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Encyclopedia > Thunder Bay, Ontario
Thunder Bay, Ontario
Downtown Port Arthur in Thunder Bay

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Nickname: Lakehead; The Lakehead; Head of the Lakes
Motto: Superior by nature
Location of Thunder Bay, Ontario
Location of Thunder Bay, Ontario
Coordinates: 48°22′56″N 89°14′46″W / 48.38222, -89.24611
Country Canada
Province Ontario
Region Northwestern Ontario
District Thunder Bay District
CMA Thunder Bay
Settled 1679 as Fort Caministigoyan
See histories of Port Arthur and Fort William
Amalgamation 1 January 1970
Government [1][2]
 - Type Municipal Government
 - Mayor Lynn Peterson
 - CAO Robert Petrie
 - Governing Body Thunder Bay City Council
 - MPs Ken Boshcoff (LPC)
Joe Comuzzi (CPC)
 - MPPs Michael Gravelle (OLP)
Bill Mauro (OLP)
Area [3][4]
 - Land 328.48 km² (126.8 sq mi)
 - Urban 179.71 km² (69.4 sq mi)
 - Metro 2,550.40 km² (984.7 sq mi)
Elevation 183.3 m (601 ft)
Population (2006)[3][4]
 - City 109,140 (Ranked 43rd)
 - Density 332.26/km² (860.5/sq mi)
 - Urban 103,247 (Ranked 29th)
 - Urban Density 574.52/km² (1,488/sq mi)
 - Metro 122,907 (Ranked 31st)
 - Metro Density 48.19/km² (124.8/sq mi)
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Postal code span P7A to P7G, P7J, P7K
Area code(s) 807
Demonym Thunder Bayer
Website: City of Thunder Bay
The Port of Thunder Bay, as seen from Hillcrest Park

Thunder Bay, formerly the twin cities of Fort William and Port Arthur, is a city in and the seat of Thunder Bay District, Ontario, Canada. Through the 19th and 20th century the area was commonly referred to as the "Head of the Lakes" or the Lakehead. It is the second largest city in Northern Ontario (2006 population 109,140[3]; CMA 122,907[4]), and the largest in the Northwestern Ontario region. The city takes its name from the immense bay at the head of Lake Superior, known on 18th century French maps as "Baie du Tonnerre".[5] The city was formed in 1970 by the merger of the cities of Fort William, Port Arthur and the geographic townships of Neebing and McIntyre.[6] Its port forms an important link in the shipping of grain and other products from western Canada through the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence Seaway to the east coast. The city is often referred to as the Lakehead or Canadian Lakehead because of its location at the end of Great Lakes navigation. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Thunder_Bay_Flag. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... // A nickname is a name of a person or thing other than its proper name. ... A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Canada consists of ten provinces and three territories. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ontario. ... // Canadian provinces and territories are normally grouped into the following regions (generally from west to east): Northern Canada (The North) Yukon Northwest Territories Nunavut Western Canada British Columbia Prairies Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba Eastern Canada Central Canada Ontario Quebec Atlantic Canada Maritimes New Brunswick Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia Newfoundland and... Northwestern Ontario is the region within the Canadian province of Ontario which lies north and west of Lake Superior, and west of Hudson Bay and James Bay. ... In the Canadian province of Ontario, there are three different types of census divisions: single-tier municipalities, upper-tier municipalities (which can be regional municipalities or counties) and districts. ... Thunder Bay District is a district and census division in Northwestern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario. ... A census metropolitan area, or CMA is a Canadian census subdivision comprising a large urban area (known as the urban core) and adjacent areas (known as urban and rural fringes) that have a high degree of social and economic integration with the urban core. ... Daniel Greysolon Dulhut had built a fort, (Fort Caministigoyan), at the Kaministiquia River in 1679. ... Port Arthur, Ontario, was a city in Northern Ontario which amalgamated with Fort William, Ontario and the townships of Neebing and McIntyre to form the City of Thunder Bay in January 1970. ... Fort William was a city in Northern Ontario, located on the Kaministiquia River, at its entrance to Lake Superior. ... Amalgamation, meaning to combine or unite into one form, has several uses: Amalgam, in chemistry, mining and dentistry, the result of the blending of mercury with another metal or alloy Amalgamation (mining), the process of separation of precious metals from ore. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Local government in Canada lies at a lower level than federal and provincial government. ... This is list of Mayors of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. ... Lynn Peterson was elected Mayor of the City of Thunder Bay, Ontario on November 10, 2003. ... A chief administrative officer (or CAO) is a corporate officer responsible for management of the personnel of the corporation. ... The Thunder Bay City Council is the governing body of the City of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ... Ken Boshcoff: mayor of Thunder Bay, Ontario (1997-2003) Ken Boshcoff (born June 20, 1949 at Fort William, Ontario) is a Canadian politician. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... Joseph Robert Joe Comuzzi, PC , MP (born April 5, 1933) is a Canadian politician. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... The Provincial Parliament of Ontario, is the legislature of the Canadian province of Ontario. ... Michael Gravelle (born January 23, 1949) is a politician in Ontario, Canada. ... The Ontario Liberal Party is a center-right provincial political party in the province of Ontario, Canada. ... Bill Mauro is a politician in Ontario, Canada. ... The Ontario Liberal Party is a center-right provincial political party in the province of Ontario, Canada. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Basic Definition In geography, the elevation of a geographic location is its height above mean sea level (or some other fixed point). ... The metre (American English:meter) is a measure of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. ... The table below lists the 100 largest municipalities in Canada by population, using data from the Canada 2006 census for census subdivisions. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Crowded Shibuya, Tokyo shopping district An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... The urban areas identified below are defined by Statistics Canada with reference to continuous population density, ignoring municipal boundaries. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The table below lists the 100 largest metropolitan areas in Canada by population, using data from the Canada 2001 Census[1] and the Canada 2006 Census. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Metronome, a public art installation showing the time in New York City The Eastern Time Zone (ET) of the Western Hemisphere falls mostly along the east coast of Northern America and the west coast of South America. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Eastern Daylight Time or EDT is equal to: In North America, Eastern Standard Time + 1, or UTC − 4 hours. ... −12 | −11 | −10 | −9:30 | −9 | −8 | −7 | −6 | −5 | −4 | −3:30 | −3 | −2:30 | −2 | −1 | −0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Northern Ontario - 57 FSAs Most populated FSAs Statistics Canada, 2001 Census P0M, 51,197 P0T, 40,119 P0H, 38,600 P6A, 35,012 P1B, 33,596 Least populated FSAs Statistics Canada, 2001 Census P0Y, 49 P7K, 1,643 P7J, 2,055 P1C, 2,224 P7G, 2,436 Categories... Area code 807 is a telephone area code in the Canadian province of Ontario, encompassing the Northwestern Ontario region. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Fort William was a city in Northern Ontario, located on the Kaministiquia River, at its entrance to Lake Superior. ... Port Arthur, Ontario, was a city in Northern Ontario which amalgamated with Fort William, Ontario and the townships of Neebing and McIntyre to form the City of Thunder Bay in January 1970. ... Look up city, City in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Thunder Bay District is a district and census division in Northwestern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... Northern Ontario is the part of the province of Ontario, Canada, which lies north of Lake Huron, Georgian Bay, the French River and Lake Nipissing. ... The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. ... Northwestern Ontario is the region within the Canadian province of Ontario which lies north and west of Lake Superior, and west of Hudson Bay and James Bay. ... Lake Superior, bounded by Ontario, Canada and Minnesota, USA, to the north and Wisconsin and Michigan, USA, to the south, is the largest of North Americas Great Lakes. ... Fort William was a city in Northern Ontario, located on the Kaministiquia River, at its entrance to Lake Superior. ... Port Arthur, Ontario, was a city in Northern Ontario which amalgamated with Fort William, Ontario and the townships of Neebing and McIntyre to form the City of Thunder Bay in January 1970. ... The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... The Eisenhower Locks in Massena, NY. The St. ...

