. The MCS is amenable to forecasting, and a meteorlogist can now predict with high accuracy the percentage of the MCS that will be affected by thunderstorms. However, the meteorlologist still cannot predict exactly where each thunderstorm will occur within the MCS. An updraft or downdraft is the vertical movement of air as a weather related phenomenon. ... A gust front is a weather front that is the leading edge of gusty surface winds from thunderstorm downdrafts; sometimes associated with a shelf cloud or roll cloud. ... A squall or squall line is a line of thunderstorms with a common leading convection line, or mesocyclone, which tends to create a powerful gust front. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... A derecho is a widespread and long-lived, violent convectively induced windstorm that is associated with a fast-moving band of severe thunderstorms usually taking the form of a bow echo. ... Satellite view of a supercell A supercell is a severe thunderstorm with a deep rotating updraft (a mesocyclone) [1]. Supercell thunderstorms are the largest, most severe class of single-cell thunderstorms. ... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ... The Fujita scale (F-Scale), or Fujita-Pearson scale, rates a tornados intensity by the damage it inflicts on human-built structures and sometimes on vegetation. ... Lower Antelope Canyon was carved out of sandstone by flash floods A Flash Flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas (washes), rivers and streams, caused by the intense rainfall associated with a thunderstorm, or multiple training thunderstorms. ... A Mesoscale Convective Systen (MCS) is a complex of thunderstorms which becomes organized on a scale larger than the individual thunderstorms, and normally persists for several hours or more. ... A Mesoscale Convective Complex (MCC) is a large Mesoscale Convective System, generally round or oval-shaped, which normally reaches peak intensity at night. ... Map of the Canadian Prairie provinces, which include boreal forests, taiga, and mountains as well as the prairies (proper). ...


Severe thunderstorm

A severe thunderstorm is a thunderstorm with winds 92.5 kilometers/hour (57.5 mph) or greater, 1.9 centimeter (¾ in) or larger hail, funnel clouds or tornadoes.[9] These storms may contain frequent cloud-to-ground lightning and heavy downpours which can lead to localized flooding. This is a general definition which varies by country and is somewhat contentious.[citation needed] An otherwise weak thunderstorm which produces a wind gust of the required strength would be defined as 'severe' whereas a very violent thunderstorm with continuous lightning and very heavy rain (but without the required wind gusts, hail or tornado/funnel cloud) would not. Many of the violent local thunderstorms which affect Florida so frequently during the summer months would not be defined as severe. To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various speed levels between 1. ...


Severe thunderstorms may occur as supercell thunderstorms, although multicell and squall lines are the most common forms. Satellite view of a supercell A supercell is a severe thunderstorm with a deep rotating updraft (a mesocyclone) [1]. Supercell thunderstorms are the largest, most severe class of single-cell thunderstorms. ...


Where thunderstorms occur

Thunderstorms occur throughout the world, even in the polar regions, with the greatest frequency in tropical rainforest areas, where they may occur nearly daily. Kampala and Tororo in Uganda have each been mentioned as the most thunderous places on Earth[10], an accolade which has also been bestowed upon Bogor on Java, Indonesia. In temperate regions, they are most frequent in spring and summer, although they can occur in cold fronts at any time of year. Thunderstorms are rare in polar regions due to the cold climate and stable air masses that are generally in place, but they do occur from time to time, mainly in the summer months. The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... The Daintree Rainforest in Queensland, Australia. ... Kampala is the capital city of Uganda. ... Tororo is a district in eastern Uganda. ... Puncak pass area, looking north towards Bogor over extensive tea plantations Bogor is a city in West Java with a population of approximately 800,000 people in CBD area and 2,000,000 in suburban area, bringing a total of 3 million population. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... A guide to the symbols for weather fronts that may be found on a weather map: 1. ...


In more contemporary times, thunderstorms now have taken on the role of a curiosity. Every spring, storm chasers head to the Great Plains of the United States and the Canadian Prairies in summer to explore the visual and scientific aspects of storms and tornadoes. NSSL vehicles on Project Vortex, equipped with surface measurement equipment. ... The Great Plains covers much of the central United States, portions of Canada and Mexico. ... Map of the Canadian Prairie provinces, which include boreal forests, taiga, and mountains as well as the prairies (proper). ...


Life cycle

An airflow diagram of the towering cumulus stage An airflow diagram of the mature stage An airflow diagram of the dissipation stage
Diagram showing formation of a thunderstorm cloud

A given cell of a thunderstorm goes through three stages: the cumulus stage, the mature stage, and the dissipation stage. Image File history File links Tstorm-tcu-stage. ... Image File history File links Tstorm-mature-stage. ... Image File history File links Tstorm-dissipating-stage. ...


In the cumulus stage of a thunderstorm cell, masses of moisture are pushed upwards. The trigger for this can be solar insolation heating the ground producing thermals, areas where two winds converge forcing air upwards, or where winds blow over areas of high ground. The moisture rapidly cools into liquid drops of water, which appears as cumulus clouds. As the water vapour condenses into liquid, latent heat is released which warms the air, causing it to become less dense than the surrounding dry air, and so the air will tend to rise in an updraft due to the process of convection (hence the term convective precipitation). This creates a low-pressure zone beneath the forming thunderstorm. In a typical thunderstorm, some 5×108 kg of water vapour are lifted and the amount of energy released when this condenses is about equal to the energy used by a city (US-2002) of 100,000 during a month. TOA and surface insolation, annual mean Insolation is the incoming solar radiation that reaches a planet and its atmosphere or, by extension, any object exposed to solar rays, such as watts per square meter of Sun-facing cross section, across the entire electromagnetic spectrum; most of that power is in... This article is about the atmospheric phenomenon. ... Cumulonimbus capillatus incus floating over Swifts Creek, Victoria in Australia A cloud is a visible mass of condensed droplets or frozen crystals suspended in the atmosphere above the surface of the Earth or another planetary body. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Convection is the internal movement of currents within fluids (i. ... Late-summer rainstorm in Denmark In meteorology, precipitation (also known as hydrometeor) is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that is deposited on the earths surface. ... Category: ... The international prototype, made of platinum-iridium, which is kept at the BIPM under conditions specified by the 1st CGPM in 1889. ... The city of Chicago, as seen from the sky The main square of the Catalan city of Sabadell during a popular celebration. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Look up Month in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In the mature stage, the warmed air continues to rise until it reaches existing air which is itself warmer, and the air can rise no further. Often this 'cap' is the tropopause. The air is instead forced to spread out, giving the storm a characteristic anvil shape. The resulting cloud is called cumulonimbus incus. The water droplets coalesce into heavy droplets and freeze to become ice particles. As these fall they melt, to become rain. If the updraft is strong enough, the droplets are held aloft long enough to be so large that they do not melt completely as they fall and fall as hail. While updrafts are still present, the falling rain creates downdrafts as well. The presence of both updrafts and downdrafts during this stage can cause considerable internal turbulence in the storm system, which sometimes manifests as strong winds, severe lightning, and even tornadoes. If there is little wind shear, the storm will rapidly 'rain itself out', but if there is sufficient change in wind speed and/or direction the downdraft will be separated from the updraft, and the storm may become a supercell. The tropopause is a boundary region in the atmosphere between the troposphere and the stratosphere. ... Cumulonimbus (Cb) is a type of cloud that is tall, dense, and involved in thunderstorms and other bad weather. ... Look up coalescence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the singer, see Rain (singer). ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by chaotic, stochastic property changes. ... A tornado in central Oklahoma. ... Wind shear is a difference in wind speed or direction between two points in the atmosphere. ...


Finally, in the dissipation stage, updraft conditions no longer exist, and the storm is characterized largely by weak downdrafts. Because most of the moisture has precipitated out, there is not sufficient moisture in the lower air to sustain the cycle and the thunderstorm dissipates.

Anvil shaped thundercloud
Anvil shaped thundercloud

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2774x1067, 513 KB) A classic anvil shaped cumulus nimbus panorama File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thunderstorm ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2774x1067, 513 KB) A classic anvil shaped cumulus nimbus panorama File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thunderstorm ...

Lightning

Cloud to Ground Lightning
Cloud to Ground Lightning
For more details on this topic, see Lightning.

Lightning is an electrical discharge that occurs in a thunderstorm. It can be seen in the form of a bright streak (or bolt) from the sky. Lightning occurs when a charge is built up within a cloud. When a large enough charge is built up, a large discharge will occur and can be seen as lightning. The temperature of a lightning bolt can be hotter than the surface of the sun. Although the lightning is extremely hot, the short duration makes it not necessarily fatal. Contrary to the popular idea that lightning doesn’t strike twice in the same spot, some people have been struck by lightning over three times and skyscrapers like the Empire State Building have been struck numerous times in the same storm. [citation needed] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1327x1200, 117 KB)Lightning over Pentagon City in Arlington, Virginia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1327x1200, 117 KB)Lightning over Pentagon City in Arlington, Virginia. ... Double lightning. ... Double lightning. ...


There are several kinds of lightning.

  • In-Cloud Lightning is the most common. It is lightning within a cloud.
  • Cloud to Ground Lightning is when a bolt of lightning from a cloud strikes the ground. This form poses the greatest threat to life and property.
  • Ground to Cloud Lightning is when a lightning bolt is induced from the ground to the cloud.
  • Cloud to Cloud Lightning is rarely seen and is when a bolt of lightning arches from one cloud to another.
  • Ball Lightning is extremely rare and has no known scientific explanation. It is seen in the form of a 20 to 200 centimeter ball.
  • Cloud to Air Lightning is when lightning from a cloud hits air of a different charge.