Contents

History

European settlement on Thunder Bay began with two French fur trading posts (1679, 1717) which were subsequently abandoned (see Fort William, Ontario). In addition Canadian fur traders had been forced to abandon Grand Portage as their centre of operations when that area was ceded to the United States after the American Revolution, and to avoid American taxes the trading post was moved to what became Fort William on the Canadian side of the border.[7] Permanent settlement began in 1803 with the establishment of Fort William by the Montreal-based North West Company as its mid-continent entrepôt. The fort thrived until 1821 when the North West Company merged with the Hudson's Bay Company and Fort William lost its raison d'être. By the 1850s the Province of Canada began to take an interest in its western extremity, largely because of a demand for mining locations on the Canadian shores of Lake Superior following the discovery of copper in the Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan. In 1849 French-speaking Jesuits established the Mission de l'Immaculée-Conception (Mission of the Immaculate Conception) on the Kaministiquia to evangelize the Ojibwe. The Province of Canada negotiated a treaty with the Ojibwe of Lake Superior known as the Robinson Treaty in 1850. As a result, an Indian reservation was set aside south of the Kaministiquia River. In 1859-60 the Department of Crown Lands surveyed two townships (Neebing and Paipoonge) and the Town Plot of Fort William. Port Arthur, Ontario, was a city in Northern Ontario which amalgamated with Fort William, Ontario and the townships of Neebing and McIntyre to form the City of Thunder Bay in January 1970. ... Fort William was a city in Northern Ontario, located on the Kaministiquia River, at its entrance to Lake Superior. ... Fort William was a city in Northern Ontario, located on the Kaministiquia River, at its entrance to Lake Superior. ... Grand Portage is an unorganized territory in Cook County, Minnesota, on Lake Superior, at the northeast corner of the state near the border with northwestern Ontario. ... Fort William Historical Park (formerly known as Old Fort William) is a Canadian historical site located in Thunder Bay, Ontario that contains a reconstruction of the Fort William fur trading post as it existed in 1815. ... Today, the North West Company is a grocery vendor in remote communities across northern Canada, Alaska and Greenland. ... The Hudsons Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie dHudson in French) is the oldest commercial corporation in North America and is one of the oldest in the world. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Keweenaw Peninsula is the most northern part of Michigans Upper Peninsula. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... The Kaministiquia River is a Canadian river which empties into western Lake Superior at the city of Thunder Bay. ... For other uses of Chippewa, see Chippewa (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Chippewa, see Chippewa (disambiguation). ... Robinson Treaty may refer to one of two treaties signed between the Ojibwa chiefs and The Crown, represented by William Benjamin Robinson. ...


Another settlement developed a few miles to the north of Fort William with the construction by the federal Department of Public Works of a road connecting Lake Superior with the Red River Colony under the direction of Simon James Dawson.(see Port Arthur, Ontario) This public works depot or construction headquarters acquired its first name in May 1870 when Colonel Garnet Wolsley named it Prince Arthur's Landing. It was renamed Port Arthur by the CPR in May 1883. The Red River Colony (or Selkirk Settlement) was a colonization project set up by Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk in 1811 on 300,000 km² of land granted to him by the Hudsons Bay Company under what is referred to as the Selkirk Concession. ... Simon James Dawson (June 23, 1818-October 30, 1902) was a Canadian politician. ... Port Arthur, Ontario, was a city in Northern Ontario which amalgamated with Fort William, Ontario and the townships of Neebing and McIntyre to form the City of Thunder Bay in January 1970. ...


The arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1875 sparked a long battle for supremacy which did not end until the amalgamation of 1970. Until the 1880s, Port Arthur was a much larger and dynamic community, but the CPR in collaboration with the Hudson's Bay Company preferred east Fort William, located on the lower Kaministiquia river where the fur trade posts were. Further provoked by a prolonged tax dispute with Port Arthur and the seizure of a locomotive in 1889, the CPR relocated all its employees and facilities to Fort William. The collapse of silver mining after 1890 further undermined the economy of Port Arthur which entered a period of deep depression while Fort William thrived. An eastbound CPR freight at Stoney Creek Bridge in Rogers Pass. ...


The 20th Century

Thunder Bay began a period of extraordinary growth in the era of Sir Wilfrid Laurier as a result of transcontinental railway building and the western wheat boom. The CPR double-tracked its Winnipeg–Thunder Bay line. The Canadian Northern Railway established facilities at Port Arthur. The Grand Trunk Pacific Railway began construction of its facilities at the Fort William Mission in 1905, and the federal government began construction of the National Transcontinental Railway. Grain elevator construction boomed as the volume of grain shipped to Europe increased. Both cities indebted themselves by granting bonuses to manufacturing industries. By 1914 the twin cities had modern infrastructures (sewers, safe water supply, street lighting, electric light, etc.). Both Fort William and Port Arthur were proponents of municipal ownership. As early as 1892 Port Arthur built Canada's first municipally-owned electric street railway, and both cities spurned Bell Telephone Company of Canada to establish their own municipally-owned telephone systems in 1902. Sir Wilfrid Laurier, PC, GCMG, KC, BCL, DCL, LLD, DLitt, baptized Henri-Charles-Wilfrid Laurier (November 20, 1841 – February 17, 1919) was the seventh Prime Minister of Canada from July 11, 1896, to October 5, 1911. ... The Canadian Northern Railway (CNoR) is a historic Canadian railway. ... Grand Trunk Pacific Railway logo or herald The Grand Trunk Pacific Railway (GTPR) was a historical Canadian railway. ... -1... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Bell Canada Enterprises (TSX: BCE) (NYSE: BCE) is a major telecommunications company and a provider of telephone services in Canada. ...


The boom came to an end in 1913-14 aggravated by the First World War, but a war time economy emerged with the making of munitions and ship-building. The cities raised men for the 52nd, 94th and 141st Battalions of the Canadian Expeditionary Force. Railway employment was hurt when the federal government took over the National Transcontinental Railway and Lake Superior Division from the Grand Trunk in 1915, and the Canadian Northern Railway in 1918 which were amalgamated with other government-owned railways in 1923 to form the Canadian National Railways. The CNR closed many of the Canadian Northern Railway facilities in Port Arthur and opened the Neebing yards in Neebing Township in 1922. By 1929 the population of the two cities had recovered to pre-war levels. 26th Battalion of the Second Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1915 The Canadian Expeditionary Force was the group of Canadian military units formed for service overseas in the First World War. ... -1... CN redirects here, as its the most common usage of the abbreviation in Canada; for more uses, see CN (disambiguation). ...


The forest products industry has always played an important role in the Thunder Bay economy from the 1870s. Logs and lumber were shipped primarily to the United States. In 1917 the first pulp and paper mill was established in Port Arthur. It was followed by a mill at Fort William in 1920. Eventually there were four mills operating.


Manufacturing resumed in 1937 when the Canada Car and Foundry Company plant re-opened to build aircraft for the British. Now run by Bombardier Transportation, the plant has remained a mainstay of the post-war economy producing forestry equipment, then transportation equipment for urban transit systems such as the Toronto Transit Commission and GO Transit. Bombardier Transportation is the rail equipment division of the Bombardier group. ... The Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) is a public transport authority that operates buses, streetcars, subways, and rapid transit lines in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... GO Transit (AAR reporting marks GOT), officially known as the Greater Toronto Transit Authority (GTTA), is Canadas first, and Ontarios only, interregional public transit system, established to link Toronto with the surrounding regions of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). ...


The expansion of highways beginning with the Trans-Canada Highway culminating with the opening of a highway linking Sault Ste Marie to Thunder Bay has significantly diminished railway and shipping activity. The St Lawrence Seaway has not therefore lived up to expectations. Grain shipping has declined substantially in favor of Pacific Coast ports. As a result many grain elevators have been closed and demolished, and the Kaministiquia River has been abandoned by industry and shipping. The Trans-Canada Highway is a federal-provincial highway system that joins all ten provinces of Canada. ... The Saint Lawrence Seaway in its broadest sense (see Great Lakes Waterway) is the system of canals that permits ocean-going vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes as far as Lake Superior. ...