References

  1. ^ Glossary - T. National Weather Service (21 April 2005). Retrieved on August 23, 2006.
  2. ^ Thunderstorms. Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved on August 23, 2006.
  3. ^ Thunderstorms. Encyclopedia of Earth. Retrieved on November 20, 2006.
  4. ^ Single Cell Thunderstorms. Weather World 2010 Project. University of Illinois (October 04, 1999). Retrieved on August 23, 2006.
  5. ^ Development of Multicell Cluster Storms. Weather World 2010 Project. University of Illinois (October 04, 1999). Retrieved on August 23, 2006.
  6. ^ Squall lines and "Shi Hu Feng" - what you want to know about the violent squalls hitting Hong Kong on 9 May 2005. Hong Kong Observatory (17 June 2005). Retrieved on August 23, 2006.
  7. ^ Components of Multicell Lines. Weather World 2010 Project. University of Illinois (October 04, 1999). Retrieved on August 23, 2006.
  8. ^ Supercell Thunderstorms. Weather World 2010 Project. University of Illinois (October 04, 1999). Retrieved on August 23, 2006.
  9. ^ Thunderstorms. National Severe Storms Laboratory (8 March 2006). Retrieved on August 23, 2006.
  10. ^ How many thunderstorms occur each year?. Thunderstorms. Sky Fire Productions. Retrieved on August 23, 2006.

April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in Leap years). ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in Leap years). ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in Leap years). ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in Leap years). ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... March 8 is the 67th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (68th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

Bibliography

  • Burgess, D.W., R. J. Donaldson Jr., and P. R. Desrochers, 1993: Tornado detection and warning by radar. The Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction, and Hazards, Geophys. Monogr., No. 79, Amer. Geophys. Union, 203–221.
  • Corfidi, S. F., 1998: Forecasting MCS mode and motion. Preprints 19th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, American Meteorological Society, Minneapolis, Minnesota, pp. 626-629.
  • Davies, J.M., 2004: Estimations of CIN and LFC associated with tornadic and nontornadic supercells. Wea. Forecasting, 19, 714-726.
  • _____, and R.H. Johns, 1993: Some wind and instability parameters associated with strong and violent tornadoes. Part I: Helicity and mean shear magnitudes. The Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction, and Hazards (C. Church et al., Eds.), Geophysical Monograph 79, Amer. Geophys. Union, 573-582.
  • David, C.L. 1973: An objective of estimating the probability of severe thunderstorms. Preprint Eight conference of Severe Local Storms. Denver, Colorado, American Meteorological Society, 223-225.
  • Doswell, C.A., III, D. V. Baker, and C. A. Liles, 2002: Recognition of negative factors for severe weather potential: A case study. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 937–954.
  • ______, S.J. Weiss and R.H. Johns (1993): Tornado forecasting: A review. The Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction, and Hazards (C. Church et al., Eds), Geophys. Monogr. No. 79, Amer. Geophys. Union, 557-571.
  • Evans, Jeffry S.: Examination of Derecho Environments Using Proximity Soundings. [1]
  • J.V. Iribarne and W.L. Godson, Atmospheric Thermodynamics, published by D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, 1973, 222 pages
  • Johns, R. H., J. M. Davies, and P. W. Leftwich, 1993: Some wind and instability parameters associated with strong and violent tornadoes. Part II: Variations in the combinations of wind and instability parameters. The Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction and Hazards, Geophys. Mongr., No. 79, Amer. Geophys. Union, 583–590.
  • M K Yau and R.R. Rogers, Short Course in Cloud Physics, Third Edition, published by Butterworth-Heinemann, January 1, 1989, 304 pages. EAN 9780750632157 ISBN 0-7506-3215-1

The American Meteorological Society promotes the development and dissemination of information and education on the atmospheric and related oceanic and hydrologic sciences and the advancement of their professional applications. ... This article is about the city in Minnesota. ... Nickname: The Mile-High City Location of Denver in Colorado Coordinates: Country United States State Colorado City-County Denver (coextensive) Founded November 22, 1858 Incorporated November 7, 1861  - Mayor John Hickenlooper (D) Area    - City  154. ... The American Meteorological Society promotes the development and dissemination of information and education on the atmospheric and related oceanic and hydrologic sciences and the advancement of their professional applications. ... Satellite image of part of the Rhine-Meuse delta, showing the Island of Dordrecht and the eponymous city (7) Dordrecht (population 119,649 (2004)), or in English: Dort, is a city in the Dutch province of South Holland, the third largest city of the province. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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