Today

Thunder Bay has become the regional services centre for Northwestern Ontario with most provincial departments represented. Lakehead University, established through the lobbying of local businessmen and professionals, has proved to be a major asset, reinforced by Confederation College. The same businessmen and professionals were the driving force behind the amalgamation of Fort William and Port Arthur in 1970. Northwestern Ontario is the region within the Canadian province of Ontario which lies north and west of Lake Superior, and west of Hudson Bay and James Bay. ... Lakehead University is situated at the head of Lake Superior in Thunder Bay, Ontario. ... Categories: Canada education stubs | Colleges in Ontario ...


Government and politics

See also: Thunder Bay City Council
 The seven wards:■Neebing Ward■McIntyre Ward■Current River Ward ■McKeller Ward■Red River Ward■Westfort Ward■Northwood Ward
The seven wards:
■Neebing Ward
■McIntyre Ward
■Current River Ward
■McKeller Ward
■Red River Ward
■Westfort Ward
■Northwood Ward

The city is governed by a mayor and twelve councillors. The mayor and five of the councillors are elected at large by the whole city. Seven councillors are elected for the seven wards: Current River Ward, McIntyre Ward, McKeller Ward, Neebing Ward, Northwood Ward, Red River Ward, and Westfort Ward.[8] The Thunder Bay City Council is the governing body of the City of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 510 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (746 × 876 pixel, file size: 91 KB, MIME type: image/png) The Seven Municipal Wards of the City of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada Pink = Neebing Ward Orange = McIntyre Ward Gold = Current River Ward Chartreuse = McKeller Ward Teal... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 510 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (746 × 876 pixel, file size: 91 KB, MIME type: image/png) The Seven Municipal Wards of the City of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada Pink = Neebing Ward Orange = McIntyre Ward Gold = Current River Ward Chartreuse = McKeller Ward Teal... This is list of Mayors of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. ... Local government in Canada lies at a lower level than federal and provincial government. ...


Thunder Bay is represented in the Canadian Parliament by Joe Comuzzi (Conservative) and Ken Boshcoff (Liberal), and in the Ontario Legislature by Michael Gravelle (Liberal) and Bill Mauro (Liberal). The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ... Joseph Robert Joe Comuzzi, PC , MP (born April 5, 1933) is a Canadian politician. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... Ken Boshcoff: mayor of Thunder Bay, Ontario (1997-2003) Ken Boshcoff (born June 20, 1949 at Fort William, Ontario) is a Canadian politician. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... The Ontario Legislature Building at Queens Park The Legislative Assembly of Ontario, is the legislature of the Canadian province of Ontario. ... Michael Gravelle (born January 23, 1949) is a politician in Ontario, Canada. ... The Ontario Liberal Party is a center-right provincial political party in the province of Ontario, Canada. ... Bill Mauro is a politician in Ontario, Canada. ...


Thunder Bay's name

Thunder Bay's name is the result of a referendum held on June 23rd, 1969 to determine the new name of the amalgamated Fort William and Port Arthur. Officials debated over the names to be put on the ballot, taking suggestions from residents including "Lakehead" and "The Lakehead". Predictably, the vote split between the two, and "Thunder Bay" was the victor. The final tally was "Thunder Bay" with 15,870, "Lakehead" with 15,302, and "The Lakehead" with 8,377.[9] Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ...


City symbols

Sleeping Giant

The Sleeping Giant, a large formation of mesas on Sibley Peninsula in Lake Superior, which resembles a reclining giant, has become a symbol of the city. Sibley peninsula partially encloses the waters of Thunder Bay, and dominates the view of the lake from the northern section of the city (formerly Port Arthur). The Sleeping Giant also figures on the city's coat of arms and the city flag. The Sleeping Giant is a formation of mesas on Sibley Peninsula which resembles a giant lying on its back when viewed from the West to North-Northwest section of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. ... Mathematics Engineering and Science Achievement (MESA) is a current program that is building in schools around the United States. ... Sibley Peninsula - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Lake Superior, bounded by Ontario, Canada and Minnesota, USA, to the north and Wisconsin and Michigan, USA, to the south, is the largest of North Americas Great Lakes. ...

Coat of arms
The Coat of Arms of the City of Thunder Bay, which incorporates features from the coats of arms of Port Arthur and Fort William.

Thunder Bay's official Coat of Arms is a combination of the coats of arms of both Port Arthur and Fort William, with a unifying symbol—the Sleeping Giant—at the base of the arms. Retained from the coat of arms of Port Arthur is a moose with a silver collar, a sheaf of wheat and a salmon, and to signify the motto "The Gateway to the West", "a sun splendor, the face charged with the castellated gateway, the portcullis raised". The wavy blue and white bars below represent Lake Superior. Fort William's contribution is the beaver and North West Company slogan "Perseverance", inscribed on a scroll within the branches of a pine tree. Also from the Fort William arms as the shield in chief is a Voyageur canoe, and on the dexter side of the shield stands the Voyageur as depicted on the original Fort William Arms.[10] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Crenellation (or crenelation, also known as castellation) is the name for the distinctive pattern that frames the tops of the walls of many medieval castles, often called battlements. ... Counterweights for the sliding portcullis A portcullis is a grille or gate made of wood, metal or a combination of the two. ... Voyageur is French for the word voyager or traveller. Voyageur or Voyageurs can also refer to: Voyageurs, licensed coureur des bois fur traders in 17th and 18th century North America Voyageurs National Park, a US National Park in Minnesota Voyageurs (camp), a French language immersion program run through the Concordia...

Corporate logo

The city logo depicts a stylized thunderbird, called Animikii, a statue of which is located on the city's Kaministiquia River Waterfront Park. The slogan, Superior by Nature, is a double play on words reflecting the city's natural setting on Lake Superior.[10] Depiction of a Thunderbird on a Totem Pole The mythological Thunderbird is a mythical creature common to Indigenous spirituality in North America . ...

City flag

Thunder Bay's flag was created in 1972, when mayor Saul Laskin wanted to promote the city by having a distinctive flag. The city held a contest, which was won by Cliff Redden. The flag has a 1:2 ratio, and depicts a golden sky from the rising sun behind the Sleeping Giant, which sits in the blue waters of Lake Superior. The sun is represented by a red maple leaf, a symbol of Canada. Green and gold are Thunder Bay's city colours.[10] It has been suggested that the section intro from the article Civil flag be merged into this article or section. ... Saul Laskin (born 1918) is a retired Canadian politician. ... Maple leaves in fall For other meanings, see maple leaf (disambiguation). ... The maple leaf is the characteristic leaf of the maple tree, and is an important national symbol of Canada. ...


Sister cities

Thunder Bay has eight sister cities.[11] This article is about partnerships between towns distant from each other; see Twin cities for the different concept of physically neighbouring cities. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Founded 1868 Country Finland Province Western Finland Region Southern Ostrobothnia Sub-region Seinäjoki Area 603 km² Population - Density 36,419 (Dec 31, 2005) 60 inh. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Little Canada is a city in Ramsey County, Minnesota, United States. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Duluths canal connects Lake Superior to the Duluth-Superior harbor and the St. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ghana. ... Bunkpurugu is a town in the Upper East Region of Ghana close to the border with Togo. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Keelung City (Traditional Chinese: 基隆; Hanyu Pinyin: JÄ«lóng; Tongyong Pinyin: Jilóng; Wade-Giles: Chi-lung; POJ: Ke-lâng) is a provincial city of Taiwan, Republic of China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Siderno is a town located in Calabria, Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Yanaizu (柳津町; -chou) is a town located in Hashima District, Gifu, Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Singapore. ... // hello!!! so u are a fucker The summit of Bukit Timah, the highest point in Singapore. ...

Geography

Thunder Bay from space, October 1994.
Thunder Bay from space, October 1994.
McVicar Creek in wintertime.
McVicar Creek in wintertime.

The city has an area of 328.48 square kilometres which includes the former cities of Fort William and Port Arthur as well as the townships of Neebing, Ontario and McIntyre. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3869x3872, 10982 KB) The city of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada and its vicinity from space, taken by the space shuttle mission STS-68 in October 1994. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3869x3872, 10982 KB) The city of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada and its vicinity from space, taken by the space shuttle mission STS-68 in October 1994. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Neebing is a township in the Canadian province of Ontario, located in the Thunder Bay District immediately south of the city of Thunder Bay. ...


The former Fort William section occupies flat alluvial land along the Kaministiquia River which has a river delta at its mouth of two large islands known as Mission Island and McKellar Island. The former Port Arthur section is more typical of the Canadian Shield, with gently sloping hills and very thin soil lying on top of bedrock with many bare outcrops. Thunder Bay, which gives the city its name, is immense—about 22.5 kilometres (14 miles) from the Port Arthur downtown to Thunder Cape at the tip of the Sleeping Giant. Alluvium is soil land deposited by a river or other running water. ... The Kaministiquia River is a Canadian river which empties into western Lake Superior at the city of Thunder Bay. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... Canadian Shield The Canadian Shield— also called the Precambrian Shield, Laurentian Shield, Bouclier Canadien (French), or Laurentian Plateau— is a large shield covered by a thin layer of soil that forms the nucleus of the North American craton. ... The Sleeping Giant is a formation of mesas on Sibley Peninsula which resembles a giant lying on its back when viewed from the West to North-Northwest section of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. ...


The city reflects the settlement patterns of the 19th century. It is therefore highly spread out for historical reasons. Anchoring the west end of the city, the Fort William Town Plot surveyed in 1859-60 was named West Fort William (Westfort) in 1888 by the CPR. The land adjoining the lower Kaministiquia River became the residential and central business district of the town and city of Fort William. A large uninhabited area adjoining the Neebing and McIntyre rivers which became known as Intercity separated Fort William from the residential and central business district of Port Arthur. At the extreme east of the city, a part of McIntyre Township was annexed to the town of Port Arthur in 1892, forming what later became known as the Current River area.


Since 1970, the central business districts of Fort William and Port Arthur have suffered a serious decline as business and government have relocated to the Intercity area. There has also been substantial residential growth in adjacent areas of the former Neebing and McIntyre townships.


Climate

The climate of Thunder Bay and area is influenced by Lake Superior, which is especially noticeable in the city's north end, resulting in cooler summer temperatures and warmer winter temperatures for an area extending inland as far as 16 km. The average daily temperatures range from a high of 17.6 °C in July and a low of -14.8 °C in January. The average daily high in July is 24.2 °C and the average daily high in January is -8.6 °C. The city is quite sunny with an average of 2167.7 hours of bright sunshine each year, ranging from 283.4 hours in July to 88.8 hours in November, sunnier than any city in Canada located to the east of it.[12]



Climate in Thunder Bay
Temperature
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Record high °C (°F) 8.3(47) 12.2(54) 22.8(73) 28.3(83) 35.2(95) 35.6(96) 37.2(99) 40.3(105) 31.7(89) 28.3(83) 21.7(71) 12.2(54)
Average high °C (°F) -8.6(17) -5.6(22) 0.3(33) 9.0(48) 16.4(62) 20.6(69) 24.2(76) 23.1(74) 17.1(63) 10.4(51) 1.7(35) -6.1(21)
Average °C (°F) -14.8(5) -12(10) -5.5(22) 2.9(37) 9.5(49) 14(57) 17.6(64) 16.6(62) 11(52) 5(41) -3(27) -11.6(11)
Average low °C (°F) -21.1(-6) -18.4(-1) -11.2(12) -3.3(26) 2.5(37) 7.3(45) 11.0(52) 10.1(50) 4.9(41) -0.5(31) -7.7(18) -17.0(1)
Record low °C (°F) -41.1(-42) -40(-40) -37.6(-36) -22.2(-8) -8.9(16) -2.8(27) 0(32) -1.1(30) -8.3(17) -13.3(8) -30.6(-23) -37.8(-36)
Precipitation and Sunshine Hours
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Total mm (in) 31.3(1.23) 24.9(0.98) 41.6(1.64) 41.5(1.63) 66.5(2.62) 85.7(3.37) 89.0(3.50) 87.5(3.44) 88.0(3.46) 62.6(2.46) 55.6(2.19) 37.5(1.48)
Rainfall mm (in) 2.5(0.10) 2.8(0.11) 17.5(0.69) 29.5(1.16) 65(2.56) 85.7(3.37) 89.0(3.50) 87.5(3.44) 87.5(3.44) 57(2.24) 31.5(1.24) 3.6(0.14)
Snowfall cm (in) 41.2(16.22) 26.9(10.59) 26.8(10.55) 12.4(4.88) 1.7(0.67) 0(0) 0(0) 0(0) 0.5(0.2) 6.1(2.4) 27.8(10.94) 44.1(17.36)
Sunshine hours 114.4 133.5 159.1 219 265 264.1 283.4 258.3 162.9 127.7 88.8 91.7
Data recorded at Thunder Bay International Airport
Data obtained from Environment Canada
Data spans 1971 to 2000
Annual Averages Temperature Precipitation Sunshine
High Mean Low Total Rain Snow
°C(°F) °C(°F) °C(°F) mm(in) mm(in) cm(in) hours
8.5(47) 2.5(37) -3.6(26) 711.6(28) 559(22) 187.6(74) 2167.9

Thunder Bay Airport or Thunder Bay International Airport, (IATA: YQT, ICAO: CYQT), is an airport in the Canadian city of Thunder Bay, Ontario. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Economy

Employment by industry[13]
Industry Thunder Bay Ontario
Agriculture 3.7% 3.2%
Manufacturing 16.2% 22.0%
Trade 15.0% 15.9%
Finance 4.4% 6.7%
Health and education 21.6% 15.1%
Business services 16.6% 19.1%
Other services 22.4% 18.1%

As the largest city in Northwestern Ontario, Thunder Bay is the region's commercial, administrative and medical centre. The main private sector employers are Bowater Forest Products, Abitibi-Consolidated, Bombardier Transportation, Buchanan Forest Products, and Cascades Inc. The public sector employs a large workforce, the main employers being the City of Thunder Bay, the Government of Ontario, the Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre, Lakehead University, Lakehead District School Board, Thunder Bay Catholic District School Board, Government of Canada, and Confederation College.[14] This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikibooks. ... Abitibi-Consolidated NYSE: ABY TSX: A is an Canadian pulp and paper company based in Montreal, Quebec. ... logo Bombardier Inc. ... Cascades Inc. ... Lakehead University is situated at the head of Lake Superior in Thunder Bay, Ontario. ... Categories: Canada education stubs | Colleges in Ontario ...

Labour force[15][16]
Rate Thunder Bay Ontario Canada
Employment 59.8% 63.5% 63.4%
Unemployment 6.6% 6.6% 6.1%
Participation 64.0% 68.0% 67.6%

The rising cost of electricity in Ontario has threatened the viability of primary industries in the region, resulting in the laying off of workers at pulp and saw mills. The grain trade has declined because of the loss of grain transportation subsidies (the Crow Rate), as well as the loss of European markets. Existing Electricity Supply Resources in Ontario. ... The primary sector of industry generally involves the conversion of natural resources into primary products. ... A Pulp Mill is a manufacturing facility that converts wood chips into a thick fibre board which can be shipped to a Paper Mill for further processing. ... A sawmill is a facility where logs are cut into boards. ... The Crow Rate or Crows Nest Freight Rate was a subsidy offered to the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) by the Canadian government. ...

One of many abandoned grain elevators.

The gradual transition from shipping by train and boat to shipping by truck and road and the free trade agreement with the United States have ended Thunder Bay's privileged position as a linchpin in Canadian east-west freight-handling trade. As a result the city has lost its traditional raison d'être as a break-bulk point, and the city is in economic decline. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Nafta or NAFTA may refer to: an acronym for the North American Free Trade Agreement an acronym for the New Zealand Australia Free Trade Agreement the town/Tokyo of Nafta, Tunisia This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Since 2006, the city has been actively working on a transition to a knowledge based economy. With such institutions as the Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Genesis Genomics[17], the Molecular Medicine Research Centre, among others, the city has found a new optimism in the hopes of becoming a leader in health sciences research in Canada. Northern Ontario School of Medicines logo. ... Molecular Medicine is a new scientific discipline in British universities. ...


Transportation

Thunder Bay receives air, rail and shipping traffic due to its prime location along major continental transportation routes. Greyhound Canada provides coach service to both regional and national destinations, with the municipally owned Thunder Bay Transit providing 17 routes across the city's urban area. The city is served by the Thunder Bay International Airport, the fifth busiest airport in Ontario by aircraft movements.[18] The main highway through the city is Highway 11/17, a four lane highway designated as the Thunder Bay Expressway. A boat carrying wood in the harbour Thunder Bay Expressway Transportation is essential to trade, which has always been the backbone of Thunder Bays economy, beginning with Fort Kaministiquia in 1717. ... Greyhound Lines is the largest inter-city common carrier of passengers by bus in North America, serving 2,200 destinations in the United States. ... Thunder Bay Transit is the public transit operator in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. ... Thunder Bay Airport or Thunder Bay International Airport, (IATA: YQT, ICAO: CYQT), is an airport in the Canadian city of Thunder Bay, Ontario. ... The following is a list of Canadas busiest airports by aircraft movements (how busy the runways are) and passengers traffic how busy the terminals are). ... This is a complete list of airports, water aerodromes and heliports in the Canadian province of Ontario. ... Typical HWY 11 sign style Ontario provincial highway 11 is one of the longest of Ontarios Kings Highways, with a current length (as of 2004) of 1 636 km (1,016 miles). ... Highway 17 is a route of the Trans-Canada Highway through Ontario, Canada. ... The Thunder Bay Expressway (also known as Terry Fox Courage Highway) is a four lane, undivided expressway (Except at a section from Balsam St. ...


The city is also an important railway hub, served by both the Canadian National and Canadian Pacific Railway. Passenger rail service to Thunder Bay ended on 15 January 1990, with the cancellation of VIA Rail's southern transcontinental service.[19] The Canadian National Railway (CN; AAR reporting marks CN, CNA, CNIS) is a Canadian Class I railway operated by the Canadian National Railway Company headquartered in Montreal, Quebec. ... The Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR; AAR reporting marks CP, CPAA, CPI), known as CP Rail between 1968 and 1996, is a Canadian Class I railway that is operated by Canadian Pacific Railway Limited. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... VIA Rails trains travelling by Highway 401 near Brockville, Ontario. ...


Harbour

Thunder Bay has been a port since the days of the North West Company which maintained a schooner on Lake Superior. The Port of Thunder Bay is the largest outbound port on the St. Lawrence Seaway System.[20] The Thunder Bay Port Authority manages Keefer Terminal, built on a 320,000 square metre site on Lake Superior. Today, the North West Company is a grocery vendor in remote communities across northern Canada, Alaska and Greenland. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Port. ... The Eisenhower Locks in Massena, NY. The St. ...


Population and demographics

Ethnic origin Population Percent
Canadian 30,530 25.36%
English 30,435 25.28%
Scottish 23,120 19.20%
Irish 19,890 16.52%
French 18,465 15.34%
Ukrainian 16,250 13.50%
Italian 14,505 12.78%
Finnish 12,825 10.65%

According to the 2001 census,[13] there were 109,016 people residing in Thunder Bay, of whom 49.0% were male and 51.0% were female. Children under five accounted for approximately 5.2% of the resident population of Thunder Bay. This compares with 5.8% in Ontario as a whole, and almost 5.6% for Canada overall. A further 12,970 live in the city's Census Metropolitan Area, resulting in a total population of 121,986. Languages English Religions Christianity (Anglicanism, Roman Catholicism and other minority denominations), and other faiths. ... “Scot” redirects here. ...


In mid-2001, 15.0% of the resident population in Thunder Bay were of retirement age (65 and over for males and females) compared with 13.2% in Canada, therefore, the average age is 39.1 years of age comparing to 37.6 years of age for all of Canada.


In the five years between 1996 and 2001, the population of Thunder Bay declined by 3.7% compared with an increase of 6.1% for Ontario province as a whole. Nonetheless, the city managed to stop its population decline, growing by 0.1% between 2001 and 2006. Population density of Thunder Bay averaged 47.9 people per square kilometre, compared with an average of 12.6 for Ontario altogether.


Thunder Bay is home to a large Finnish population, with 10.7% of Thunder Bay being of Finnish descent.[21] It is widely but incorrectly believed that Thunder Bay has the largest Finnish population in Canada and outside of the Nordic countries; however, the Toronto metropolitan area has 14,750 persons of Finnish origin, more than Thunder Bay's 12,825. It can be said, however, that Thunder Bay houses the highest concentration of Finnish population on a per capita basis. Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ...


The 2001 census, states that 82.0 per cent of Thunder Bay residents belong to a Christian (39.8% Roman Catholic, 39.5% Protestant, and 2.6% other Christian, mostly Orthodox) denomination. Those who follow religions like Buddhism, Judaism, Islam, and others make less than 1% of the population combined, while the remaining 17.0% are non-religious. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a person who... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Eastern Orthodox Church... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Visitor attractions

Thunder Bay's main tourist attraction is Fort William Historical Park, a reconstruction of the North West Company's Fort William fur trade post as it was in 1815, which attracts 100,000 visitors annually.[22] The marina in downtown Port Arthur, an area known as The Heart of the Harbour, draws visitors for it's panoramic view of the Sleeping Giant and the presence of various water craft. The marina also includes a lake walk, playground, harbour cruises, a children's museum, and a Chinese/Canadian restaurant. A 2.74m (9 ft) statue of Terry Fox is situated outside the city near the place where he was forced to abandon his run. Other tourists attractions are listed below. Fort William Historical Park (formerly known as Old Fort William) is a Canadian historical site located in Thunder Bay, Ontario that contains a reconstruction of the Fort William fur trading post as it existed in 1815. ... Today, the North West Company is a grocery vendor in remote communities across northern Canada, Alaska and Greenland. ... The Sleeping Giant is a formation of mesas on Sibley Peninsula which resembles a giant lying on its back when viewed from the West to North-Northwest section of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. ... The Terry Fox Monument, situated in Shuniah Township on the outskirts of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada, signifies humanitarian Terry Foxs tragic halt in his Marathon of Hope on August 31, 1980. ...

Hillcrest Park, looking south to Fort William.
Hillcrest Park, looking south to Fort William.

Boulevard Lake dam. ... Boulevard Lake dam. ... The Canada Games Complex was constructed in 1981 to host the aquatic events of the 1981 Canada Summer Games in Ontario, Ontario. ... Boulevard Lake dam. ... Centennial Park is a beautiful area that follows the shores of the rocky Current River. ... Chapples Park is a soccer stadium in Thunder Bay, Ontario. ... Chippewa Park sits on the coast of Lake Superior, adjacent to Thunder Bay, Ontario. ... Connaught Square is a public park located in the north end of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. ... Finnish Labour Temple circa 1910 The Finnish Labour Temple (also reffered to as the Big Finn Hall) in Thunder Bay, Ontario located on 314 Bay Street in the Finnish quarter, is a Finnish-Canadian cultural and community centre and a local landmark. ... The Fort William Gardens is a 4690-capacity (3371-seat) multi-purpose arena in Thunder Bay, Ontario Canada. ... The Hoito Restaurant (often referred to as “The Hoito” by locals) is a Finnish-Canadian restaurant in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada established in 1918 and housed in the bottom-floor of the historic Finnish Labour Temple. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Kakabeka Falls Kakabeka Falls is a waterfall on the Kaministiquia River, just west of the city of Thunder Bay, Ontario. ... Mount McKay is a mountain on the southern side of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada, on the Fort William Indian reserve. ... The Northwestern Ontario Sports Hall of Fame (est. ... Port Arthur Stadium is a stadium in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. ... Thunder Bay Art Gallery The only of its kind in all of Northwestern Ontario, the Thunder Bay Art Gallery offers all sorts of paintings and exhibits from young artists and old, professional and unprofessional. ... Located on the recently named Paul Shaffer Drive, the Thunder Bay Community Auditorium is a impressive concert hall located in Thunder Bay, Ontario. ... The Thunder Bay Historical Museum, in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada is operated by the Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society founded in 1908 by Peter McKellar as the Thunder Bay Historical Society. ... The Thunder Bay Soroptimist International Friendship Garden is a city park located in the south end of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. ... Boulevard Lake dam. ... Waverley Park. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 480 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (512 × 640 pixel, file size: 302 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, (Derek Silver), took this photograph on 22 June 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 480 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (512 × 640 pixel, file size: 302 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, (Derek Silver), took this photograph on 22 June 2006. ...

Education

Thunder Bay has 39 elementary schools, 4 middle schools, 8 secondary schools, a private school, and an adult education facility. The city also has several other private for-profit colleges and tutoring programmes. Post secondary institutions in Thunder Bay include Confederation College and Lakehead University. Thunder Bay has 42 elementary schools, 4 middle schools, 9 secondary schools, a private school, a university and two colleges, a medical school, and an adult education facility. ... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... Middle school (also known as intermediate school or junior high school) covers a period of education that straddles primary education and secondary education, serving as a bridge between the two. ... The term, secondary school, refers to an institution where the third stage of schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ... Private schools, or independent schools, are schools not administered by local, state, or national government, which retain the right to select their student body and are funded in whole or in part by charging their students tuition rather than with public (state) funds. ... Categories: Canada education stubs | Colleges in Ontario ... Lakehead University is situated at the head of Lake Superior in Thunder Bay, Ontario. ...


The Lakehead District School Board is the largest, with 22 elementary schools, 4 secondary schools and a centre for adult studies. The Thunder Bay Catholic District School Board is the second largest with 16 elementary schools and 2 high schools. Conseil scolaire de district catholique des Aurores boréales operates one elementary and one high school in Thunder Bay, and an additional six schools throughout the Thunder Bay District. The Lakehead District School Board oversees all public schools in the Thunder Bay CMA in Ontario, Canada. ...


Culture

The city of Thunder Bay was declared a "Cultural Capital of Canada" in 2003.[23] Throughout the city are cultural centres representing the diverse population. Places such as the Finnish Labour Temple, Scandinavia House, the Italian Cultural Centre, the Polish Legion, and a wide variety of others. Shags, a social event held to celebrate the engagement of a couple,[24] and Persians, a cinnamon bun pastry with pink icing, originated in the city.[25][26] Thunder Bay is served by the Thunder Bay Public Library, which has four branches. The labour movement (or labor movement) is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments, in particular through the implementation of specific laws governing labor relations. ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe and includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... A shag is a social event that is held to celebrate the engagement of a couple that is getting married. ... Fiance and Fiancee redirect here. ... A Persian is an oval-shaped, cinnamon-bun-like pastry with a sweet, pink icing made of either raspberries or strawberries. ... The Thunder Bay Public Library serves the citizens of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada and surrounding areas. ...


The arts

Magnus Theatre is located in the old Central Schoolhouse.
Magnus Theatre is located in the old Central Schoolhouse.

Thunder Bay is home to a variety of music and performance arts venues. The largest professional theatre is Magnus Theatre. Founded in 1971, it offering six stage plays each season and is located in the renovated Port Arthur Public School on Red River Road. The Thunder Bay Community Auditorium, which seats 1500, is the primary venue for various types of entertainment. It is the home of the Thunder Bay Symphony Orchestra, which has 30 full-time and up to 20 extra musicians presenting a full range of classical music.[27] Thunder Bay also has a large and extensive music scene, with concerts almost nightly in many venues, such as Kilroy's, Jack's, and The Apollo. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Artistic Director Mario Crudo and Dr. Penny Petrone opening the doors to New Theatre - 2000 The Magnus Theatre - The Dr. S. Penny Petrone Centre for the Performing Arts in Thunder Bay, Ontario was founded in 1971 and is Northwestern Ontarios professional theatre company. ... Located on the recently named Paul Shaffer Drive, the Thunder Bay Community Auditorium is a impressive concert hall located in Thunder Bay, Ontario. ...


The Bay Street Film Festival, established in 2005, is an independent film festival that features local, national, and international films with the theme of "Films for the People." The festival is held in September at 314 Bay Street in the historic Finnish Labour Temple.[28] Thunder Bay is also home to the North of Superior Film Association (NOSFA). Established in 1992, the NOSFA features monthly screenings of international and Canadian films at the Cumberland Cinema Centre, with a spring film festival that attracts several thousand patrons.[29] The Bay Street Film Festival is an independent film festival in Thunder Bay, Ontario that features local, national, and international films with the theme Films for the People. ... Finnish Labour Temple circa 1910 The Finnish Labour Temple (also reffered to as the Big Finn Hall) in Thunder Bay, Ontario located on 314 Bay Street in the Finnish quarter, is a Finnish-Canadian cultural and community centre and a local landmark. ...


Museums and galleries

The Thunder Bay Art Gallery which was founded in 1976, specializes in the works of First Nations artists, having a collection of national significance. The Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society, founded in 1908, presents local and travelling exhibitions and houses an impressive collection of artifacts, photographs, paintings, documents and maps in its archives. Thunder Bay Art Gallery The only of its kind in all of Northwestern Ontario, the Thunder Bay Art Gallery offers all sorts of paintings and exhibits from young artists and old, professional and unprofessional. ... The Thunder Bay Historical Museum, in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada is operated by the Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society founded in 1908 by Peter McKellar as the Thunder Bay Historical Society. ...


Sports and Recreation

Thunder Bay's proximity to the wilderness of the Boreal Forest and the rolling hills and mountains of the Canadian Shield allow its residents to enjoy very active lifestyles. The city has hosted several large sporting events including the Summer Canada Games in 1981, the Nordic World Ski Championships in 1995, and the Continental Cup of Curling in 2003. Taiga (SAMPA /taIg@/, from Russian тайга́) is a biome characterized by its coniferous forests. ... The Canada Games are a multi-sport event that occurs every two years in Canada. ... The Nordic skiing World Championships (officially the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships) have been held in various numbers and types of events since 1925 for men and including women since 1954. ... The Continental Cup of Curling is a curling tournament held annually between teams from North America against teams from Europe. ...


Recreational Facilities

Thunder Bay enjoys many recreational facilities. The city operates fifteen neighbourhood community centres, which offer various sporting and fitness facilities as well as seasonal activities such as dances. The city also operates six indoor ice rinks and over 80 seasonal outdoor rinks, two indoor community pools and three seasonal outdoor pools as well as a portable pool and two maintained public beaches, several curling sheets, and three golf courses, among others.[30] Listed below are some of the city's major facilities. Curling is a team sport with similarities to bowls and bocce, played on a rectangular sheet of carefully prepared ice by two teams of four players each. ... This article is about the sport. ...

Multi-Use Facilities

Municipal Ice Rinks and Indoor Pools The Canada Games Complex was constructed in 1981 to host the aquatic events of the 1981 Canada Summer Games in Ontario, Ontario. ... The Fort William Gardens is a 4690-capacity (3371-seat) multi-purpose arena in Thunder Bay, Ontario Canada. ... Port Arthur Stadium is a stadium in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. ... Chapples Park is a soccer stadium in Thunder Bay, Ontario. ...

  • Current River Arena
  • Delaney Arena
  • Grandview Arena
  • Neebing Arena
  • Port Arthur Arena
  • Thunder Bay Tournament Centre (2 ice surfaces)
  • Sir Winston Churchill Community Pool
  • Volunteer Community Pool

Golf Courses[31] The Right Honourable Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill KG, OM, CH, PC, FRS (November 30, 1874 – January 24, 1965) was a British statesman, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during World War II. At various times an author, soldier, journalist, and politician, Churchill is generally regarded...

  • Centennial Golf Course (9 holes)
  • Chapples Memorial Golf Course (18 Holes)(Municipal)
  • Dragon Hills Golf Course (9 holes)
  • Emerald Greens Golf Course (9 holes)
  • Fort William Country Club (18 Holes)
  • Municipal Golf Course (Municipal)
  • Northern Lights Golf Complex (9 holes par 3/9 holes regulation)
  • Strathcona Golf Course (18 holes)(Municipal)
  • Thunder Bay Country Club (9 holes)
  • Whitewater Golf Club (18 holes)

Ski Hills A country club is a private club that offers a variety of recreational sports facilities to its members. ... A shaped, twin-tip alpine ski. ...

  • Lappe Nordic Ski Centre
  • Loch Lomond Ski Resort
  • Mount Baldy Ski Resort

Sports teams

Club Sport League Venue
Fort William North Stars Ice Hockey Superior International Junior Hockey League Fort William Gardens
Lakehead Thunderwolves Basketball Ontario University Athletics C.J. Sanders Fieldhouse
Lakehead Thunderwolves Ice Hockey Ontario University Athletics Fort William Gardens
Lakehead Thunderwolves Volleyball Ontario University Athletics C.J. Sanders Fieldhouse
Thunder Bay Bearcats Ice Hockey Superior International Junior Hockey League Fort William First Nations Arena
Thunder Bay Border Cats Baseball Northwoods League Port Arthur Stadium
Thunder Bay Bulldogs Ice Hockey Superior International Junior Hockey League Port Arthur Arena
Thunder Bay Chill Soccer United Soccer Leagues Chapples Park Stadium

Fort William North Stars The Fort William North Stars are a Tier II Junior A ice hockey team from Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... Superior International Junior A The Superior International Junior Hockey League is a Tier II Junior A ice hockey league under the supervision of the Canadian Junior A Hockey League and Hockey Canada. ... The Fort William Gardens is a 4690-capacity (3371-seat) multi-purpose arena in Thunder Bay, Ontario Canada. ... Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by throwing a ball through a 10-foot high hoop (the basket) under organized rules. ... Ontario University Athletics is the governing body of Ontario universities who compete in the a variety of varsity sports. ... Volleyball is an Olympic sport in which two teams separated by a high net use their hands, arms or (rarely) other parts of their bodies to hit a ball back and forth over the net. ... City: Thunder Bay, Ontario League: Superior International Junior Hockey League Founded: 2001 Home Arena: Fort William First Nations Arena Colours: Black, Yellow, Red, and White Head Coach: Ian Swalucynski General Manager: Ian Swalucynski The Thunder Bay Bearcats are a Tier II Junior A ice hockey team from Thunder Bay, Ontario... The Thunder Bay Border Cats are a summer college-level baseball team playing for the Northwoods League in Thunder Bay , Ontario , Canada . ... Baseball on the professional, amateur, and youth levels is popular in North America, Central America, parts of South America, parts of the Caribbean, and East Asia. ... The Northwoods League is an SCBA sanctioned summer baseball league comprised of teams of the top college players from North America and beyond. ... Port Arthur Stadium is a stadium in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. ... Thunder Bay Bulldogs The Thunder Bay Bulldogs are a Tier II Junior A ice hockey team from Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. ... The Thunder Bay Chill is a football (soccer) team playing out of Thunder Bay, Ontario. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... The United Soccer Leagues (USL) is directly affiliated with the United States Soccer Federation (USSF), United States Adult Soccer Association (USASA) and the Canadian Soccer Association (CSA). ... Chapples Park is a soccer stadium in Thunder Bay, Ontario. ...

Media

Main article: List of Thunder Bay media

This is a list of media outlets in the city of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. ...

Print

Thunder Bay has one daily newspaper, The Chronicle-Journal, which has a circulation of approximately 28,000[32] and has coverage of all of Northwestern Ontario. There are two weekly news papers — Thunder Bay's Source, a weekly newspaper operated by Dougall Media, and Canadan Sanomat, a Finnish language weekly newspaper. Lakehead University has a student newspaper called The Argus, which is published weekly during the school year.[33] The Chronicle Journal publishes a free weekly called Spot every Thursday, focusing on entertainment. The city produces a bi-monthly publication to citizens titled yourCity, which is also available online in a PDF format. The Chronicle-Journal is the daily newspaper in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. ... Thunder Bay Television is the name under which the two television affiliates in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada operate: CKPR, a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation affiliate, and CHFD, a CTV affiliate. ... Finnish ( , or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (91. ... Lakehead University is situated at the head of Lake Superior in Thunder Bay, Ontario. ...


Television

Three English language stations and one French language station supply Thunder Bay with free over-the-air television. CTV and CBC service is provided by a locally-owned twinstick operation branded as Thunder Bay Television, and the city receives TVOntario on channel 9 and the French CBLFT-TV on channel 12. Terrestrial television (also known as over-the-air or OTA) is the traditional method of television broadcast signal delivery, by radio waves transmitted through open space. ... CTV is a Canadian English language television network. ... CBC Television is a Canadian English language television network. ... A twinstick, in Canadian broadcasting, is an informal term for two television stations, broadcasting in the same market, which are owned by the same company. ... Thunder Bay Television is the name under which the two television affiliates in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada operate: CKPR, a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation affiliate, and CHFD, a CTV affiliate. ... TVOntario, officially the Ontario Educational Communications Authority, is an educational public television broadcaster in the Canadian province of Ontario. ... CBLFT is the Societé Radio-Canada station serving franco-ontarians in Toronto and most of Ontario, including the Western, Central and Northeastern regions. ...


The cable provider in Thunder Bay is Shaw. The community channel on Shaw Cable is branded as Shaw TV, and airs on cable channel 10. Shaw is Canadas second largest cable television operator, after Rogers Communications. ... A community channel, in Canadian broadcasting, is a television channel produced and aired by a local cable television company, airing programming of local community interest. ... Shaw TV is a locally-based community television service operated by cable TV company Shaw Communications, and is available to Shaw Cable subscribers in most major communities throughout western Canada. ...


Radio

Thunder Bay is home to 11 radio stations, 10 of which are FM. The only AM station, 580 CKPR, relocated to 95.1 FM in June 2007, and will sign off in late 2007 leaving the city with no AM stations. FM radio is a broadcast technology invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong that uses frequency modulation to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. ... Mediumwave radio transmissions (sometimes called Medium frequency or MF) are those between the frequencies of 300 kHz and 3000 kHz. ...


There are four commercial radio stations based in the city — Rock 94.3 and CKPR 95.1, owned by Dougall Media, the parent company of Thunder Bay Television and Thunder Bay's Source, and Magic 99.9 and 105.3 The Giant, owned by Newcap Broadcasting. The city receives CBC Radio One as CBQT-FM and CBC Radio 2 as CBQ-FM, at 88.3 FM and 101.7 FM respectively. The French Première Chaîne is available as a repeater of Sudbury-based CBON-FM on 89.3 FM. Lakehead University operates a campus radio station, CILU-FM, at 102.7 FM. CJSD is a Canadian radio station, broadcasting at 94. ... CKPR is a radio station in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. ... Thunder Bay Television is the name under which the two television affiliates in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada operate: CKPR, a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation affiliate, and CHFD, a CTV affiliate. ... CJUK is a Canadian radio station, broadcasting at 99. ... CKTG is a Canadian radio station, broadcasting at 105. ... Newcap Broadcasting is a Canadian group of radio stations, owned by Newfoundland Capital Corporation. ... CBC Radio One is the English language news and information radio network of the publicly-owned Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. ... CBQT is a Canadian radio station. ... CBC Radio Two is a radio network in Canada, operated by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. ... CBQ is a Canadian radio station, airing the Canadian Broadcasting Corporations CBC Radio Two network at 101. ... La Première Chaîne is a Canadian French language news and information service of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation / Société Radio-Canada, the public broadcaster in Canada. ... CBON is a Canadian radio station. ... CILU is a Canadian radio station, which broadcasts at 102. ...


Notable natives

Thunder Bay is home to a wide variety of notable people. Some of the best known living persons are Paul Shaffer, bandleader on the American Late Show with David Letterman,[34] and Bobby Curtola, an early rock and roll singer and one-time teen idol,[35] both of whom have streets named after them— Notable athletes include members of the Staal family, and Vampiro, the top Canadian wrestler on Mexico's lucha libre circuit.[36] Clarence Decatur Howe, originally from Massachusetts, moved to Canada in his early adult years and, as "Minister of Everything" played a major role in the economic development of Canada.[37] Bora Laskin, brother of the city's first mayor Saul Laskin, was the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada from 1973 to 1984.[38] Elizabeth Lawrie Smellie was a nurse, and the first woman to be promoted to the rank of colonel in the Canadian army.[39] The following people were born in, residents of, or are otherwise closely connected to the city of Thunder Bay, Ontario // Clifford Chatterton, chairman of The War Amps and veterans activist. ... Paul Shaffer Paul Allen Wood Shaffer (born November 28, 1949 in Fort William (now Thunder Bay), Ontario, Canada) is a Canadian-American musician, actor, voice actor, author, comedian and composer currently seen as the bandleader on the Late Show with David Letterman. ... A bandleader is the director of a band of musicians. ... The Late Show with David Letterman is a multiple Emmy Award-winning hour-long weeknight comedy talk show broadcast by CBS from the Ed Sullivan Theater on Broadway in New York City. ... Bobby Curtola, CM (April 17, 1944 –) is an early Canadian Rock and Roll singer and one-time teen idol. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... A singer is a musician who uses their voice to produce music. ... For other uses, see Teen idol (disambiguation). ... Eric Joseph Brent Staal (born on 29 October 1984 in Thunder Bay, Ontario) is a Canadian ice hockey player who currently plays for the Carolina Hurricanes of the National Hockey League. ... Ian Richard Hodgkinson (born May 31, 1967) is a Canadian professional wrestler better known by his ring name of Vampiro. ... One of the most well known Lucha Libre wrestlers (luchadores), Rey Mysterio. ... The Right Honourable Clarence Decatur Howe (January 15, 1886 - December 31, 1960) was a leading Canadian politician. ... The Right Honourable Bora Laskin, PC , CC , LL.M. , LL.B. , MA , FRSC (October 5, 1912 – March 17, 1984) was a Canadian jurist, who served on the Supreme Court of Canada for fourteen years, including a decade as its Chief Justice. ... Saul Laskin (born 1918) is a retired Canadian politician. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... Elizabeth Lawrie Smellie (March 22, 1884–March 5, 1968) was a Canadian nurse. ... // A nurse is a health care professional who is engaged in the practice of nursing. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ...


Surrounding Municipalities

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Kaministiquia is a community in the Canadian province of Ontario, located in the Thunder Bay District on Highway 102 approximately 30 kilometres west of Thunder Bay. ... Thunder Bay, Unorganized is an unorganized area in northwestern Ontario, Canada in Thunder Bay District. ... Nipigon (2001 population 1,964) is a township in Thunder Bay District, Northwestern Ontario, Canada, located on the most northern point of Lake Superior and situtated along the west side of the Nipigon River and north of the small lake running between Lake Nipigon and Lake Superior. ... Red Rock is a town on the North Shore of Lake Superior in Northwestern Ontario, Canada. ... Shuniah is a municipal township bordering the city of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada on the east. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Oliver Paipoonge is a township in the Canadian province of Ontario, located directly west of the city of Thunder Bay. ... Image File history File links North. ... Thunder Bay is a large bay at the western end of Lake Superior. ... Sibley Peninsula - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Image File history File links West. ... Image File history File links East. ... Image File history File links South. ... Nolalu is a village in the Whitefish River Valley, in the Unorganized area of Thunder Bay District, Ontario, Canada. ... Fort William First Nation is an Ojibwa community adjacent to Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. ... Neebing is a township in the Canadian province of Ontario, located in the Thunder Bay District immediately south of the city of Thunder Bay. ... Isle Royale is an island of the Great Lakes, located in the northwest of Lake Superior. ...

External links

Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Notes and References

  1. ^ Thunder Bay City Council Page, Accessed 2 June 2007
  2. ^ See: by-law 218-2003 Accessed 2 June 2007
  3. ^ a b c Statistics Canada 2006 Thunder Bay City Profile, Accessed 2 June 2007.
  4. ^ a b c Statistics Canada 2006 Thunder Bay CMA Profile, Accessed 2 June 2007.
  5. ^ Brief History of Thunder Bay see: Fort William and the Fur Trade. Accessed 5 June 2007.
  6. ^ Brief History of Thunder Bay see: Amalgamation. Accessed 5 June 2007.
  7. ^ "A Golden Gateway of the Great Northwest - History of Thunder Bay" Joseph M. Mauro, Lehto Printers Ltd. Thunder Bay, Ontario - 1981 pages 21-23
  8. ^ Thunder Bay Guide to Municipal Services - Municipal Government; See: Wards. Accessed: 4 June 2007]
  9. ^ About Thunder Bay, 373kb
  10. ^ a b c Thunder Bay's City Symbols, accessed on 4 June 2007.
  11. ^ Thunder Bay Sister Cities accessed 5 June 2007
  12. ^ Environment Canada Thunder Bay Data Table. Accessed 4 June 2007
  13. ^ a b Statistics Canada 2001 Thunder Bay City Profile
  14. ^ Major Employer List - Thunder Bay, 2006 45kb
  15. ^ Statistics Canada Labour Force Characteristics
  16. ^ Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey, accessed June 2006
  17. ^ Genesis Genomics web page
  18. ^ Transport Canada TP 1496 - Preliminary aircraft statistics 2006
  19. ^ SOR/89-488 S III (2)(c) accessed 5 June 2007
  20. ^ Port of Thunder Bay official website See first bullet point.
  21. ^ http://www.finland.ca/doc/en/kanadansuomal/Finnishpopulation.pdf
  22. ^ [http://www.fwhp.ca/who_we_are.html Fort William Historical Park - Planning Your Visit] See: Beginnings, last paragraph. Accessed 4 June 2007
  23. ^ Cultural Capitals of Canada accessed 4 June 2007.
  24. ^ TBSource Seven Wonders of Thunder Bay - Shags. Accessed 11 June 2007.
  25. ^ Thunder Bay Food. Accessed 11 June 2007.
  26. ^ The Universal Cynic - Lexicon of Yore. 26 June 2006. Retrieved 11 June 2007.
  27. ^ Thunder Bay Symphony Orchestra
  28. ^ Bay Street Film Festival
  29. ^ NOSFA Website
  30. ^ Thunder Bay Telephone (2006) TBayTel 2006-2007 Directory, Pages 27 to 29.
  31. ^ Golf Thunder Bay and Golflink Thunder Bay
  32. ^ Sudbury Star and Sault Start part of media boycott Netnewsledger accessed 8 June 2007
  33. ^ The Argus Accessed 8 June 2007
  34. ^ Paul Shaffer Bio at CBS - Late Show. Accessed on 20 April 2007.
  35. ^ Curtola's Official Website. Accessed on 20 April 2007.
  36. ^ Obsessed With Wrestling Profile. Accessed on 20 April 2007.
  37. ^ Historical information from the Library of Parliament. Accessed 20 April 2007.
  38. ^ Official Supreme Court of Canada biography. Accessed on 20 April 2007.
  39. ^ MacLean, Mary R. Colonel Elizabeth Smellie CBE, Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society, Papers and Records, III (1975), 16-18 with reproduction of portrait by Kenneth Forbes on page 16.
  • Thorold J. Tronrud and A. Ernest Epp (1995) Thunder Bay: From Rivalry to Unity, Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society, ISBN 0-920119-20-4

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